Presentation on theme: "Understanding Supply What is the law of supply?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Understanding Supply What is the law of supply? What are supply schedules and supply curves?What is elasticity of supply?What factors affect elasticity of supply?
2 The Law of SupplyAccording to the law of supply, suppliers will offer more of a good at a higher price.PriceAs price increases…SupplyQuantity supplied increasesPriceAs price falls…SupplyQuantity supplied falls
3 How Does the Law of Supply Work? Economists use the term quantity supplied to describe how much of a good is offered for sale at a specific price.The promise of increased revenues when prices are high encourages firms to produce more.Rising prices draw new firms into a market and add to the quantity supplied of a good.
4 Price per slice of pizza Slices supplied per day Supply SchedulesA market supply schedule is a chart that lists how much of a good all suppliers will offer at different prices.$.501,000Price per slice of pizzaSlices supplied per dayMarket Supply Schedule$1.001,500$1.502,000$2.002,500$2.503,000$3.003,500
5 Output (slices per day) Supply CurvesMarket Supply CurvePrice (in dollars)Output (slices per day)3.002.502.001.501.00.50500100015002000250030003500A market supply curve is a graph of the quantity supplied of a good by all suppliers at different prices.Supply
6 Elasticity of SupplyElasticity of supply is a measure of the way quantity supplied reacts to a change in price.If supply is not very responsive to changes in price, it is considered inelastic.An elastic supply is very sensitive to changes in price.
7 What Affects Elasticity of Supply? TimeIn the short run, a firm cannot easily change its output level, so supply is inelastic.In the long run, firms are more flexible, so supply can become more elastic.
8 Costs of Production How do firms decide how much labor to hire? What are production costs?How do firms decide how much to produce?
9 A Firm’s Labor Decisions Business owners have to consider how the number of workers they hire will affect their total production.The marginal product of labor is the change in output from hiring one additional unit of labor, or worker.Marginal Product of LaborLabor (number of workers)Output (beanbags per hour)Marginal product of labor—1421063177423652831373218–1
10 Labor (number of workers) Marginal Product of labor Marginal ReturnsIncreasing, Diminishing, and Negative Marginal ReturnsLabor (number of workers)Marginal Product of labor(beanbags per hour)87654321–1–2–3123Increasing marginal returnsIncreasing marginal returns occur when marginal production levels increase with new investment.Diminishing marginal returns occur when marginal production levels decrease with new investment.4567Diminishing marginal returnsNegative marginal returns occur when the marginal product of labor becomes negative.89Negative marginal returns
11 Production CostsA fixed cost is a cost that does not change, regardless of how much of a good is produced. Examples: rent and salariesVariable costs are costs that rise or fall depending on how much is produced. Examples: costs of raw materials, some labor costs.The total cost equals fixed costs plus variable costs.The marginal cost is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.
12 Setting OutputMarginal revenue is the additional income from selling one more unit of a good. It is usually equal to price.To determine the best level of output, firms determine the output level at which marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost.Production CostsTotal revenueProfit (total revenue – total cost)Marginal revenue (market price)Marginal costTotal cost (fixed cost + variable cost)Variable costFixed costBeanbags (per hour)$ –36–2021401234$024487296$24—$85$36445156812152036577284935678120144168192249121563992736489892792162402642882419303736910111282106136173118142172209
13 Changes in Supply How do input costs affect supply? How can the government affect the supply of a good?What other factors can influence supply?
14 Input Costs and SupplyAny change in the cost of an input such as the raw materials, machinery, or labor used to produce a good, will affect supply.As input costs increase, the firm’s marginal costs also increase, decreasing profitability and supply.Input costs can also decrease. New technology can greatly decrease costs and increase supply.
15 Government Influences on Supply By raising or lowering the cost of producing goods, the government can encourage or discourage an entrepreneur or industry.SubsidiesA subsidy is a government payment that supports a business or market. Subsidies cause the supply of a good to increase.TaxesThe government can reduce the supply of some goods by placing an excise tax on them. An excise tax is a tax on the production or sale of a good.RegulationRegulation occurs when the government steps into a market to affect the price, quantity, or quality of a good. Regulation usually raises costs.
16 Other Factors Influencing Supply The Global EconomyThe supply of imported goods and services has an impact on the supply of the same goods and services here.Government import restrictions will cause a decrease in the supply of restricted goods.Future Expectations of PricesExpectations of higher prices will reduce supply now and increase supply later. Expectations of lower prices will have the opposite effect.Number of SuppliersIf more firms enter a market, the market supply of the good will rise. If firms leave the market, supply will decrease.