3History of Taxation During the reign of Egyptian Pharaohs In Greece Scribes as tax collectorsIn GreeceA tax referred to as Eisphora was imposed only in times of warIn AthensA monthly tax called Metoikon was collected to foreignersAncient Greek TaxationTaxation was used as an emergency power. Additional resources gained from war were used to refund tax previously collected from the people
4Earliest taxes in Rome In England Taxes known as Portoria were customs duties on imports and exportsAugustus Caesar introduced the inheritance tax to provide retirement funds for the military. The tax was five percent on all inheritances except gifts to children and spousesIn EnglandTaxes were first used as an emergency measureTaxes on income or capital were a recent development as a result of increasing government intervention in the economy
5In Modern Industrial Nations The government designates a tax base (such as income, property holdings, or a given commodity)A Tax Law is a body of rules passed by the legislature by which the government acquires a claim on tax payers to convey, transfer and pay to the public authority
6TaxationThe system of compulsory contributions levied by a government or other qualified body on people, corporations and property in order to fund public expenditures.An inherent power of the state to raise income and to demand enforced contributions for public purposes.
8The Purposes of Taxation To raise revenues for public needs so that persons can live in a civilized societyThe government increase taxes in order to stabilize prices and stimulate greater production.An instrument of fiscal policy influences the direction and structure of money supply, investments, credits, production, interest rate, inflation, prices and in general, of the national economy
9Characteristics of a sound Tax system FairnessClarity and CertaintyConvenienceEfficiency
10Effects of TaxationPersonal Income Tax which is presumed to fall entirely on the legal taxpayers influences decisions to work, save, and invest. These decisions affect other people.Corporate Income Tax may simply result to lower corporate profits and dividends. It may reduce their income of all owners of property and businesses. The company may move toward raising the prices of their products
12Taxation in IndonesiaIndonesian taxation is based on Article 23A of UUD 1945 (1945 Indonesian Constitution), where tax is an enforceable contribution exposed on all Indonesian citizens, foreign nationals and residents who have resided for 120 cumulative days within a twelve-month period.Indonesia has a stratification of taxation including Income Tax, Local Tax (Pajak Daerah) and Central Government Tax.
13Indonesia Taxation Law The relevant eight fundamental taxation laws of Indonesia include:General Provisions and Taxation Procedures Law "Undang-undang Ketentuan Umum dan Tatacara Perpajakan/UUKUTp" Law No. 6/1983, amended by Law no.16/2000;Income Tax Law ("Undang-undang Pajak Penghasilan/UU PPh": Law No.7/1983, amended by Law No. 17/2000;ameded by law No 36/2008Value Added Tax VAT termed 'Goods and Services and Sales Tax on Luxury Goods' ("Undang-undang Pajak Pertambahan Nilai atas Barang dan Jasa dan Pajak Penjualan atas Barang Mewah"/UU PPN/PPn BM ): Law No. 8/1983, amended by Law No. 18/2000;
14Indonesia Taxation Law Land Tax and Building Tax ("Undang-undang Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan - UU PBB"): Law No. 12/1985 amended by Law No. 12/1994;Warrant for Tax Collection ("Undang-undang Penagihan Pajak dengan Surat Paksa/UU PPSP") Law No. 19/1997, amended by Law No. 19/2000;Fees for Acquisition of Rights to Lands and Buildings ("Undang-undang Bea Perolehan Hak atas Tanah dan Bangunan/UU BPHTB") Law No. 21/1997 amended by Law No. 20/2000;Tax Court Law ("Undang-undang Pengadilan Pajak/UU PP"): Law No. 14/2002;Stamp Duty ("Undang-undang Bea Meterai/UU BM") in short, Law Number 13 of 1985.
15Taxation RateIndonesia has a series of progressive sliding rate taxes for all categories. Furthermore, as a developing nation, much economic activity is done at the 'cottage' level where sales and services taxation are tax exempt.Indonesia's taxations system recognises the economic reality of the majority poorer citizens and the poor are exempt from almost any taxation.The underlying ethic of "gotong-royong"- "neighbourly [sic moral] help" is applied where the more fortunate wealthier are enforced to meet their moral obligation of a heavier burden of tax- regardless of arbitrary arguments to its fairness.
16Kind of Taxes Income Tax ncome taxation is subject to Regional (Propinsi) government regulations defined by the economic realities of that particular area. As mentioned above, the poorer denizens are exempt from almost all taxation.Corporation TaxCompanies in Indonesia are taxed at a rate of 25%, for both domestic and international sourced income. Resident Indonesian companies are required to withhold tax at a rate of 20% from payments to foreign companies.Goods and Services TaxationA Goods and Services Tax (GST) is levied at the rate of approx 10% at point of sale, by major vendors. Sales and services tax are exempt from cottage economies and industries.
17Kind of Taxes Land and Constructions Tax Land Tax and Tax for the buildings constructed there upon must paid annually, or may be paid via arrangement in ten-year blocks by Indonesian land title deed-holders, pursuant to relevant criteria for exclusions. In general terms, this tax is applicable mainly to those of the middle classes and upwards. Land holding businesses must also pay this tax.Land and Constructions thereupon are calculated at a value calculated by the Regional government- which is less than real market worthVehiclesPassenger Vehicle Tax is required to be paid by all owners, the rationale being those fortunate enough to afford a motor vehicle can afford to subsidise their poorer brethren who rely on far less luxurious public transportation. Again, Regional Government legislates the specific definitions regarding this tax.
18Year end tax settlement for employees Application forms and english certificatesTax guideTax officialTax payersTax payer registered number
19Individual Income Tax Return:............ Tax Payment:A number of money that must be paid by taxpayersTax Law:The government’s regulation about taxTax Office:A place where all the tax can be handledNational Tax Service:Individual Income Tax Return:
20Year end tax settlement for employees Application forms and english certificatesTax guideTax officialTax payersTax payer registered number
21ASSIGNMENTExplain one topic of Indonesia Taxation,then prepare a short presentation of it (in a group)!