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The Vision for Space Exploration – Challenge & Opportunity ISS Panel Report Robert D. Cabana ISS Panel Chair March 30, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "The Vision for Space Exploration – Challenge & Opportunity ISS Panel Report Robert D. Cabana ISS Panel Chair March 30, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Vision for Space Exploration – Challenge & Opportunity ISS Panel Report Robert D. Cabana ISS Panel Chair March 30, 2005

2 2 Charter Charter Assess the ability of the ISS Program to safely and effectively complete its mission in the post-assembly utilization time frame – Identify ISS crew and equipment transportation requirements for the remainder of the Program – Analyze potential crew, maintenance, logistics and science manifests to assure that ISS continues to meet its mission requirements – Identify emerging opportunities that ensure the ISS will support the requirements established for vehicle performance, crew health, science utilization, technology development and other specified mission needs – Examine sustaining operations and recommend a strategic implementation plan that supports the Vision for Space Exploration – Provide a prioritized list of initiatives and a budget profile for recommended activities

3 3 Desired End Points Define International Space Station logistic and functional shortfalls associated with Shuttle retirement in 2010 Recommend projects, strategic initiatives, and foundational studies that address the shortfalls by: – Establishing ISS functionality required from supporting vehicles – Reducing ISS transportation requirements – Increasing transportation capabilities Identify strategies that provide the ISS Program with flexibility to respond to unplanned events

4 4 Panel composed of International Space Station Program, NASA, Industry, and Academia representativesOrganization ISS Panel Chair - JSC Facilitator Secretariat NASA Headquarters ISS Program Program Integration External Relations Utilization KSC MSFC Space Shuttle Program Exploration Program JSC Institutional Support Mission Operations Space and Life Sciences Engineering Center Ops (facilities) Industry Boeing Lockheed Martin Spacehab Kistler Academia U. of Maryland

5 5 The ISS Panel developed a process to solicit and evaluate Program investments – Investments solicited from across the ISS Program, Institutional Support, and ISOS community – ISS team validated and ranked investments – Top investments recommended for further considerationExecution

6 6 Validation Criteria Each investment had to satisfy the following conditions to be considered valid: – Technically feasible – Implementation schedule supports majority of time between 2010 and 2016 – Directly addresses transportation and/or functional shortfalls

7 7 Evaluation Criteria Required for ISS operation to 2016 Reduces transportation shortfall Minimizes overall Program cost Supports the Vision for Space Exploration Minimizes the use of on-orbit crew time

8 8 131 Investments Submitted – 10 facility investments withdrawn – 43 did not meet validation criteria 78 Investments Validated – 65 combined into 9 new investments – 2 new investments added Of the resulting 24 investments, 10 passed the evaluation criteria – 4 Projects – 3 Functional Studies – 3 Strategic Initiatives Investment Metrics

9 9Findings Based on current requirements, the cargo vehicle flight rate after Shuttle retirement does not meet the projected re-supply and return needs of ISS – Requirements are being reviewed on a continual basis Exploration requirements are scheduled to be defined in the Spring of 2005 When released, impact to manifest will be evaluated Requirement reductions alone will not eliminate the transportation shortfall; additional transportation capabilities will be required

10 10 ISS Baseline Flight Rate Fiscal Year Shuttle Progress ATV HTV Soyuz For Russian Segment Split between USOS and RS

11 11 Cargo Delivery Demand vs. Capability (NASA/JAXA/ESA/CSA)

12 12 Cargo Return Demand vs. Capability (NASA/JAXA/ESA/CSA)

13 13 Requirement Reduction Opportunities exist to reduce transportation requirements: – Pre-position hardware prior to Shuttle retirement – Implement a disposable hardware philosophy – In situ science sample processing – Intermediate level ORU repairs on-orbit – Closed-loop consumables (water, high pressure gas) – Refine maintenance requirement projections – Use more efficient Lithium Ion batteries or other energy storage concepts Capabilities that reduce re-supply requirements are applicable to Vision for Space Exploration The ISS provides a facility to prove concepts and technologies that will be required to support the Exploration Vision

14 14 Projects – Recommended Disposable Hardware – Replace the depot refurbishment with a disposable hardware concept to reduce recoverable return cargo requirements – ISS Program is assessing cost impact – Activities initiated by ISS to protect ORU replacement supply chain Lithium Ion Batteries – Assess replacing each Nickel-Hydrogen solar array storage battery pair (24 pairs) with one Lithium Ion battery (24 batteries), saving 50% of the battery delivery mass – New activity

15 15 Projects – Recommended Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction System – Reduce water delivery requirements by converting hydrogen from oxygen generator and carbon dioxide from carbon dioxide removal system into water and methane – Assess ability to utilize water delivery mass for other cargo High Pressure Oxygen Generator – Eliminate delivery of high pressure oxygen by generating it on orbit using water to enable use of the Joint Airlock tanks for EVA and contingency oxygen source – ISSP evaluating as part of EVA support assessment

16 16 Strategic Initiatives - Recommended Maintenance Demand Projection Refinement – Refine the maintenance projection based upon on-orbit experience and ground testing to reduce transportation requirements – In work by ISSP Reliability Improvement Program – Improve reliability of hardware to reduce the transportation requirements – In work by ISSP In situ diagnostics, Troubleshooting and Intermediate Level Repair and Maintenance – Establish more extensive capability to perform in situ diagnostics, troubleshooting, and I-level repair to reduce the transportation requirements – ISSP initiating activities related to this recommendation

17 17 Foundational Studies - Recommended Cargo Transportation – Obtain additional transportation capability to meet ISS remaining transportation and functional requirements – In work via Launch Services Program Office Request for Proposal NASA, ESA, JAXA, and CSA Segment EVA Support – Re-establish capability to perform required EVA tasks on the non-Russian segment – ISSP is currently evaluating options In situ Science – Develop capability to perform science analysis on orbit to reduce recoverable return cargo requirements – ESMD assess capability to use on orbit analysis to satisfy ISS utilization requirements

18 18Summary With retirement of the Shuttle, the ISS faces a transportation shortfall based on current requirements – The ISS Program should continue to pursue cost effective means to reduce the maintenance/logistics requirements for ISS – Science requirements for the ISS are being evaluated based on the Vision for Space Exploration and the restricted transportation capabilities The ISS Program should continue to pursue alternate means to deliver cargo to and from the ISS – Incorporating all reasonable projections of reductions of transportation requirements still leaves a shortfall Exploration systems should pursue the use of the ISS as an engineering/science test bed to develop and prove the systems and crew health measures required for exploration beyond low Earth orbit


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