Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Understanding Supply What is the law of supply? What are supply schedules and supply curves? What is elasticity of supply? What."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Understanding Supply What is the law of supply? What are supply schedules and supply curves? What is elasticity of supply? What factors affect elasticity of supply?
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Price As price increases… Supply Quantity supplied increases Price As price falls… Supply Quantity supplied falls The Law of Supply According to the law of supply, suppliers will offer more of a good at a higher price.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu How Does the Law of Supply Work? Economists use the term quantity supplied to describe how much of a good is offered for sale at a specific price. The promise of increased revenues when prices are high encourages firms to produce more. Rising prices draw new firms into a market and add to the quantity supplied of a good.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu $.501,000 Price per slice of pizzaSlices supplied per day Market Supply Schedule $1.001,500 $1.502,000 $2.002,500 $2.503,000 $3.003,500 Supply Schedules A market supply schedule is a chart that lists how much of a good all suppliers will offer at different prices.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Market Supply Curve Price (in dollars) Output (slices per day) 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00.50 0 0500100015002000250030003500 Supply Supply Curves A market supply curve is a graph of the quantity supplied of a good by all suppliers at different prices.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Elasticity of supply is a measure of the way quantity supplied reacts to a change in price. Elasticity of Supply If supply is not very responsive to changes in price, it is considered inelastic. An elastic supply is very sensitive to changes in price.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Time In the long run, firms are more flexible, so supply can become more elastic. In the short run, a firm cannot easily change its output level, so supply is inelastic. What Affects Elasticity of Supply?
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Costs of Production How do firms decide how much labor to hire? What are production costs? How do firms decide how much to produce?
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Marginal Product of Labor Labor (number of workers) Output (beanbags per hour) Marginal product of labor 00— 144 2106 3177 4236 5285 6313 7321 831–1 A Firm’s Labor Decisions Business owners have to consider how the number of workers they hire will affect their total production. The marginal product of labor is the change in output from hiring one additional unit of labor, or worker.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Increasing, Diminishing, and Negative Marginal Returns Labor (number of workers) Marginal Product of labor (beanbags per hour) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 Diminishing marginal returns occur when marginal production levels decrease with new investment. 4567 Diminishing marginal returns Negative marginal returns occur when the marginal product of labor becomes negative. 89 Negative marginal returns Marginal Returns 123 Increasing marginal returns Increasing marginal returns occur when marginal production levels increase with new investment.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Production Costs A fixed cost is a cost that does not change, regardless of how much of a good is produced. Examples: rent and salaries Variable costs are costs that rise or fall depending on how much is produced. Examples: costs of raw materials, some labor costs. The total cost equals fixed costs plus variable costs. The marginal cost is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Production Costs Total revenue Profit (total revenue – total cost) Marginal revenue (market price) Marginal cost Total cost (fixed cost + variable cost) Variable cost Fixed cost Beanbags (per hour) $ –36 –20 0 21 40 0123401234 $0 24 48 72 96 $24 24 — $8 4 3 5 $36 44 48 51 56 $0 8 12 15 20 $36 36 57 72 84 93 56785678 120 144 168 192 24 7 9 12 15 63 72 84 99 27 36 48 63 36 98 92 79 216 240 264 288 24 19 24 30 37 36 9 10 11 12 82 106 136 173 118 142 172 209 Setting Output Marginal revenue is the additional income from selling one more unit of a good. It is usually equal to price. To determine the best level of output, firms determine the output level at which marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Changes in Supply How do input costs affect supply? How can the government affect the supply of a good? What other factors can influence supply?
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Input Costs and Supply Any change in the cost of an input such as the raw materials, machinery, or labor used to produce a good, will affect supply. As input costs increase, the firm’s marginal costs also increase, decreasing profitability and supply. Input costs can also decrease. New technology can greatly decrease costs and increase supply.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Government Influences on Supply By raising or lowering the cost of producing goods, the government can encourage or discourage an entrepreneur or industry. Subsidies A subsidy is a government payment that supports a business or market. Subsidies cause the supply of a good to increase. Taxes The government can reduce the supply of some goods by placing an excise tax on them. An excise tax is a tax on the production or sale of a good. Regulation Regulation occurs when the government steps into a market to affect the price, quantity, or quality of a good. Regulation usually raises costs.
Chapter 5SectionMain Menu Other Factors Influencing Supply The Global Economy –The supply of imported goods and services has an impact on the supply of the same goods and services here. –Government import restrictions will cause a decrease in the supply of restricted goods. Future Expectations of Prices –Expectations of higher prices will reduce supply now and increase supply later. Expectations of lower prices will have the opposite effect. Number of Suppliers –If more firms enter a market, the market supply of the good will rise. If firms leave the market, supply will decrease.