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One Note Using One Note? Alan Ward. Molecular Microbiology Resources and Communication Lecture Web One Note You can read.

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Presentation on theme: "One Note Using One Note? Alan Ward. Molecular Microbiology Resources and Communication Lecture Web One Note You can read."— Presentation transcript:

1 One Note Using One Note? Alan Ward

2 Molecular Microbiology Resources and Communication Lecture Web One Note You can read the text explaining the slide

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7 {Request to do something}

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9 From the powerpoint Another way of looking at it Multiple pages Viewing page 2 They give another example of why you need Data driven discovery as well as hypothesis driven research {What is the example?}

10 Some thing to do Slide 1 Some commentary

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12 Evolution What is the structure of life? Alan Ward

13 Evolution Depth first or breadth first Two different strategies for computer search algorithms Which is best? That heavily depends on the structure of the search tree and the number and location of solutions. If you know a solution is not far from the root of the tree, a breadth first search (BFS) might be better. If the tree is very deep and solutions are rare, depth first search (DFS) might rootle around forever, but BFS could be faster. If the tree is very wide, a BFS might need too much memory, so it might be completely impractical. If solutions are frequent but located deep in the tree, BFS could be impractical. If the search tree is very deep you will need to restrict the search depth for depth first search (DFS), anyway.

14 Evolution So what is the structure of living things that we are exploring? The structure of life is dictated by evolution: “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” (Dobzhansky)

15 How did life arise? How did it evolve? How is it evolving now? Why did it evolve? Evolution

16 Why did it evolve? 1 st Law of thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed but reactions, in which energy changes, still occur Evolution ΔG = ΔH - TΔS 2nd Law of thermodynamics Systems change from ordered to disordered but living things are highly ordered

17 Evolution Why did life evolve? 1 st Law of thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed but reactions, in which energy changes, still occur Processes proceed from High energy to Low energy But the 1 st Law of Thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed Direction of chemical change often corresponds to -ΔE but not always (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4

18 ΔG = ΔG o + RT log e [A][B] [C][D] _____ A + B C + D Glyceraldehyde-3-P = dihydroxyacetone-P ΔG o = +1.8 kcal [G3P] = 3 x M [diOHAcP] = 2 x M ΔG = x10 -3 x298xlog e (3x10 -6 /2x10 -4 ) = kcal/mol Why did life evolve? ΔG = ΔH - TΔS 2nd Law of thermodynamics Systems change from ordered to disordered

19 Early Earth Hot (>100 o C) Meteorite bombardment Volcanic Gases – H 2 O CH 4 CO 2 N 2 H 2 S/FeS HCN CO H2H2 virtually no O 2 Energy sources UV light Pre-biotic synthesis of bio-molecules Primitive atmosphere + energy (heat, UV, electric discharge) Amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, sugars.. Polypeptides, polynucleotides

20 Energy and life Spontaneous direction of change Times ’ arrow H2OH2O CO 2 High energyLow energy Organic inorganic Ordered Disordered It doesn’t go backwards Simple Complex More ordered Kept warm but no net energy in

21 Vitalism Living organisms possess a vital force that enables them to defy the laws of physics and chemistry. In 1809 Berzelius stated the theory as that organic compounds could not be synthesized in a laboratory. In 1828 Wöhler, whose mentor was Berzelius, synthesized urea, previously only obtained from biological sources, from inorganic reactants disproving the theory. The second law may be expressed in many specific ways, but the first formulation is credited to the French scientist Carnot in The first explicit statement of the first and second laws of thermodynamics was probably by Clausius in Evolution

22 CO 2 + H2OH2O Simple mixture of proteins ΔS egg = moderate ΔS chick = low ΔS energy = high Net ΔE = 0Net ΔS = positiveΔG = -ve Living organisms are highly complex and ordered = low entropy but create disorder = high entropy

23 Evolution CO 2 + H2OH2O Simple mixture of proteins ΔS egg = moderate ΔS chick = low ΔS energy = high Net ΔE = 0Net ΔS = positiveΔG = -ve Living organisms are highly complex and ordered = low entropy but create disorder = high entropy

24 more disorder – higher ΔS = low E high S = higher E lower S Evolution

25 ΔG is negative but it doesn ’ t say how fast! Evolution

26 Evolution Evolution of the Universe  Entropy increases Life catalyses the rate of increase in entropy in the Universe!


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