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Chapter 9 (from p.376): Intelligence

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1 Chapter 9 (from p.376): Intelligence
Music: “She’s a Genius” Jet “Empire State of Mind” Jay-Z and Alicia Keys

2 Agenda 1. Definitions of Intelligence 2. Assessment of Intelligence
a) Issues b) Common definition c) General factor theory d) Theories of multiple intelligences 2. Assessment of Intelligence a) Historical background b) Modern tests 3. Genetic & Environmental Determinants a) Genetics: Twin studies /reaction range b) Racial differences c) Schooling, intelligence and income

3 **Tips for the exam ** From the Text:
Especially know the sections covered in class. For other sections, don’t obsess about tiny details. Know featured study, critical thinking, and application sections (Ch. 5-9). Go over “Review of Key Points” for your studying. From the Lectures: Go over your notes carefully, and try to anticipate short answer questions from the slides. Format (same as last time): 60 Multiple Choice; 4 Short Answers 2 hours in class

4 1. Definitions of Intelligence
a) Issues: What do we mean by “intelligence”? Most people think of verbal, practical and social aspects of intelligence p. 381 How do we go about evaluating intelligence? What do IQ tests tell us? Is intelligence culturally-defined, or is it culture-free? At the moment, there are no “culture free” tests Introduction of “Emotional Intelligence” or EI: Important component of success in life Self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, people skills, motivation / Predicts work performance better than IQ

5 1. Intelligence (cont’d)
b) Common definition: Most agree that intelligence= Capacity to adapt Learn from experience Think abstractly, solve problems effectively c) General Factor Theory: Intelligence is a unitary attribute Spearman: “g” factor General ability that underlies specific skills

6 Spearman’s “g” factor p. 397
Explains the correlation between scores on subtests of IQ measures

7 1. d) Theories of Multiple Intelligences
Sternberg’s Model: 3 types of Intelligences: Academic Creative Practical


9 Gardner’s 8 intelligences (p. 401)

10 2. Assessment of Intelligence
a) Historical background Binet (1905): devised the first IQ test to identify children with learning difficulties Stanford-Binet: Adapted by Terman in 1916 for use in America IQ= Mental Age/Chronological Age X 100 b) Modern Tests: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale –Revised- (WAIS-R) Verbal IQ Performance IQ (non-verbal/ visual-spatial skills) Distribution follows normal curve (p. 360)

11 Figure 9.6

12 Scoring the Wechsler Scales

13 Normal IQ Curve Fig. 9.7

14 Lower 2% of IQ distribution:

15 3. Genetic and Environmental Determinants
A) Genetics: Account for 50-70% of variance in IQ points Determined from twin studies: Genetic overlap and IQ similarity p

16 Studies of IQ similarity Fig. 9.12

17 3. a) Reaction Range p. 391

18 3. b) Racial differences (p.393) due to bad soil?

19 3. c) Effects of schooling
Years of schooling positively related to IQ (and income)! Bi-directional effects (see overheads in class)



22 You GO! You can totally do it!
If You Study Hard!

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