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Lipids (fats) Carbohydrates (sugar) Protein

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ENERGY 1 st Law of Thermodynamics –Energy can’t be created or destroyed, it can only change forms. chemical → mechanical heat → mechanical electrical → mechanical

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Photosynthesis 6 CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy→ C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

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Metabolism Metabolism = The sum of all reactions occurring in an organism –Catabolism – reactions involved in the breakdown of biomolecules; release heat/energy –Anabolism – reactions involved in the synthesis of biomolecules; absorb heat/energy.

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ANABOLIC CATABOLIC

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Metabolism –Metabolism is the sum of catabolism and anabolism.

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Free Energy (G) A + B → C A + B C Free Energy (G) 5 10 If A + B has more free energy than C, then the change in free energy ( G) is negative. Product (C) – Reactants (A + B) 5-10 = -5 If energy is given off in a reaction; G is negative; favorable; catabolic

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A + B → C C A + B Free Energy (G) 5 10 If A + B has less free energy than C, then the change in free energy ( G) is positive. Product (C) – Reactants (A + B) 10-5 = +5 If energy is absorbed in a reaction; G is positive; unfavorable; anabolic

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6 CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy→ C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS G = +686 kcal energy Free Energy (G) 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 686

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CATABOLISM OF FOOD

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ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate

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(G)Products – (G)Reactants = G [ADP + P] - ATP G = -7.3 kcal Free Energy (G) ATP ADP + P 7.3 kcal ATP → ADP + P

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ATP → ADP + P + energy 7.3 kcal ADP + P + energy → ATP Energy is given off; G is negative Energy is absorbed; G is positive

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MITOCHONDRIA

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Metabolism = The sum of all reactions occurring in an organism Goal is to couple reactions that give off energy with those that absorb energy A + B → AB AB is higher energy than A and B alone G is positive; requires input of energy; unfavorable ADP and P are lower energy than ATP G is negative; releases energy; favorable ATP → ADP + P

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Coupled Reactions ATP → ADP + P A + B → AB G = +4.3 kcal G = -7.3 kcal A + B + ATP →AB + ADP + P Overall G for coupled reaction = -3.0 kcal Coupled reaction would be FAVORABLE G =-3.0

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