Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

“The Gilded Age” Chapters 10-11. I. Immigration A. European Immigration: By 1900: eastern and southern Europeans made up more than 1\2 of all immigrants.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "“The Gilded Age” Chapters 10-11. I. Immigration A. European Immigration: By 1900: eastern and southern Europeans made up more than 1\2 of all immigrants."— Presentation transcript:

1 “The Gilded Age” Chapters 10-11

2 I. Immigration A. European Immigration: By 1900: eastern and southern Europeans made up more than 1\2 of all immigrants (Italians, Greeks, Poles, Slavs, Slovaks, Russians, Armenians) By 1900: eastern and southern Europeans made up more than 1\2 of all immigrants (Italians, Greeks, Poles, Slavs, Slovaks, Russians, Armenians) : 14 million immigrated to the U.S. – many were European Jews : 14 million immigrated to the U.S. – many were European Jews

3

4 I. Immigration Why did Europeans come? (“Push” or “Pull”) Why did Europeans come? (“Push” or “Pull”) 1) jobs 2) few immigration restrictions 3) avoidance of military service 4) religious freedom 5) chance to move up the social ladder 6) dreams of getting rich (gold) 7) free land (Homestead Act)

5 I. Immigration Most immigrants took the difficult trip to America in steerage, the ships cargo holds (cheapest) Most immigrants took the difficult trip to America in steerage, the ships cargo holds (cheapest) -crowded, lice-infected bunks, shared toilets (disease spread quickly)

6 I. Immigration “Narrow, steep, and slippery stairways lead to it. Crowds everywhere, ill smelling bunks, uninviting washrooms – this is steerage. The odors of scattered orange peelings, tobacco, garlic and disinfectants meeting but not blending. No lounge or chairs for comfort, and a continual babble of tongues – this is steerage. The food, which is miserable, is dealt out huge kettles into the dinner pails provided by the steamship company. When it is distributed, the stronger push and crowd…” Edward Steiner

7 I. Immigration The 14 day trip usually ended at Ellis Island, a small island in the NY Harbor The 14 day trip usually ended at Ellis Island, a small island in the NY Harbor -served as a processing center for most immigrants arriving on the East Coast -most passed through in a day -some with contagious diseases were quarantined (a time of isolation) -a few were sent back to Europe

8

9

10 I. Immigration Most immigrants settled in cities Most immigrants settled in cities -lived in neighborhoods separated into ethnic groups (ex: “Little Italy” or the Jewish “Lower East Side” in NY) -attempted to re-created their “culture” (churches, newspapers, clubs, etc.) in their neighborhoods

11

12 I. Immigration Immigrants who learned English and adapted to American culture adjusted well Immigrants who learned English and adapted to American culture adjusted well 33% returned to Europe shortly after coming to the U.S. 33% returned to Europe shortly after coming to the U.S.

13 I. Immigration B. Asian Immigration: Why did Asians (Chinese, Japanese) come? (“Push” or “Pull”) Why did Asians (Chinese, Japanese) come? (“Push” or “Pull”) 1) CA gold rush 2) Taiping Rebellion in China – 20 million dead 3) Demand for railroad workers

14 I. Immigration Chinese mainly settled in western cities Chinese mainly settled in western cities -worked as laborers or servants or merchants Jan. 1910: Angel Island in CA opened to accommodate Asian immigrants Jan. 1910: Angel Island in CA opened to accommodate Asian immigrants -most were young males (teens, twenties) -delays could last for months

15 I. Immigration C. Resurgence of Nativism: Nativism - preference for native-born people and a desire to limit immigration Nativism - preference for native-born people and a desire to limit immigration Late 1800s: focused on Jews, Asians, and eastern Europeans Late 1800s: focused on Jews, Asians, and eastern Europeans 1882: banned convicts, paupers, and mentally disabled from immigrating to the U.S. 1882: banned convicts, paupers, and mentally disabled from immigrating to the U.S.

16 I. Immigration Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): -barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens -renewed in permanent in not repealed until 1943

17 II. Urbanization A. Americans Migrate to the Cities: Urban pop.: 2,500 or more people Urban pop.: 2,500 or more people -1870: 10 million -1900: 30 million Most immigrants lacked the money to buy farms and the education to obtain higher- paying jobs (remained in cities) Most immigrants lacked the money to buy farms and the education to obtain higher- paying jobs (remained in cities)

18 II. Urbanization Lack of a class system in the U.S. gave immigrants freedom many have never known before Lack of a class system in the U.S. gave immigrants freedom many have never known before Rural Americans also began moving to the cities - more and better-paying jobs Rural Americans also began moving to the cities - more and better-paying jobs Other attractions: bright lights, running water, plumbing, museums, libraries, theaters Other attractions: bright lights, running water, plumbing, museums, libraries, theaters

19 II. Urbanization B. New Urban Environment: Millions moved to the cities - new approaches to housing and transportation were needed Millions moved to the cities - new approaches to housing and transportation were needed As city pop. grew, demand raised the price of land – owners began to grow upward rather than outward As city pop. grew, demand raised the price of land – owners began to grow upward rather than outward skyscrapers began to appear skyscrapers began to appear

20

21 II. Urbanization -Chicago’s ten-story Home Insurance Building, built in 1885, was the first skyscraper -NYC had more skyscrapers than any city in the world Various kinds of mass transit developed in the late 1800s to move huge numbers of people around cities quickly Various kinds of mass transit developed in the late 1800s to move huge numbers of people around cities quickly

22 II. Urbanization -horse car: railroad car pulled by horses -cable car: pulled along tracks by underground cables -electric trolley car -elevated railroad: Chicago -subway: Boston and NY

23

24 II. Urbanization C. Separation By Class: Definite boundaries could be seen between where the wealthy, middle class, and working class people lived Definite boundaries could be seen between where the wealthy, middle class, and working class people lived -wealthy lived in the heart of the city -middle class (doctors, lawyers, teachers) lived away from the city -working class lived in tenements – dark, crowded multi-family apartments

25

26

27 II. Urbanization D. Urban Problems: The growth of cities resulted in an increase of crime, fire, disease, and pollution The growth of cities resulted in an increase of crime, fire, disease, and pollution Native-born Americans blamed immigrants for the increase in crime Native-born Americans blamed immigrants for the increase in crime Alcohol contributed to crime in late 1800s Alcohol contributed to crime in late 1800s Contaminated drinking water and sewage resulted in epidemics of typhoid fever and cholera Contaminated drinking water and sewage resulted in epidemics of typhoid fever and cholera

28

29

30

31 II. Urbanization E. Urban Politics: A new political system was needed to cope with the new urban problems A new political system was needed to cope with the new urban problems -political machine - an informal political group designed to gain and keep power -provided essentials to city dwellers in exchange for votes -ran by party bosses

32 II. Urbanization The bosses had tight control of the city’s money The bosses had tight control of the city’s money -many became wealthy due to fraud or graft – getting money through dishonest or questionable means Tammany Hall – the most famous political machine – led by Boss William M. Tweed Tammany Hall – the most famous political machine – led by Boss William M. Tweed Opponents blasted political machines for their corruption – ex: cartoonist Thomas Nast Opponents blasted political machines for their corruption – ex: cartoonist Thomas Nast

33

34 III. Ideas for Reform “Gilded Age” – post-reconstruction era ( ) – “gilded” means gold covered – a few people were very rich but most were very poor “Gilded Age” – post-reconstruction era ( ) – “gilded” means gold covered – a few people were very rich but most were very poor Many Americans linked all the problems of the cities to immigrants Many Americans linked all the problems of the cities to immigrants Temperance Movement - movement to ban the use of alcohol Temperance Movement - movement to ban the use of alcohol -members supported prohibition (a ban on the manufacturing and selling of alcohol)

35 III. Ideas for Reform Purity Crusaders – people who wanted to get rid of the drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other forms of vice (immoral behavior) – often attacked political machines Purity Crusaders – people who wanted to get rid of the drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other forms of vice (immoral behavior) – often attacked political machines

36 III. Ideas for Reform Social Gospel Movement- developed within religious organizations Social Gospel Movement- developed within religious organizations -sought to apply the teachings of Jesus to society -focused on charity, justice, and labor reforms -some created settlement houses (community center that offered social services) ex: Hull House – started by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr in 1889

37

38 IV. Expansion of Education 1870: 2% of all 17 year olds graduated high school 1870: 2% of all 17 year olds graduated high school Parents began to pressure local gov’ts to increase school funding and lengthen the school year Parents began to pressure local gov’ts to increase school funding and lengthen the school year By 1900, many immigrants came to the U.S. so their children could get an Am. public school education By 1900, many immigrants came to the U.S. so their children could get an Am. public school education

39

40 IV. Expansion of Education Schools taught literacy (reading and writing) skills Schools taught literacy (reading and writing) skills Schools also tried to assimilate immigrants – assimilation (process which people of one culture become part of another culture) – schools were trying to “Americanize” immigrants Schools also tried to assimilate immigrants – assimilation (process which people of one culture become part of another culture) – schools were trying to “Americanize” immigrants Schools were segregated and African-Am. schools received less money than white schools Schools were segregated and African-Am. schools received less money than white schools

41 IV. Expansion of Education : 250 new Am. colleges opened and college enrollment doubled : 250 new Am. colleges opened and college enrollment doubled Separate colleges for women were created by men’s colleges Separate colleges for women were created by men’s colleges Some colleges accepted African-Am.’s but most did not Some colleges accepted African-Am.’s but most did not

42 IV. Expansion of Education Booker T. Washington – formed the Tuskegee Institute (AL) in 1881 – focused on vocational skills Booker T. Washington – formed the Tuskegee Institute (AL) in 1881 – focused on vocational skills W.E.B. Dubois – the first African-Am. to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard – wanted African-Am.’s to focus on liberal arts education – co-founder of the NAACP W.E.B. Dubois – the first African-Am. to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard – wanted African-Am.’s to focus on liberal arts education – co-founder of the NAACP

43

44 V. Popular Culture Saloons were the most popular place where working men gathered – NYC had 10,000 saloons in 1900 Saloons were the most popular place where working men gathered – NYC had 10,000 saloons in 1900 Women went to music halls and theaters Women went to music halls and theaters Trolley Parks – amusement park at the ends of trolley lines – popular family spot Trolley Parks – amusement park at the ends of trolley lines – popular family spot

45 V. Popular Culture Moving picture shows began – nickelodeons (theaters set up in converted stores or warehouses) Moving picture shows began – nickelodeons (theaters set up in converted stores or warehouses) Vaudeville – live theater shows consisting of racial humor, jugglers, song and dance, etc. Vaudeville – live theater shows consisting of racial humor, jugglers, song and dance, etc.

46

47 V. Popular Culture Sports became popular – boxing, horse racing – women ice-skated, bicycled, swam, gymnastics Sports became popular – boxing, horse racing – women ice-skated, bicycled, swam, gymnastics -Football began when Walter Camp adapted the game of rugby in the 1880s -Basketball was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith in Springfield, MA – wanted a sport to keep athletes in shape during the winter

48

49 V. Popular Culture -Baseball was the most popular sport – Cincinnati Red Stockings (1869) became the first professional team – all races were allowed to play together for a short time

50

51 V. Popular Culture Newspapers introduced new features – comics, graphic pictures, sports sections Newspapers introduced new features – comics, graphic pictures, sports sections -publishers competed with each other to sell papers -“yellow journalism” (reported on murders, vice, and scandals) – ex: Joseph Pulitzer (NY World), William Randolph Hearst (NY Journal)

52 V. Popular Culture Magazines and fiction novels became popular – ex: Mark Twain’s “The Adv. of Tom Sawyer” and “The Adv. of Huckleberry Finn” Magazines and fiction novels became popular – ex: Mark Twain’s “The Adv. of Tom Sawyer” and “The Adv. of Huckleberry Finn”

53 VI. Discrimination Following the Civil War, the U.S. went through a period known as Reconstruction Following the Civil War, the U.S. went through a period known as Reconstruction -the federal gov’ts effort to restore the Conf. states to the Union and repair the damage to the South ( ) The new, white-run governments enacted black codes, or laws that restricted freedmen’s rights – the black codes established virtual (near) slavery with provisions such as these: The new, white-run governments enacted black codes, or laws that restricted freedmen’s rights – the black codes established virtual (near) slavery with provisions such as these:

54 VI. Discrimination -curfews – generally, African-Americans could not gather after sunset -vagrancy laws – freedmen convicted of vagrancy (not working) could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor -labor contracts – freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work (those that quit in the middle of the year lost all the wages they had earned)

55 VI. Discrimination -limits on women’s rights – mothers who wanted to stay home and care for their families were forced instead to do farm labor -land restrictions – freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas – forced them to live on plantations

56 VI. Discrimination in early 1866 Congress passed a Civil Rights Act that outlawed the black codes – Pres. Johnson vetoed it – Congress overrode the veto in early 1866 Congress passed a Civil Rights Act that outlawed the black codes – Pres. Johnson vetoed it – Congress overrode the veto 14th Amendment – guaranteed all citizens equal protection of the laws – ultimately granted African Americans citizenship rights 14th Amendment – guaranteed all citizens equal protection of the laws – ultimately granted African Americans citizenship rights

57 VI. Discrimination 15 th Amendment – guaranteed African American males the right to vote (suffrage) 15 th Amendment – guaranteed African American males the right to vote (suffrage) Ku Klux Klan (KKK) – started in 1866 as a social club in Pulaski, TN - quickly evolved into a terrorist organization – membership consisted largely of ex-Confederate officers and plantation owners - most professions were eventually represented in the Klan Ku Klux Klan (KKK) – started in 1866 as a social club in Pulaski, TN - quickly evolved into a terrorist organization – membership consisted largely of ex-Confederate officers and plantation owners - most professions were eventually represented in the Klan

58 VI. Discrimination “Post-Reconstruction” discrimination existed in the North and the South “Post-Reconstruction” discrimination existed in the North and the South Poll tax – pay to vote Poll tax – pay to vote Segregation existed legally in schools, parks, hospitals, transportation, etc. Segregation existed legally in schools, parks, hospitals, transportation, etc.

59

60 VI. Discrimination Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – Supreme Court said segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal – “separate but equal” – very hard to enforce Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – Supreme Court said segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal – “separate but equal” – very hard to enforce Lynching – mob’s illegal seizure and execution of a person – from 1882 to 1892 est African-Am.’s were lynched Lynching – mob’s illegal seizure and execution of a person – from 1882 to 1892 est African-Am.’s were lynched

61

62 VII. Women in the late 1800s Continued to work at home – however, new technology reduced the amt. of time women spent on chores Continued to work at home – however, new technology reduced the amt. of time women spent on chores Department stores – emerged to carry a wide variety of goods – lower prices – ex: Macy’s in NYC Department stores – emerged to carry a wide variety of goods – lower prices – ex: Macy’s in NYC

63 VII. Women in the late 1800s Mail-order catalogs – allowed rural families to buy products – ex: Sears, Montgomery Ward Mail-order catalogs – allowed rural families to buy products – ex: Sears, Montgomery Ward Women that did work earned about % less than men for the same job Women that did work earned about % less than men for the same job


Download ppt "“The Gilded Age” Chapters 10-11. I. Immigration A. European Immigration: By 1900: eastern and southern Europeans made up more than 1\2 of all immigrants."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google