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Models for Understanding Culture Michael K. Wilson, February 2012.

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1 Models for Understanding Culture Michael K. Wilson, February 2012

2 Symbols: words, gestures, pictures, or objects that carry a particular meaning recognized by those who share a particular culture. Heroes: persons, past or present, real or imagined, who possess traits highly prized in a culture and serve as models for behaviour. Symbols, heroes and rituals are observable practices, though their cultural meaning requires interpretation. Practices Symbols Heroes Rituals Values HOFSTEDE’S MODEL Values: deepest level; broad feelings about good vs bad, clean vs dirty, beautiful vs ugly, rational vs irrational, normal vs abnormal, natural vs paradoxical, decent vs indecent. Rituals: collective activities that are technically superfluous but, within a particular culture, socially essential, e.g. greetings, how respect shown.

3 WO2C Institutions Social – Family, Language, Medicine, Education, Athletics Political – Community Organisation, Government, Law, Mythology, Penal Sanctions Economic – Cooperative Labour, Housing, Inheritance Rights, Property Rights, Trade

4 WO2C

5 Hesselgrave’s Three Dimensional Model TechnologicalIncludes artifacts and activities designed to manipulate the material world. SociologicalIncludes patterns of relationship and behaviour that govern interaction between individuals and groups. IdeologicalIncludes the knowledge, beliefs, worldview and values of a people.

6 Turner’s Three Levels Model 1. Individual Personal Level 2. Public Social (Surface Level) 3. Deeper Culture (Deep) Level (Deal with sole converts and small groups) (Address social systems and structures) (Address basic culture: language, worldview)

7 1. Individual Idiosyncracies 2. Cultural Particulars 3. Human Universals Moreau’s Three Levels Model (Dimensions/elements found in every human society, eg. Language, institutions, values. sociability) (The means by which a particular culture meets its universal human needs; all aspects of life are touched and altered by culture) (Each member of a culture accepts or rejects elements, with varying skills in applying those elements)

8 Lingenfelter’s Six Ways of Life Bureaucratic Authoritarian + GRID Corporate Hierarchist -GROUPGROUP + Individual Individualist GRID - Collective Egalitarian Hermit Autonomy Pilgrim Transformed Submission

9 Layers of Culture

10

11 Peter socialised as a Jew since birth (Gal 2:15) Peter’s Way of Life Before Antioch

12 Peter socialised as a Jew since birth (Gal 2:15) Peter believes Jewish customs are essential (Acts 10:14)

13 Peter the socialised Jew Believes Jewish customs essential Values obedience to Jewish customs Peter’s Way of Life Before Antioch

14 Socialised Jew Believes customs essential Values obedience to Jewish customs

15 Peter’s Way of Life Before Antioch Socialised Jew Believes customs essential Values obedience to Jewish customs

16 One Slice of Aussie Culture WorldviewFree to do what you want Social InfluencesParents, school, community, etc. confirm worldview ValuesTreat people as equals BehaviourCall boss by first name Social SettingAuthority relationships

17 A businessman from Hong Kong was making his first trip to Sydney. He was staying at an exclusive international hotel. He had a large number of non- Chinese business contacts he was eager to develop. He decided to put on a banquet for them. However, instead of inviting them to a Chinese restaurant he arranged with the hotel to do the catering for the banquet. His guests included one of the managers of the hotel where he was staying. When his guests were assembled the businessman made his introductions. However, the manager was stunned and offended when the businessman said, “I am very sorry that this food and drink is not very good.”

18 Chinese Businessman’s Culture WorldviewAll people have defined social roles Social InfluencesParents, school, community, etc. confirm worldview ValuesPlaces great value on hospitality; hosts must honour guests BehaviourSays, “I am sorry the food and drink is not very good” Social SettingA hospitality setting in exclusive hotel – a business function.

19 Joy Luck Club Dinner Scene eWkb_tM&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_t82 eWkb_tM&feature=related

20 What Australians value about their culture and don’t want to lose Australian identity ….. its heritage/ history / traditions / heroes/Australian identity ….. its heritage/ history / traditions / heroes/ Pride in Australian culturePride in Australian culture Laid back attitudeLaid back attitude Freedom to choose… to be yourself/ to express your own opinion/ not to be bound by traditions and culturalFreedom to choose… to be yourself/ to express your own opinion/ not to be bound by traditions and cultural Holistic approach to life balancing study/ sport/ recreation etc….Holistic approach to life balancing study/ sport/ recreation etc…. Quality of life > health system/ social welfareQuality of life > health system/ social welfare Christian values as the basis of Australian valuesChristian values as the basis of Australian values Australia’s environmentAustralia’s environment Education that is not just stuffing in information but emphasises student learning and growth > lifelong learningEducation that is not just stuffing in information but emphasises student learning and growth > lifelong learning Success? As a multicultural nationSuccess? As a multicultural nation Eating Chinese foodEating Chinese food Being reserved and modest as a virtue which doesn’t mean we are unfriendlyBeing reserved and modest as a virtue which doesn’t mean we are unfriendly Showing respect for elders > filial piety > using ‘Uncle’ and not first namesShowing respect for elders > filial piety > using ‘Uncle’ and not first names High value placed on family and family honourHigh value placed on family and family honour High value placed on academic achievementHigh value placed on academic achievement The importance of Chinese festivals and their meaningThe importance of Chinese festivals and their meaning Chinese historyChinese history Etiquette and mannersEtiquette and manners Not doing something that will make another person feel bad > consideration for other peopleNot doing something that will make another person feel bad > consideration for other people Saving faceSaving face Use of Chinese languageUse of Chinese language What Chinese value about their culture and don’t want to lose


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