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Efficiency of Solar Water Heating in Duluth, Minnesota Abdiqadar Mohamud, Chemical Engineering Dr. Alison Hoxie, University of Minnesota Duluth Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Efficiency of Solar Water Heating in Duluth, Minnesota Abdiqadar Mohamud, Chemical Engineering Dr. Alison Hoxie, University of Minnesota Duluth Department."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Efficiency of Solar Water Heating in Duluth, Minnesota Abdiqadar Mohamud, Chemical Engineering Dr. Alison Hoxie, University of Minnesota Duluth Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering ABSTRACT The emission that results from the consumption of fossil fuels causes environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone layer depletion and climate changes (Kalogirou). Solar energies are environmentally friendly because they do not depend heavily on fossil fuel. Solar energy is also a good economic investment because the payback period of solar water heaters are between four and eight years according to the Florida Energy Center (Asif and Muneer, Solar Water Heating: Domestic and Industrial Applications). Even though solar energy has been studied for many years, most of these studies were done for warmer climates. This study evaluates the efficiency of evacuated tube heat pipes in Duluth, Minnesota. The efficiency of the collectors is about 76%, which is comparable to the efficiency of the Florida Energy Center for evacuated tube heat pipes. The efficiency of the system to transfer the collected heat to the water varied due to the variation of solar insolation on cloudy days. Solar Energy The sun is a significant source of energy on earth Indirect use of the sun’s energy as renewable energy includes wind farming and biomass Solar thermal technology and Photovoltaic use the sun’s energy directly as renewable energy Solar energies are environmentally friendly because they have no emission during operation Applications Domestic and industrial water heating Solar ponds, crop drying, distillation and cooking Solar Water Heating Solar domestic water heating provides two-thirds of the total heating requirements It has an adequate payback period of four to eight years Solar water heaters mainly use flat-plate or evacuated tube solar collectors Passive systems such as thermosyphon and built-in- storage relay on natural circulation of water Active systems use forced circulations BACKGROUND Evacuated Tube Heat Pipes This study used evacuated tube heat pipes Inside the evacuated tube are sealed pipes containing fluid that transfer heat using the evaporation-condensation cycle Evacuated tubes have lower thermal losses and higher efficiency than flat-plate collectors Experimental Setup The two loops are connected by a heat exchanger The first loop contains the collectors and the heat dissipater that dumps excess heat The second loop heats the water tank Da y G W/m 2 Ta 0 C Tm 0 C Efficiency (Tm-Ta)/G Table1: Efficiency of the Collectors Efficiency VS (Tm-Ta)/G Da y G W/m 2 Heat from collectors J Heat delivered to the Tank J Efficiency Table2: Efficiency of the system to deliver collected heat Conclusion The efficiency of the collectors are comparable to the efficiency of Florida Energy Center for evacuated tube heat pipes The variation of the system efficiency can be explained by the variation of solar insolation on cloudy days EXPERIMENTAL SETUPRESULTS SOLAR THERMAL TECHNOLOGY

3 Results The Role of Perfectionism and Romanticized Beliefs in Romantic Relationship Satisfaction and Adjustment Angela Castellini, Psychology and Sociology Dr. Shevaun Stocker, Department of Human Behavior, Justice, and Diversity Introduction Personality traits play a significant role in our perception of, and satisfaction with, our interpersonal relationships. However, the role of social influence must also be taken into account in order to accurately understand how we behave in and perceive our interpersonal relationships. The influence of personality traits and social influence has, at times, conflicted. Inconsistencies in the literature:  Impact of perfectionism on romantic relationships  Gender differences in romanticized beliefs  Influence of romanticized beliefs on relationship adjustment and satisfaction Current Study Given the inconsistencies in the literature, this study aims to clarify the nature of the relationships between perfectionism, romanticized beliefs, gender, relationship satisfaction, and relationship adjustment. Hypothesis I: Perfectionism and romanticized beliefs will be positively correlated Hypothesis II: The relationship between perfectionism and romanticized beliefs will be stronger for women Hypothesis III: Levels of perfectionism and romanticized beliefs will be predictors of relationship satisfaction and adjustment Procedure Participants received and completed a questionnaire packet containing the perfectionism measure, romanticized beliefs measure, DAS, and Investment Model Scale. The survey placement order varied in order to eliminate order effects. Discussion Hypothesis I. Individuals with higher trait perfectionism will have higher romanticized beliefs. A Pearson correlation was conducted and showed a statistically significant positive relationship between perfectionism and romanticized beliefs, r =.34, p =.047, df = 33. Hypothesis II. Gender will moderate the role between perfectionism and romanticized beliefs, was only partially, marginally supported. A Pearson correlation revealed that mean perfectionism scores and mean romanticized beliefs scores were nonsignificant for men, r =.26, p =.390, df = 11, and nonsignificant for women, r=.35, p =.108, df = 20, when analyzed independently. However, there was a marginally statistically significant relationship between the romanticized beliefs subscale of disagreement items and mean perfectionism for women, r =.42, p =.052, df = 20. Hypothesis III. Perfectionism and romanticized beliefs will significantly predict relationship satisfaction and adjustment. An ANOVA was conducted revealing a nonsignificant relationship between perfectionism, romanticized beliefs, and dyadic adjustment [F(2,32) = 2.05, p =.145] as well as a nonsignificant relationship between perfectionism, romanticized beliefs, and relationship satisfaction [F(2,32) = 1.58, p =.221]. When examining this relationship by gender the data showed that perfectionism and romanticized beliefs were not significant predictors of dyadic adjustment [F(2,10) =.03, p =.971] or satisfaction for men [F(2,10) =.06, p =.945]. However, perfectionism and romanticized beliefs were significant predictors of dyadic adjustment for women [F(2,19) = 3.35, p =.057]. Perfectionism and romanticized beliefs did not predict satisfaction for women, however the data neared statistical significance [F(2,19) = 3.18, p =.064] Male Participants N=13 1. Perfectionism—.73**.82**.81** Expectations- Others.73**— Intrusive Thoughts.82**.43—.50** Obsession.81**.38.50**— Romanticized Beliefs —.62*.80**.66* Disagreement *— * 7. Mindreading **.46— Love- First Sight *.52.25— Love- Overcome — DAS —.78** 11. Satisfaction * **— Female Participants N=22 1. Perfectionism—.56**.68**.75**.35.42*.44* * 2. Expectations- Others.56**— * Intrusive Thoughts.68** -.05— * 4. Obsession.75**.29.27— Romanticized Beliefs —.70**.76** ** Disagreement.42* **—.43* ** 7. Mindreading.44*.43* **.43*— Love- First Sight — Love- Overcome ** — DAS-.49* ** —.83** 11. Satisfaction-.49* * ** **— Male Participants Female Participants Note.* significant at p<.05, **significant at p <.01. Item one is overall perfectionism, items two, three, and four are the perfectionism subscales. Item five is overall romanticized beliefs, items six, seven, eight, and nine are the romanticized beliefs subscales. Abstract The current study examined the extent to which higher levels of perfectionism are associated with increased romanticized beliefs, whether or not gender moderates that relationship, and the effect of perfectionism and romanticized beliefs on romantic relationship satisfaction and adjustment. A sample of 35 undergraduate students completed several measures including a perfectionism scale, romanticized beliefs scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Investment Model Scale. The hypothesis that perfectionism and romanticized beliefs would be positively correlated was supported. The second hypothesis that gender would moderate that relationship received partial support when the perfectionism and romanticized measures were broken into their subscales; there was a marginally statistically significant relationship between the romanticized beliefs subscale of disagreement items and mean perfectionism for women. The final hypothesis that perfectionism and romanticized beliefs would be significant predictors of relationship satisfaction and adjustment was not supported for men but the data revealed a statistically significant relationship for women. Overall, the data provides evidence that high levels of perfectionism and romanticized beliefs in women negatively impact relationship satisfaction and adjustment. These finding are contradictory to previous findings, suggesting further assessment of these relationships is necessary. Operational Definitions Perfectionism was assessed by measuring the degree to which individuals have high expectations for others, obsess over their own performance, and the degree to which they have intrusive thoughts about their own worth or abilities. Romanticized beliefs typically stem from the romantic ideals within our culture and include assumptions about what love is, what relationships should be like, and expectations about how we should feel. This study measures four of these beliefs of Western society: the idea that disagreement is destructive, mindreading is expected, love at first sight, and love can overcome all obstacles. Method Participants There were 35 participants (22 female, 13 male) ranging in age from 18 to 48 years old (M = years). Only individuals who were in a current romantic relationship at the time of the study for a minimum of three months were allowed to participate. Relationship length varied from three months to 364 months, (M =33.33 months). Main Findings  High levels of perfectionism are positively correlated with romanticized beliefs  The relationship between perfectionism and romanticized beliefs was stronger for women  Levels of perfectionism and romanticized beliefs were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction and adjustment for women  The findings in this study are contradictory to some past findings, which may be related to the measure used to assess romanticized beliefs  The belief that disagreement is destructive was powerful enough to carry the romanticized beliefs scale into significance Conclusions  Women with high levels of perfectionism may have stronger romanticized beliefs in order to meet societal expectations  The sample was nonclinical which may explain why some relationships only bordered significance  A more holistic romanticized beliefs measure should be implemented in future research

4 Results Despite the limited sample size, participants in this study were varied demographically and in knowledge and perception of health Participants were aware of the obesity endemic in the Northland Based only on health measurements, Northland residents may appear healthy Reporting of overall health and wellness was accurate A majority of participants did not list nutrition or physical activity in their top three priorities Knowledge of which habits were healthy was apparent but did not always accompany the corresponding actions; education may prompt changes Inconsistencies in data or unexpected results may be due to temporary factors at time of data collection, underreporting caloric intake, overreporting physical activity, and/or not incorporating healthy foods into their diet despite knowledge of what is healthy Promotion of consuming five fruits and vegetables a day may help Northlanders to reach the daily recommended servings Perception and knowledge of health do not seem to be issues standing in the way of overall health; the true problem lies in implementation of that knowledge References Obesity is a significant health issue that affects Douglas County in Wisconsin and St. Louis County in Minnesota. A discrepancy between perceived health and actual health may exacerbate the obesity endemic in the Northland. This study used a survey to determine perceived health, and used Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure, expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and resting heart rate to assess actual health. Survey questions and health measurements were categorized and point values were assigned to survey answers. Correlations were made between various survey question categories and health measurements, including BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, ERV, and resting heart rate. Correlations of BMI to both health perception and resting heart rate were statistically significant. BMI was negatively correlated with health perception (r=-0.41, p≤0.05) and positively correlated with resting heart rate (r=0.50, p≤0.05). Many non- significant trends were observed as well. Results suggest that participants in the Northland have an accurate perception of their health and are relatively knowledgeable about what diet and exercise habits are healthy. Knowledge of which habits and activities are healthy does not consistently yield participation in those habits and activities. When reporting, participants may overestimate health habits, especially those pertaining to physical activity. Quality of health and obesity are significant issues on the national, state, and local levels. As of 2008, approximately 72.5 million adults in the United States were obese (CDC, 2010). By the year 2030, 86.3 percent of American adults could be overweight or obese and 51.1 percent could be obese if current trends continue (Wang et al., 2008). Moreover, by the year 2048 all American adults are projected to be overweight or obese (Wang et al., 2008). Data from 2005 shows that only 32.6 percent of adults consume the recommended number of servings of fruit daily, and only 27.2 percent consume the recommended number of servings of vegetables daily (CDC, 2007). Between 1971 and 2000, women in the United States have increased their daily calorie consumption by 22 percent (from 1542 calories to 1877 calories) and men have increased their daily calorie consumption by seven percent (from 2450 calories to 2618 calories; CDC, 2004). Health habits are proving to be detrimental to the overall health of the country’s citizens. Good intake is considered to mean a diet with a low intake of fats and oils (no more than six teaspoon equivalents for women and seven teaspoon equivalents for men daily); a high intake of fruits (two cups for men and women daily), vegetables (2.5 cups for women and three cups for men daily), whole grains (six ounces for women and eight ounces for men daily), and lean protein (5.5 ounces for women and 6.5 ounces for men daily); and physical activity consistent with recommended guidelines (USDA, 2011). Adults 18 to 64 years old should get at least 2.5 hours each week of aerobic physical activity at a moderate level or 1.25 hours of aerobic physical activity each week at a vigorous level (USDA, 2011). Activity should be done for at least 10 minutes at a time, and doing physical activity for more than five hours per week adds additional health benefits (USDA, 2011). Strengthening activities such as pushups, sit-ups, and weight lifting are recommended for at least two days of the week (USDA, 2011). Good health is defined as no smoking and limited drinking. Alcohol and tobacco are among the top causes of preventable deaths in the United States (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2007). Numerous studies have been performed to determine what society’s health and wellness strengths and weaknesses are on all of the aforementioned levels. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the overall health of individuals at least 18 years of age living in St. Louis in Minnesota and Douglas County in Wisconsin and to use various indices to compare reported health to actual health. We hypothesized that adults’ reporting of health is inconsistent with actual health. A survey was used to determine reported health, and measurements including height, weight, blood pressure, expiratory reserve volume (ERV), waist to hip ratio (WHR), BMI, and target heart rate, along with a cardiovascular activity, were used to determine actual health. Identifying misconceptions and mismatches between reported health and actual health in St. Louis County and Douglas County lays a foundation for implementing changes in our community to make it a healthier environment.. Health Perception and BMI are negatively correlated (r=-0.41, p≤0.05). As perception of health increased, BMI decreased. This suggests that participants were aware of their overall health and were accurate in reporting. BMI and resting heart rate are positively correlated (r=0.50, p≤0.05). As BMI Increased, resting heart rate increased. This suggests that participants accurately reported their health because resting heart rate should increase with a higher BMI. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). About BMI for adults. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, August 3). Vital signs: state-specific obesity prevalence among adults—United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007, March 16). Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults—United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004, February 5). Calorie consumption on the rise in United States, particularly among women. National Center for Health Statistics, 53 (04). Retrieved from DanielSoper. (2011). Statistics calculators. Retrieved from National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health. (2007). Alcohol and tobacco. Retrieved from United States Department of Agriculture. (2011). Retrieved from Wang, Y.; Beydoun, M.A.; Liang, L.; Caballero, B.; & Kumanyika, S.K. (2008). Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Estimating the progression and cost of the U.S. obesity epidemic. Obesity, 16:10, doi: /oby Non-significant trends may prove reliable upon increasing the sample size Negative relationships were found between the following: Food reporting and BMI Physical activity reporting and BMI Health perception and diastolic blood pressure Food reporting and blood pressure BMI and expiratory reserve volume Health perception and resting heart rate Positive relationships were found between the following: Food reporting consciousness and BMI Food knowledge and BMI Health perception and systolic blood pressure Food reporting consciousness and blood pressure Food knowledge and blood pressure Physical activity reporting and blood pressure Health perception and expiratory reserve volume Physical activity reporting and expiratory reserve volume Advertisements were placed throughout Superior, WI, and Duluth, MN, for recruiting purposes. Interested individuals set up an hour-long appointment, which consisted of a survey, health assessment, and step exercise, all following a pre-written script. The survey consisted of health and wellness questions and the health assessment included measurements of blood pressure, expiratory reserve volume (ERV), height and weight to calculate body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), resting heart rate, heart rate recovery (HRR), and target heart rate for use in the step exercise. Following data collection, survey subcategories and their corresponding questions were identified. Subcategories included health reporting, health perception, food reporting, food reporting consciousness, food knowledge, substance use, physical activity-reporting, and obesity awareness. Points were assigned to the survey and totals per each category were assigned to each participant. Health measurements were then categorized and evaluated. Informative answers and the demographic breakdown of participants was also considered. Comparisons were made between survey categories per each individual and health measurements; some comparisons were made between health measurements. Then the statistical significance was determined using a statistical calculator from DanielSoper.com (2011). Finally, graphs and other Excel sheets were constructed. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2010 Knowledge and Perception of Health and its Correlation to Actual Health Alison Gondik, Biology Dr. Michelle Arnhold Davies, Department of Natural Sciences (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) 20-24%25-29%≥30% Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, July 21). U.S. obesity trends, Retrieved from AbstractMethods Introduction Non-significant Trends Conclusions References

5 Identity, Inclusion, Conflict and Love in American Film Portrayals of Stepfamilies Angel Petite, Communicating Arts and Political Science Dr. Keith Berry, Department of Communicating Arts ABSTRACT This study utilized qualitative textual analysis to examine media portrayals of stepfamily communication. The researcher analyzed four popular American films. Patterns of identity, inclusion, conflict and love were found in each of the four films. These particular film portrayals reflected many stepfamily experiences and complexities; however, often presented simplistic resolution to problems faced by the stepfamilies, as is frequent with popular films. Introduction: What comes to mind when asked to think about a typical stepfamily in America? For many, it will be images or families from popular television or film portrayals. Well-known media stepfamilies include the Brady Bunch, Cinderella, Snow White, and more recently, Stepbrothers. Many of these stepfamilies face challenges, but are able to overcome them and live happily ever after. Do these portrayals accurately reflect the diversity of American stepfamilies? Do these portrayals influence expectations that we, as a culture, have for stepfamilies? These topics are explored within the following study. Literature Review: Stepfamilies are a common occurrence within American society. The definition of a stepfamily has expanded over time. Some researchers now include cohabitating couples and non-marital childbearing couples within the stepfamily definition. Communication has the power to shape reality. Stepchildren’s perceptions and stepparent’s experiences have been examined using a dialectical approach. The dialectical approach examines relationships by looking at opposing contradictions. Media is a powerful influence on cultural and individual perceptions and expectations for marriage and family. Film portrayals are important in reflecting common cultural misconceptions and perceptions of stepfamilies. Many researchers approach the topic of stepfamily communication by examining the experience of stepchildren. Communication habits that contribute to the feeling of being caught, include: inappropriate disclosures, using a child as peer and co-parent, and using a family member as messenger or mediator, loyalty- disloyalty contradiction and revealment-concealment. Stepparents are often characterized by a common contradictory position as “intimate outsiders.” Media portrayals of stepfamilies often support negative stereotypes of, or promote unrealistic expectations for, stepfamilies. Rationale: Research Question: How do popular American films symbolically represent the experience of stepchildren, stepparents and parents in communication? Studying this question is beneficial for at least three reasons: First, few studies have approached the topic of stepfamily conflict communication through the lens of film portrayals. Second, given the popularity of films in US culture, and because so many persons often identify and learn from films, a valuable source of understanding communication is missing. Third, the instances documented below can help us understand the complexities of some relationships and, in turn, can help us build healthy relationships. Method: This study uses textual analysis in examining the four film selections. For this study, I specifically chose qualitative communication analysis. By textually analyzing the media texts of this study, I explore how this sense of reality might be coming through, or being constructed, by these media texts. Film Selections: Yours, Mine and Ours(1968) Stepmom (1998) Life as a House (2001) The Kids are All Right (2010) Concepts: Identity Inclusion Love Conflict Concepts Defined: Identity: as a negotiation process Inclusion: pertaining to involvement in family or non-involvement in family. Love: how characters talked about and showed understanding concerning love and affection. Conflict: refers to the ways in which conflict was handled by family members and affected other family members. Analysis: This analysis uncovers patterned ways that identity and inclusion and, in smaller ways, love and conflict are represented across these four films. Organized by concept, I examine how characters are shown to engage and work through these key dimensions in the stepfamily/stepparent relational setting. Identity: While the four films are distinct in nature, they share a common thread in terms of how they represent identity. First, parent-child and stepparent-child identity is often negotiated through episodes of conflict. Children, parents and stepparents often solidly shift identities during or after conflict. Second, parent and stepparent identity are often negotiated through comparison to their counterpart. Stepparents positively and negatively compare their identity to that of the parent and vice versa. Third, children’s adjustments in negotiating stepparent or parent identity are influenced by the responses of both the stepparent and parent. A parent’s negative opinion of the stepparent often shaped and altered the positive opinion the child had of the stepparent. Inclusion: Although diverse in nature, I see two common themes cutting across the four films. First, inclusion and exclusion are not final positions; family members may include an individual in one moment and exclude them the next. Second, inclusion must be earned and it can be lost. An individual can earn involvement into a family members’ life through positive steps; the same individual can lose involvement by creating a destructive relationship. Love: The characters in each of these four films discuss and display love in different ways. While these four films have marked differences, two shared ideas pertaining to love are represented across these different films. Parental love is mainly established as love that the child can be assured of no matter the circumstances. Love between parents and stepparents often creates confusion for children, as it is not established as unconditional. Conflict: Each of these four films present unique portrayals of American stepfamilies, and each share common themes of conflict across all four. Conflict is handled differently by each parent, stepparent, and sibling. Conflict is best approached when approached calmly and clearly—without emotion; however, emotion is often prevalent in the examined stepfamily conflicts.

6 The Relationship Between Prison-Based Educational Programs and Recidivism Angela Shermer, Social Work Monica Roth Day, EdD,MSW, LGSW Department of Human Behavior, Justice and Diversity Abstract This study sought to explore the possible relationship between offender recidivism and in-prison educational programs, and program funding. Three questions were asked in the study: What is the nature of educational programs in Minnesota? Do programs reduce recidivism? At what levels do the programs need to be funded in order to reduce recidivism? A comparative literature review and key informant interviews were utilized. Findings suggest that correctional education does reduce recidivism. Today approximately 75% of inmates hold a GED or high school diploma and the rest are mandated to earn one to assist with sustainable employment upon re-entrance into the community. Future research is needed to determine funding of correctional education and how that funding is administered. The problem under study was the impact of educational programs on offender recidivism. What is the nature of educational programs in Minnesota? Do those programs reduce recidivism? An additional question was, “How does funding affect programs’ effectiveness?” Variables related to funding changes included: concern for the inmates’ education and futures when returning to society, with a focus on becoming productive members; taxpayers’ concerns regarding the amount of money being distributed to correctional education; and the ability and need for correctional departments to determine funding for correctional educational programs. It is critical to engage in research on correctional educational programs to determine the focus for funding and placement of educational programs in prisons, and how to best serve inmates in those programs. Problem Statement Do programs reduce recidivism? What is the nature of educational programs in Minnesota? At what levels do the programs need to be funded in order to reduce recidivism? Research Questions Background Further research is needed into Question #3: At what levels do the programs need to be funded in order to reduce recidivism? By interviewing appropriate people and finding more suitable resources this question could be answered in a more adequate manner. Research is needed into how many inmates get jobs after re-entering society. Variables to include would be the achievement of specific degrees while incarcerated: GED or high school diploma, a vocational or a bachelors degree. Future research is needed to explore what previously incarcerated people feel has helped change their life around, helped them to not recidivate, and to determine if this factor is related to correctional education. Why do they think other ex-inmates recidivated? Is the recidivism rate related to sustainable employment? Future Research Both sources stressed the importance of mandating participation in correctional education for any inmate lacking a GED or high school diploma. The interviews provided a more in- depth look into how the inmates are tested for educational level and skills, and consequences inmates face if they choose not to work towards their GED or high school diploma. Sources agreed on program content in correctional education. Both showed that vocational training is a main part of correctional education. By teaching inmates a skill, they are more likely to gain a job within the trades community and support themselves and their family. Skills in math, reading, and problem solving were also mentioned as important content in the programs. When searching for qualified professionals to teach within the prison system the literature reviewed a hardship, which was a conflict with interview findings. The informants stated that it is rather easy to find qualified professionals to teach within the facilities, but it is difficult to find individuals who fit into the correctional setting. Once these qualified educators are hired, they are considered full time teachers and employers of the state of Minnesota. Some educators enjoy working within the prison and all the benefits that come with working with the inmate population. However, others find it difficult to work with the prison population due to the challenges of working in a restricted environment. This study may help to educate individuals on the return investments in correctional education. By investing in correctional education, states such as Minnesota can save money in the future by encouraging inmates to develop skills that gain sustainable employment. These individuals once released from prison can become tax payers and contributors. Correctional education can lower recidivism rates. This study provides an understanding of the benefits to providing education within the correctional setting. By providing education, inmates are able to earn a GED or diploma and later further their education with a vocational or bachelors degree. By gaining this knowledge inmates are able to produce a quality resume and a skill that will help them positively market themselves for a future job when re-entering society. With the information that was gathered from this study, a practicing social worker will be able to better advocate for their clients who are currently or previously inmates, as well as teach the community the benefits of educating inmates within prison. Knowledge that was gained will help social workers advocate for the value of programming and begin to educate the community on the need for access to programming within the correctional institution. Findings Method Explanatory study was conducted to determine the relationship between educational programs, the independent variable, and the change they cause upon recidivism, the dependent variable. Interviews were conducted using key informants affiliated with the correctional department in Minnesota. Qualitative data was used to explore the current situation regarding funding of educational programs and the relationship with recidivism. Interviews were structured in order to receive only information that was desired and pertinent to the study being conducted. Comparative literature review was done in collaboration with the key informant interviews. Literature and statistics were collected from databases and appropriate websites regarding educational programs in prisons, funding and the relationship to recidivism. Research was approved by the University of Wisconsin Superior Institutional Review Board and given the study number of #653. In educational programs, inmates can earn a GED or high school diploma, vocational certificate, or college degree including associates, bachelor’s or master’s degree levels. Today correctional education is mandatory for individuals who do not possess a GED or high school diploma. The educational profile of an inmate may include learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, and mental illnesses (DelliCarpini, 2008). Younger inmates under the age of 24 have generally lower reading levels than older inmates (Shippen, et., al 2010). Inmates educational background may range from college graduates to individuals who are unable to read or write( DelliCaripini, 2008; Shippen et.,al 2010). The population is largely male, poor, undereducated, and members of racial minorities. The median age of prisoners is 34, and the median educational attainment is only equivalent to an 11th grade education (Owens, 2009).

7 Breast Self Examination both past and present In the1930’s, cancer activists encouraged the idea of women to examining their own breast on a regular basis in search of suspicious lumps. Previous method for performing BSE: BSE was taught to women by having a woman lie down with one arm above the head; the woman would then use her opposite hand to move it around in a circular motion feeling for lumps in the breast as well as the armpits. This was to be done once a month usually after a woman’s menstrual cycle. Some of the new recommendations for BSE are: Comparing the breasts, (check for swelling, and redness about the breasts). Women should use their three middle fingers and use three levels of pressure in a circular motion. Women should feel for lumps that are hard and painless. Women are now advised to practice these techniques during other times of the month, not just after menstrual flow. Breast awareness is more encouraged and is the main focal point of BSE. Johnson stated that the process of how to effectively perform BSE has changed over recent years in that it now consists of a different method on how to check for lumps about the breasts. The effectiveness of BSE Performing BSE gives women a sense of empowerment. For others, BSE may bring about unnecessary frustration and anxiety. Women who practice BSE may feel a sense of self-efficacy and confidence in maintaining breast health. Point of view from health professionals concerning BSE Local health professionals agree that women should perform BSE to get to know their own breasts and to be aware of changes but as far as BSE predicting cancers, most agree that only a biopsy can really detect cancerous lumps. BSE is not recommended for all women due to the fact that some women have more density to their breasts causing difficulty for them to be able to feel for lumps or changes about the breast. In such cases, Magnetic Imaging Resonance (MRI) is recommended. Effectiveness of Breast Self Exams and Their Relationship to Breast Cancer Chnice Watson, Health Education Dr. Georgia Keeney, UMD Department of Health, Physical Education & Recreation Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death, after lung cancer, among women in the United States. Breast cancer incidences have been increasing since the 1980’s and continue to be a feared disease for U. S. women. Because 1 in 8 (12%) U. S. women will contract breast cancer, it is essential for women to take the necessary steps to detect it early (National Cancer Institute, 2010). Females are advised to engage in early detection practices of breast cancer such as Breast Self Exam (BSE). What impact does the advised method have? The object of engaging in the practice of preventative measures is to find cancers before they start to cause symptoms and spread. Those early detection measures consist of BSE, clinical-breast exams, and mammography. Mammography is a type of X-ray imaging system used to examine breast tissue. Clinical breast exams are a physical examination performed by a health professional. Breast self-exams are usually performed by the woman herself, to search for abnormalities in each breast; but are breast self-exams an effective method of detecting breast cancers to decrease the mortality rates among women? What do the current research and health care professionals have to say about the efficiency of BSE?. The purpose of this study was to investigate breast self exams (BSE) and its effectiveness in decreasing mortality rates among women. This has been a contentious issue that continues to emerge in the female population. There has been a growing debate that BSE does not discover breast cancers and therefore the process itself does not decrease mortality rates. Components of the study suggested that BSE are more likely to be improperly performed by females which tends to bring about unnecessary anxiety and frustration among women, and therefore should not be considered an early detection method for breast cancer. However, the controversy still remains because some women believe that early BSE is beneficial in decreasing mortality rates and provides the opportunity for women to get familiar with their breasts in search for any abnormalities; for that reason BSE should be not be ruled out. Data from previous case studies confirmed opposing viewpoints of the matter. Health experts also provided concrete information pertaining to the effectiveness of BSE. Breast cancer may be the oldest disease known to women. The infamous disease can be traced back 3,500 years ago in Egypt. Hippocrates, also known as the father of medicine, believed that cancer was a result of an eruption of black bile. Scottish surgeon,(1785) John Rodman, not only believed that fear itself was the cause of cancer, but that fear also was a vector to spread the disease. Physicians in the 19 th century still believed the only way to remedy breast cancers was by amputating the entire breast; however, surgery was thought of as an “evil” feat because the operation was usually performed with a knife and without anesthesia. Currently women have no assurance of a 100% effective way of early detection no definitive technique has been recommended. After reviewing the breast cancer detection literature, exploring historical data, and comparing the modern day perspectives concerning BSE, BSE as an effectiveness early detection method for breast cancer may actually depend on the individual’s discretion. After reviewing the literature and comparing opposing viewpoints concerning BSE, it is concluded that this controversial issue will continue to be a central concern for both women and health experts for years to come. History Introductio n Methodology & Results Discussion and Conclusion Abstract Many women are encouraged to practice BSE under the notion that practicing BSE will help find breast cancers and they will stand a chance of being cured if abnormalities are discovered early in their breasts. BSE is a method that women should practice in efforts to become more aware of their breasts as opposed to being encumbered with the idea that BSE is a form of breast cancer detection. Even though BSE is a controversial topic, as future health educator, I would advocate that most benefits o utweigh the risks. Implication s

8 Farm-to-School’s Effect on Community Involvement: A Comparative Case-Study of Farm-to-School Programs in the Chequamegon Bay Area in Northern Wisconsin and Madison, Wisconsin Emily Stephenson, Sociology Dr. Brandon Hofstedt, Sociology, Northland College Abstract Introduction Results Methods Conclusion Farm-to-school programs started in the early 1990s and have since grown to about 950 programs nationwide. These programs connect a school with local farmers to increase healthy food options in school meals or snack programs and provide time for students to connect with their local food sources. Some schools provide just a snack with local fruits and vegetables, while others incorporate fruits and vegetables into the meals. Farm-to-school programs support local agriculture and develop a connection among students, farmers, and teachers within a community. Social capital theory is about how a community functions and how the community expands and builds off of old and new networks, relationships, and ideas, as well as how effectively the community works together to use all of their assets. These relationships are critical to a community to ensure that action is taken to improve the community through both community organizations and local governmental processes. The results are divided into three different sections: building a sense of community, urban versus rural programs, and effectiveness of programs. Both rural and urban programs have to contend with the centralization of the school lunch programs. However it seems that in the smaller school district, the rural program has more flexibility, whereas the urban program is stuck in a more rigid structure due to an uncooperative food service director. Both struggle to actually gain access to the lunchroom to get local foods into the meals, and have instead decided to focus on getting fresh local snacks and teaching nutrition lessons about food production. Contacted initial interview Interviewed 11 individuals Used Snowball Sampling Technique to make contact with all interviewees To organize the data, used qualitative analysis and coding (the finding of themes in results) Farm-to-school programs affect the community in multitudinous ways. They build relationships with the community through building bridges between the farmers and the schools, between the students and the farmers, and in turn between the parents with school food policies. Additionally, the program builds students’ connections with their food sources, which allows them to help their parents connect with the local food sources and to get involved in the discussion. Farm-to- school programs increase higher nutritionally valued food availability for students regardless of their socioeconomic background. Furthermore, the programs create opportunity and motivation for parents to demand school food policy change that will allow their children to be guaranteed healthy, local food options. As a result, these potential school food policy changes allow for more support of small to middle size farms to grow and the ability to have a market that will support them. Because schools can be so central in community life, they are a great venue in which to provide space for discussion about the importance of local foods and the role local foods hold in the community. Starting in the schools allows for all generations to get involved in food culture change which then moves beyond the school grounds into the community as a whole to create change. Farm-to-school programs have the ability to support policy change one bit at a time and overcome the boundaries of the school yard to start change in the farm fields, food on our dinner plates, and a fast-food culture to a local, slow-food culture. Building a sense of community: This entails building relationships within a community to strengthen it. The farm-to-school directors at the schools in the Chequamegon Bay Area and Madison, Wisconsin work with the farmers in their area to get local foods during the growing season, so they are both building relationships with local food producers as well as with other businesses. These working relationships with farmers, volunteers, students, teachers, businesses, and other community members strengthen the community. Furthermore, the impact of farm-to-school programs on their students affects the future of the communities in which they live in. Urban verse Rural Programs: The Chequamegon Bay Area and Madison farm- to-school programs both struggle with economic and infrastructural barriers, and they also struggle with centralization and a lack of trust between farmers and food service directors. Madison has a longer growing season, but a larger student body, stricter standards, and they have more students to feed. The Chequamegon Bay Area are able to work with food service directors because they have a smaller student body and less people to work with allowing their programs to be more flexible. They can also get access to local food more easily to meet the demands of the student body. Effectiveness of Programs: The purpose of farm-to-school programs varies with each person’s perspective. Each interviewee had a slightly different interpretation. With each program being different, the interviewee had varying results of just how effective their programs were at meeting their interpretation of the purpose. Despite the differences in the interpretation of the purpose of the program, the interviewees generally agreed that farm-to-school programs are there to make connections with local producers to get local, healthy food options into school lunches while teaching the students about food procurement and healthy food choices. Most interviewees agreed that the programs were successful at nutrition education and some expose to healthier, local foods, however most programs lacked the ability to really reform the lunch program by getting any local foods into it. This is a study of farm-to-school programs in the Chequamegon Bay Area in northern Wisconsin and in Madison, Wisconsin. Farm-to-school programs are initiatives that aim to link local farmers with schools. Specifically to get healthy local foods into the lunch program and to educate children about food procurement and healthier food choices. These programs also foster connections among different groups within the community, which in turn builds new networks and relationships that strengthen the community: both economically and socially. Farm-to-school programs therefore function as a form of social capital. This research project examines and qualitatively assesses how farm-to-school programs build a sense of community, how rural and urban programs differ, and how effective the programs are within their respective communities. Conclusively, farm-to-school programs do build a sense of community. Additionally, both rural and urban programs deal with centralization but have different levels of flexibility. Programs are also effective at nutrition education and expose students to food procurement but also work on providing students with more access to local foods.

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10 Transcending Classification: Transitional Poetry of Sylvia Plath as Seen Through New Critical Theory Jaime Jost, English Dr. Raychel Haugrud Reiff, Department of World Languages, Literatures, and Cultures Plath has long been categorized as a “confessional” poet, which has limited the world’s view of her. Plath was a deliberate, skilled poetess who deserves to be looked at in another light. Through the lens of New Critical Theory, Plath’s work is able to be seen without the shadow of her biography. Furthermore, the poems written directly before her suicide have overshadowed others written earlier. By recognizing the value of earlier works and analyzing them through a new perspective, this work has added to Plath scholarship in a big way. Poems discussed are from the collection Crossing the Water. “ On Deck”  Three selfish characters with unrealistic dreams  Primary symbol: Weddings  Dreams go unfulfilled “A Life”  Perceptions from the outside when following social pressures versus the “reality” of life if one does not follow social norms  Happy images juxtaposed with images devoid of hope  Narrator contemplates if it is better to be thoughtless yet happy or clever and alone “Face Lift”  Effects of being under anesthesia  Major symbols include a cat, Cleopatra, and of vaults  Plath ties the form to the mechanics by using envelope stanzas with the symbol of the vault– both enclosures “In Plaster”  Emergence of one’s true self  The speaker of the poem goes through a range of emotions about the plaster encasement  Plaster has progressed from a frustration to a slave to someone who wants to be free and have her own soul and life, full of resentment for the one who keeps her prisoner “Mirror”  Mirror relating reality  Images include the moon, stars, fish  The mirror does not have any preconceptions Abstract

11 Influences of temperature and precipitation on wood frog (Rana sylvatica) breeding phenology with predictions of climate change impacts Caitlin Leach, Environmental Science Ms. Jennifer Olker, University of Minnesota Duluth, Natural Resources Research Institute Climate change has been shown to alter seasonal timing in animals and plants. Amphibian breeding phenology may be especially sensitive to predicted climate changes due to their dependence on temperature and aquatic habitat. In this study, we investigated the influences of temperature and precipitation on the breeding phenology of a North American amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), to identify correlations with annual weather conditions and make predictions about potential effects of climate change. We analyzed calling survey data from vernal pools in the upper Midwest U.S. to see whether there was a relationship between weather conditions and breeding times for the wood frog. Specifically, date of maximum calling, date of first calling, and spawning date were compared to precipitation and temperature data in the four months immediately preceding wood frog breeding. Calling and spawning dates were strongly correlated with average temperature in March. Using this linear relationship in combination with observed trends in March temperatures over the last 60 years, we assessed the potential effects of climate change on the wood frog breeding phenology. We predicted that spawning in the next 40 years will be 6 days earlier than present, and 10 days earlier than predicted for Earliest Calling Date and Temperature All ponds Average March, April and Averaged January-April temperatures were all negatively correlated with earliest calling date (|r| > 0.5). Individual ponds Strong negative correlations with Average March temperatures, with some variations. Date of Maximum Calling and Temperature All ponds March and April average temperatures showed strongest correlations with date of maximum calling for both calling index 2 and 3. Average January-April temperatures also showed significant correlations. Individual Ponds Carolyn had most significant correlations, Cut Across and Tamarack did not have enough data. Spawning Date versus Temperature All Hartley Park ponds, plus additional nearby vernal pools (added to increase sample size) Average March temperature was the only weather parameter significantly correlated with wood frog spawning date (Fig. 3). Precipitation Data No trend in the relationship between precipitation and wood frog breeding phenology in all ponds combined or in individual ponds. Results Discussion Climate change has the potential to negatively affect ecosystems around the world. In the Great Lakes region, the temperature has increased 0.6 degrees Celsius over the last century and is predicted to continue to increase. Climate change has been shown to effect seasonal timing in animals and plants, including amphibians in which earlier breeding and arrival time at breeding ponds was strongly correlated with increased temperature. We investigated the influences of temperature and precipitation on the breeding phenology of a North American species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) to identify correlations with annual weather conditions and make predictions about potential effects of predicted climate change. Amphibian Surveys Study location: Hartley Park, Duluth, MN. (Fig. 1, 660 acre city park with many vernal pools and ponds). Study species: wood frog (Rana sylvatica), which could be especially sensitive to climate change as it is an explosive breeder and breeds primarily in temporary pools. Nighttime calling surveys (standardized methods according to the North American Amphibian Monitoring Protocol), completed by both Hartley Nature Center staff and volunteers Calling data summarized to: earliest calling date (first date wood frogs heard at calling), date of maximum calling (indices 2 or 3), and spawning date (when available). Introduction Methods Weather Data Daily weather data: temperature and precipitation (NOAA Online Climate Data Directory) for Duluth International Airport station (considered representative of Hartley Park, based on comparison of data, linear regression p<0.001, R 2 ≥ 0.80). Table 1. Pearson correlation and linear regression results for maximum calling date (Index 3) versus temperature. Correlations with |r| > 0.5 included, with significant values for correlation and linear regression highlighted (α=0.1). Index 3 Mean TemperaturesPearson correlation (r ) Linear Regression R 2 All March April January – April CarolynFebruary March Cut Across March April January – April Fairmont Not enough dataNA TamarackFebruary April Statistical Analysis Breeding phenology for all ponds was compared to annual weather conditions with Pearson’s correlations and linear regression analysis. Four ponds that have complete survey records were used to evaluated the with-in year variation in neighboring ponds and compared to analyses with all ponds. Breeding phenology (calling and spawning) was predicted for projected future climate using the linear regression results from and climate trends for the past 60 years. Understanding the relationship of amphibian breeding phenology with annual weather conditions leads to an increased ability to predict the potential effects of climate change. Figure 4. Predicting potential effects of climate change on wood frog breeding phenology with: A) historical March mean temperature with trend line; and B) maximum calling and spawning dates for historical and predicted temperatures under climate change (following trend from A, which is approximately +2 °C from present to 2050). Temperature showed a significant relationship with spawning in the months of March and April. Precipitation was not as strongly correlated when compared to temperature, therefore is not considered a dominate driver in wood frog phenology. The significant positive trend in average March temperature and average temperature from January to April over the last 60 years (Fig. 4A) could be indicative of earlier amphibian breeding. Using this trend in historical data and the relationship between temperature and spawning, we predict that wood frogs spawning in northern Minnesota over the next 40 years will be 10 days earlier than predicted spawning date for (Fig. 4B). Figure 3. Wood frog spawning day of year versus mean March temperature (°F) for vernal pools in Hartley and surrounding area. Temperature (°F) Monthly average for each month January-April Average for entire period (January-April) Precipitation (inches per day) Monthly total and average for each month January-April Total and Average for entire period (January-April) Figure 1. Study location with geographic distribution of vernal pools in Hartley Park, Duluth, MN. Figure 2. Multiple wood frog egg masses (freshly laid in vernal pool). ABSTRACT

12 Biological Control of Purple Loosestrife Seth Bliss, Biology and Math Dr. Mary Balcer, Department of Natural Sciences Lake Superior Research Institute Background Lythrum salicaria is a hardy, invasive, iteroparous flower. Native to Eurasia. No native predators. Brought in ballast water. Can produce up to 2.7 million seeds per mature plant Spreads at 645 km^2 per year currently. Displaces native plants. Loss of vegetative biodiversity. Loss of food and habitat. Galerucella spp. Used for bio-control USDA APHIS approved in ‘92. Host specific, cannot complete life cycle without purple loosestrife Methods Initial survey completed in 2009 to determine initial density and find release sites. Beetles reared in cages on potted purple loosestrife. Beetles released in summer Research sites resurveyed. Ground cover and frequency calculated. Monitoring will continue through the summer, possibly next spring. Results Initial frequency ≈ 23% and relative cover of ≈ 2% Transect and m^2 plot. Currently: frequency ≈ 60%, relative cover ≈ 10% M^2 plot and triple replicates per site. LAI used Historically: 2-5 years before control is achieved. Discussion Trend is for purple loosestrife to be non decreasing in first year/s. Different techniques/people could skew data but is unlikely. Cool spring set timeline back both years. Historical studies appropriate due to methodology and location. Observed much more damage to plants compared to Future monitoring will allow statistical analysis. Abstract As human transportation occurs at an ever increasing rate, the possibility of introducing invasive species into an area increases. Hog Island and Allouez Bay are inundated with invasive species brought from many parts of the world. Lythrum salicaria, or purple loosestrife, is one of the more aggressive invasive plants. Having no natural predators and the ability to produce millions of seeds per season, purple loosestrife is becoming a dominant species on Hog Island and in Allouez Bay. In an effort to slow the spread and give native species an opportunity to repopulate, two beetle species in the genus Galerucella were introduced into the region where purple loosestrife is spreading. These beetles originate in Europe and naturally prey upon purple loosestrife. High host specificity prevents Galerucella from becoming invasive itself. In the study, successive plant surveys were performed to measure the frequency and ground cover of purple loosestrife. Initial data is expectedly inconclusive as the new beetle population requires several seasons in order to increase to a density capable of controlling the invasive plant population.

13 Unions: Internally Adapting to the Changing Workforce and Political Environment History Unions began as a means to protect workers who were skilled White men from other groups of workers such as people of color, women, and unskilled laborers. Over time unions moved to become more inclusive, and changed their goals to protect all workers from exploitation. Unions have been in decline since World War I. Meaning their political influence and density has steadily been decreasing. Only 12 % of workers are currently in a union. Purpose To explore the internal organization and operation of current unions to understand where there has been changes in regards to worker demographics to improve union’s success. Methods Content Analysis of Union Constitution In-depth Interviews with union leaders, organizer and researchers Sample Two interviews - Executive Vice President of a large national union Researcher and Organizer for a large national union Sample of Union Constitutions Name of Union Year Established American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization 1955 American Postal Workers 1800 Association of Flight Attendants 1973 International Brotherhood of Teamsters 1903 National Educators Association of US 1857 Office and Professional Employees International Union 1906 Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers 1999 Service Employees International Union 1968 United Steel Workers 1936 United Food and Commercial Workers International Union1979 (AFL-CIO 2011, American Postal Workers Union 2011, Association of Flight Attendants-CWA 2011, International Union of Machinist and Aerospace Engineers 2011, National Education Association 2011, Office Workers and Professionals International Union 2011, Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical, and Energy Workers International Union 2011, SEIU 2011, Teamsters 2011, United Food and Chemical Workers International Union 2011) Findings Unions are adapting: Through Amendments such as adding diversity statements and means to solve internal conflict. In the event that any affiliate believes that such special and unusual circumstances exist that it would be volatile of its basic jurisdiction or contrary to basic concepts of trade union morality or to the constitutional objectives of the AFL-CIO or injurious to accepted trade union work standards to enforce the principles that would apply in the absence of such circumstances, such organization shall nevertheless observe such principles unless and until its claim of such justification is upheld (AFL-CIO 2011). We believe our strength comes from our unity, and that we must not be divided by forces of discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, religion, age, physical ability, sexual orientation or immigration status” (SEIU 2011). Unions are diversifying: “The organization was always looking to hire new diverse groups of researchers and organizers to better match the changing workforce….to better relate to the population [of workers]” (Interviewee B 2011). Although unions are adapting and diversifying there are areas that are not progressing as quickly or effectively in many important areas: “Sexual orientation was not even brought up” when discussing how the organization an interviewee worked for could become more diverse (Interviewee B 2011). Discussion Although there have been large shifts throughout the history of the labor movement, the individual organizations within the movement all have had different manners in which they react to the changing trends. They can either be more or less progressive than the overall trend of the movement. Currently although many organization tend to appear more progressive than the federal regulations, little is done to act on these more progressive policies. Organizations tend to have shortcomings regarding diversity when it comes to upper leadership as well as matching organizers and researchers to the rank and file workers. Matching workers and organizers is one of the most used technique to address diversity, but in order for this to be done more effectively more than simple identity characteristics such as race and gender need to be addressed. Intersectionality is a viable solution to this short coming. ABSTRACT The labor movement as a whole has been in constant transition and faces a devastating decline. This research explores different ways which the labor movement is internally adapting to the changing worker demographics and different ways in which this contributes to the overall success or failure of specific organizations and campaigns. Stevie Blanchard, Sociology Dr. Stacie R. Furia, Sociology, Northland College American Federation of Labor- Congress of International Organizations “About Us” Retrieved June 30, 2011 (http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/)., Interviewee B Conducted June 2011., Rosenzweig, Roy, Lichtenstein, Nelson, Brown, Joshua, and Jafffee, David Who Built America? Working People and the Nation’s History Volume Two: 1877 to Present. Bedford/St. Martins. Boston, MA., Service Employees International Union “Our Union.” Retrieved June 12, (http://www.seiu.org/our-union).


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