4Lifton’s Theory (1961) Ideological Totalism Resistors Internal backgrounds of brainwashed: “all or nothing emotional alignments”Based on:Biographical factors such as parental dominationGuiltIdentity problemsResistorsrebelliousnessself expressionfamily loyaltyWesternizationAs a psychiatrist, he became interested in how the CCP carried out thought reform while participating in psychiatric evaluations of American prisoners of war following their release at the end of the Korean War (p.6). His research was conducted in Hong Kong in 1954 and 1955, where he was able to interview twenty-five Westerners as they were released from Chinese prisons, and fifteen Chinese refugee intellectuals. With such a diverse subject group he looks for similarities in the process of thought reform among them. He points out previous misconceptions regarding thought reform or “brainwashing”, and argues that the real power of thought reform comes from the combination of external coercion and an “inner enthusiasm through evangelistic exhortation (p.13).” This is the key to his concept of “ideological totalism.” “By this ungainly phrase I mean to suggest the coming together of immoderate ideology with equally immoderate individual character traits- an extremist meeting ground between people and ideas (p.419).” The immoderate ideology in this case being the totality of Chinese communist ideology.
5Falun GongThe three basic moral principles of Falun Gong are: Zhen, Shan and Ren, which translate approximately as 'Truthfulness, Benevolence or Compassion, and Forbearance or Tolerance'. It is through focusing on these qualities that Falun Gong practitioners develop their xinxing (moral character) which then purportedly gives the potential to develop high levels of 功, gōng, (which Falun Gong practitioners use to mean "energy," in Mandarin Chinese gōng means "merit" or "achievement" and by extension it is part of compound terms describing a disciplined regimen). Practitioners of Falun Gong claim that gōng possesses healing propertiesFalun resides in the abdomen of all true practitioners of Falun Gong. Falun means "Wheel of Law" in the Chinese language, which can be translated as a Dharma wheel or a Chakra; to Falun Gong practitioners, the Falun is specifically a wheel consisting of five swastikas and four taijitu, as illustrated on the top right-hand corner of this page. The Falun is said to be the miniature of the universe, and once it is installed into the abdomen, it turns continuously. When the Falun turns clockwise, it absorbs energy from the universe into the body; when it turns counter-clockwise it eliminates waste from the body. Some of Falun Gong practitioners believe they can see this Falun rotating in their abdomens, provided their "celestial eye" (in the forehead) is not blocked.Li states that gods and demons exist, as well as that the earth has been invaded by extraterrestrials, and that the remains of unknown prehistoric civilizations can still be found.The persecution of Falun Gong practitioners has been regarded in the West as a major international human rights issue. In 2000, Ian Johnson of the Wall Street Journal investigated the reports of abuse, and published a series of investigative articles that won him the Pulitzer Prize the following year. According to the Falun Dafa Information Center (FDI), there are, as of 2005, 1,520 verified cases of death of Falun Gong practitioners in mainland China, from allegations of torture and police brutality. The report also states that hundreds of thousands of Falun Gong practitioners have been detained, with more than 100,000 sentenced to forced-labor camps. Moreover, there are more than 30,000 documented cases of persecution. The PRC government does not deny detaining Falun Gong practitioners, but insists that they died from hunger strikes and refusals to seek medical treatments.
9Source Credibility: The Search for Factors Competing Definitions:Attitude toward the sourceImage of the source
10Source Credibility: The Search for Factors Aristotle (343 B.C.E.)IntelligenceGood CharacterGood Will
11Source Credibility: The Search for Factors Aristotle (343 B.C.E.)IntelligenceGood CharacterGood Will
12Source Credibility: The Search for Factors Aristotle (343 B.C.E.)IntelligenceGood CharacterGood WillHovland (1953)SafetyCompetenceIntention Toward the Audience
13Source Credibility: The Search for Factors Berlo (1966)TrustworthinessCompetenceDynamism
14Source Credibility: The Search for Factors McCroskey (1966)CharacterAuthoritativeness
15Source Credibility: The Search for Factors McCroskey in the 1970sCharacterCompetenceSociabilityExtroversionComposure& the critics
16A Return ? McCroskey and Young (1981) reductio ad absurdum McCroskey & Teven (1999)the return of good will
17How to raise Credibility Character:be sinceretactfully explain any common ground with the audiencemake sure receivers understand that you do not have anything to gain personally by persuading themexplain ways that you have the receiver’s best intentions in mind
18How to raise Credibility Competence:tactfully explain to receivers one’s basis for claiming confidenceback up what you say with evidencebe organized (number responses if appropriate)
19How to raise Credibility Dynamism:make an attractive (but not alluring) appearanceuse good delivery (vocal variety and eye contact)show confidence in taking action
21Credibility in the Job Interview Any Questions?To show character:What can you tell me so that I would be able to get along effectively with the people with whom I will be working?Would I be allowed to assume additional authority once I successfully handle the responsibility with this position?Do you allow employees to become shareholders in the company?
22Credibility in the Job Interview Any Questions?To show competence:What kinds of opportunities for advancement would exist for an especially competent person in a position such as this one?Does your training program allow for individual study and enrichment?If I were to have an idea that seemed particularly useful, would I be able to introduce it for management’s consideration?
23Credibility in the Job Interview Any Questions?To show dynamism:Could you suggest some material I could read that would begin to prepare me for this position?What levels of management can I reasonable aspire toward within this form? How rapidly can I move toward these opportunities?What do you see as the greatest problem that must be solved by a person in this position before He or she can achieve great success?
24Credibility in the Job Interview Any Questions?To encourage them to make a commitment to you:If you knew that I were to be awarded this position, what one piece of advice would you give me to help assure that I made a good start with this company?Assuming I am offered this position, what argument would you use to persuade me to accept it?
36AGENDA Cognitive Dissonance Theory Social Judgment Involvement Theory CredibilityCognitive Consistency TheoriesCognitive Dissonance TheorySocial Judgment Involvement TheoryElaboration Likelihood ModelCialdini’s Strategies of Influence
37Social Judgment-Involvement Theory Elements:latitudes of acceptancerejection(non commitment)Prediction:the greater the latitude of rejection, the greater the degree of ego involvementA well-known Texas political figure once said that the only things you find in the middle of the road are yellow lines and dead armadillos, but nonetheless every society contains committed moderates, pragmatists, pluralists, and other like minded individuals who feel strongly and believe deeply, but also search for the middle way whenever possible.Ego-involvement: the degree of meaningfulness and relevance of a topic to an individual--it is reflected in our commitment to our own position and rejection of all others.If you are low in ego involvement, what happens? Any position is OK. Easily persuaded.If we are high in ego involvement, how can we persuade people?P. 201: “the only way to get large-scale change is through a series of small, successive movements. Persuasion is a gradual process.”
38Social Judgment Involvement Theory The House Immigration Reform BillGood___:____:____:____:____:____:____BadTo understand it, let’s take an example.Suppose someone did not particularly like the idea of having a woman as President (though why, I do not know).Could be measured by a semantic-differential type scale7 points and bi-polar adjective pairsDefine scale positions:
39Social Judgment Involvement Theory The House Immigration Reform BillGood___:____:____:____:__X_:____:____Bad
40Social Judgment Involvement Theory The House Immigration Reform BillGood___:____:____:__A_:__X_:_A__:____Bad
41Social Judgment Involvement Theory The House Immigration Reform BillGood_R_:_R__:_R_:__A_:__X_:_A__:_R__Bad
42Social Judgment Involvement Theory The House Immigration Reform BillGood_R_:_R__:_R_:__A_:__X_:_A__:_R__BadIf we can’t persuade, we start slowly by endorsing a poisition within the other person’s latitude of acceptance.Beyond that would produce a boomerang effect.
43Social Judgment Involvement Theory The House Immigration Reform BillGood_R_:_R__:_R_:__A_:__X_:_A__:_R__BadGood_R_:_R__:_A_:__A_:__X_:_A__:_R__Bad
44Social Judgment Involvement Theory The House Immigration Reform BillGood_R_:_R__:_R_:__A_:__X_:_A__:_R__BadGood_R_:_R__:_A_:__A_:__X_:_A__:_R__Bad
45Social Judgment Involvement Theory The House Immigration Reform BillGood_R_:_R__:_R_:__A_:__X_:_A__:_R__BadGood_R_:_R__:_X_:__A_:__A_:_A__:_R__BadP. 203: This would lead to persuasion, but what about the example of donation? Fund raiser wants 10,000 and when he hears 20,000 he expands it to 25, assumes that 20,000 is the Most acceptable position and 25must be in the latitude of acceptance. Could be wrong:WHAT OF THE ETHICS OF PERSUASION? (P. 227+)How would Buber think the fund raiser is behaving (A: I-It)How would Nilsen view it: not open --What of Griffins view of communicators as lovers? (p. 228)?Smother lovers--won’t take nolegalistic lovers -- image of others desirable behaviorsflirts - value any responseseducers -- get what they wantrapists -- forcetrue lovers --Do you know any of these people?
46Examples of Dissonance Positive Self TalkCasablanca"Casablanca," it seems me, exemplifies aspects of cognitive dissonance theory. Victor Laszlo, who is truly heroic at every stage in the movie, requires no justification to do the right thing because he is inherently noble.Characters: Rick -- non idealist nightclub owner with no esire except himself.Ilsa -- rick’s former lover in pre-war Paris --she left without a message to explain where she went.Shows up in Casablanca (not yet under German control) with her husband, Victor Laslo, a leader of the Czech resistance--they are all trying to get the letters of transit that have been stolen from from German couriers. Ilsa renews her love affair with Rick and he succumbs to her affect --she wants him to decide what must be done (run off with her to America, or give the letters to Laslo so that he may escape certain death).Private beleif: Rick and Ilsa are not inherently heroic. Because their natural tendency is to put their selfish love affair before the Resistance.Overt: Rick gives up his seat on the plane out of Casablanca to Victor--spurning the opportunity to flee with Ilsa--and joins the Resistance. Ilsa boards the plane with her husband instead of staying with Rick.Rick's final speech to Ilsa--in which he tells her to leave with her husband, not because it will make her feel good in the short term, but because it will give her long-term satisfaction--depends upon the idea that just behavior will cause just belief.Result: they become hero and heroine by behaving heroically.
47When Does Dissonance Work? No external rewardsEffort must be put into itConsequences must believed importantFree choice to perform overt behavior