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History of chemistry Jana Nevrlá. Chemistry has been important since ancient times The processing of natural ores to produce metals The processing of.

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Presentation on theme: "History of chemistry Jana Nevrlá. Chemistry has been important since ancient times The processing of natural ores to produce metals The processing of."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of chemistry Jana Nevrlá

2 Chemistry has been important since ancient times The processing of natural ores to produce metals The processing of natural ores to produce metals The Egyptians used some chemicals to mummify the dead The Egyptians used some chemicals to mummify the dead For preparation of some medicine or poisonous compounds from flowers. For preparation of some medicine or poisonous compounds from flowers. ancient – starý ore - ruda processing – zpracování

3 About 400 years b. c. Aristoteles – distinguished Greek philosopher and scientist. He affirmed that all matter is composed of four fundamental substances: fire, water, earth and air. Demokritos and Leucippos – they supposed discrete structure of substances. They used term atomos (which later became atoms) to decribe ultimate particles. distinguished – významný ultimate – konečný (ohraničený) particles – částice affirm - tvrdit Demokritos Aristoteles

4 Alchemy  Alchemists were obsessed with the idea of transformation of cheap metals into gold.  In this several elements were prepared and the mineral acids, hydroxides and salts learned to prepare.  Alchemists assisted to development laborator operations and laboratory laborator operations and laboratory equipment equipment Obsess – posedlý Severa – některé Assist – přispět Bath - lázeň

5 Sixteenth century Paracelsus (1493 – 1541) – Swiss alchemist, physician and astrologer. His full name is Philippus Theophrastus Bombatus von Hohenheim. He was studied attributes of substances and preparation of medicines. Paracelsus (1493 – 1541) – Swiss alchemist, physician and astrologer. His full name is Philippus Theophrastus Bombatus von Hohenheim. He was studied attributes of substances and preparation of medicines. Deal – zabývat se něčím Attributes – vlastnosti Physician - lékař

6 Seventeenth century ► Robert Boyle (1627 – 1691) – Irish chemist, physicist, inventor and scientist. He was dealing behaviour of gases. Boyle´s major contribution to chemistry consised of his ideas about the chemical elements. ► The Greek system of four elements finally died. ► George Stahl ( ) – he suggested substance called phlogiston Inventor – vynálezce Behaviour – chování Contribution - příspěvek

7 Another distinguished chemists and scientists: Antoine Lavoisier ( ) – he recognized the importance of accurate measurements. Antoine Lavoisier ( ) – he recognized the importance of accurate measurements. John Dalton ( ) – atomic theory. He was the first to prepare a table of relative atomic weights. John Dalton ( ) – atomic theory. He was the first to prepare a table of relative atomic weights. Recognize – poznat, připustit Importance – důležitost, význam Measurements - měření

8 18. and 19. century Amadeo Avogadro ( ) – Italian chemist. He is an author of the theory of molarity and molecular weights. Amadeo Avogadro ( ) – Italian chemist. He is an author of the theory of molarity and molecular weights. Dimitri Mendeleev ( ) – creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. Dimitri Mendeleev ( ) – creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. Ernest Rutheford ( ) – he described the theorical concepts of the atom and the phenomenon of radioactivity. Ernest Rutheford ( ) – he described the theorical concepts of the atom and the phenomenon of radioactivity.

9 Thank you for your attention Brno university of technology 2007


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