Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Utah School of Computing The “Human” Side of HCI: Human Factors Psychology and Assistive Technology Margaret Jelinek Lewis, PhD.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Utah School of Computing The “Human” Side of HCI: Human Factors Psychology and Assistive Technology Margaret Jelinek Lewis, PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Utah School of Computing The “Human” Side of HCI: Human Factors Psychology and Assistive Technology Margaret Jelinek Lewis, PhD

2 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 2 Fall 2003 Presentation Overview Three Parts 1.Overview of Human Factors Psychology 2.Primer in Cognitive Psychology 3.Introduction to Computer Access and Assistive Technology Three Parts 1.Overview of Human Factors Psychology 2.Primer in Cognitive Psychology 3.Introduction to Computer Access and Assistive Technology

3 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 3 Fall 2003 What is Human Factors? The application of psychological principles to the design of human- machine systems. Human factors professionals develop models of human performance that can aid designers of human-machine systems. The application of psychological principles to the design of human- machine systems. Human factors professionals develop models of human performance that can aid designers of human-machine systems.

4 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 4 Fall 2003 What is Human Factors? 2 Meister (1989): “The study of how humans accomplish work-related tasks in the context of human-machine system operation, and how behavioral and non-behavioral variables affect that accomplishment”

5 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 5 Fall 2003 What is Human Factors? 3 Meister (1989): -“behavioral” refers to psychological constraints - how do humans process information? -“non-behavioral” refers to physical constraints - can a human physically work a control? Meister (1989): -“behavioral” refers to psychological constraints - how do humans process information? -“non-behavioral” refers to physical constraints - can a human physically work a control?

6 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 6 Fall 2003 What is Human Factors? 4 Emphasis in Human Factors is on design - how should a system be designed to accommodate a human operator?

7 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 7 Fall 2003 Contributing Fields: Human Factors ( Ergonomics ) Physiology & Medicine Experimental Psychology Engineering Psychology Engineering

8 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 8 Fall 2003 How does Human Factors differ from Experimental Psychology? Experimental Psychology is the scientific study of mind, brain, and behavior -Why do humans think and behave the way they do? Experimental Psychology is the scientific study of mind, brain, and behavior -Why do humans think and behave the way they do? 1

9 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 9 Fall 2003 Human factors is the study of human behavior in the context of technological systems -How should we design a system to accommodate the way humans think and behave? Human factors is the study of human behavior in the context of technological systems -How should we design a system to accommodate the way humans think and behave? How does Human Factors differ from Experimental Psychology? 2

10 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 10 Fall 2003 History of Human Factors 1 WWI -Personnel Selection: psychometricians WWII and the genesis of Human Factors (or Engineering) Psychology -Personnel Selection continued to be emphasized “fit the man to the job” -Human Performance: experimental psychologists “fit the job to the man” WWI -Personnel Selection: psychometricians WWII and the genesis of Human Factors (or Engineering) Psychology -Personnel Selection continued to be emphasized “fit the man to the job” -Human Performance: experimental psychologists “fit the job to the man”

11 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 11 Fall 2003 History of Human Factors 2 Post WWII: Formal Human Factors research laboratories established -1945: Air Force establishes the Aero Medical Research Laboratory - “engineering psychology” -1945: Navy establishes psychological research units Post WWII: Formal Human Factors research laboratories established -1945: Air Force establishes the Aero Medical Research Laboratory - “engineering psychology” -1945: Navy establishes psychological research units

12 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 12 Fall 2003 History of Human Factors 3 Post WWII: Formal Human Factors research laboratories established -1951: US army establishes the Human Engineering Laboratory -Many military and civilian scientists return to universities and continue human factors research Post WWII: Formal Human Factors research laboratories established -1951: US army establishes the Human Engineering Laboratory -Many military and civilian scientists return to universities and continue human factors research

13 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 13 Fall 2003 History of Human Factors 4 Applications emphasized in 1950s –’70s -Military Systems -Civilian aviation and manned spacecraft -Transportation systems -Process control and nuclear power -Safety Applications emphasized in 1950s –’70s -Military Systems -Civilian aviation and manned spacecraft -Transportation systems -Process control and nuclear power -Safety

14 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 14 Fall 2003 History of Human Factors 5 Other app’s emphasized since the mid-’70s -Human-computer interaction (HCI) -Virtual Environments -Medical Systems Other app’s emphasized since the mid-’70s -Human-computer interaction (HCI) -Virtual Environments -Medical Systems

15 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 15 Fall 2003 Why is Human Factors Important to Computer Science? Human Factors psychology examines the capabilities of humans and how these constraints and abilities affect design. 1

16 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 16 Fall 2003 Therefore, it is concerned with cognitive issues and research concerning human interpretation of stimuli and our abilities to deal with certain situations. The goal is to design systems with these capabilities and limitations in mind. Therefore, it is concerned with cognitive issues and research concerning human interpretation of stimuli and our abilities to deal with certain situations. The goal is to design systems with these capabilities and limitations in mind. Why is Human Factors Important to CS? 2

17 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 17 Fall Human Factors Applies Principles of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive issues that must be considered: -Memory (span, retrieval, storage capacity) -Visual and auditory capabilities/interpretations -Attention capacity (selective, focused, divided) Cognitive issues that must be considered: -Memory (span, retrieval, storage capacity) -Visual and auditory capabilities/interpretations -Attention capacity (selective, focused, divided)

18 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 18 Fall Human Factors Applies Principles of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive issues that must be considered: -Judgment of tones, size, loudness, brightness -Interpretation of coding (traffic lights) Cognitive issues that must be considered: -Judgment of tones, size, loudness, brightness -Interpretation of coding (traffic lights)

19 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 19 Fall Human Factors Applies Principles of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive issues that must be considered: -Response time to stimuli -Problem solving abilities -Decision making -Language comprehension -Disabilities -Cognitive load Cognitive issues that must be considered: -Response time to stimuli -Problem solving abilities -Decision making -Language comprehension -Disabilities -Cognitive load

20 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 20 Fall 2003 Applied Cognitive Psychology: Design Issues Screen/font color Menus Form fill-ins Special needs of users Screen/font color Menus Form fill-ins Special needs of users

21 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 21 Fall 2003 Assistive Technology A.T. is any device or piece of equipment that helps us as we go about our daily lives. In some cases, computers can provide (or be) assistive technology, in other cases, users need assistive technology for their computers to increase usability. A.T. is any device or piece of equipment that helps us as we go about our daily lives. In some cases, computers can provide (or be) assistive technology, in other cases, users need assistive technology for their computers to increase usability.

22 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 22 Fall 2003 Computer Access and Assistive Technology Goal is to fit the machine to the person (not vice versa!) Particularly relevant for people with disabilities – computers must be adapted for the use and needs of specific individuals Goal is to fit the machine to the person (not vice versa!) Particularly relevant for people with disabilities – computers must be adapted for the use and needs of specific individuals

23 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 23 Fall 2003 Human Considerations in Software Design Consider 5 different users: 1. A University of Utah student trying to do research for an HCI paper on the Web. 2. An adult on April 13 using tax preparation software (such as Turbo Tax) at home. Consider 5 different users: 1. A University of Utah student trying to do research for an HCI paper on the Web. 2. An adult on April 13 using tax preparation software (such as Turbo Tax) at home.

24 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 24 Fall 2003 Human Considerations in Software Design 2 Consider 5 different users: 3. A young woman with Cerebral Palsy who is typing a paper for a class. 4. A child playing a computer-video game. 5. An octogenarian grandparent sending to faraway grandchildren. Consider 5 different users: 3. A young woman with Cerebral Palsy who is typing a paper for a class. 4. A child playing a computer-video game. 5. An octogenarian grandparent sending to faraway grandchildren.

25 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 25 Fall 2003 Rassmussen Classification of Human Error * Performance Level Error Type Skilled based (SB) Slips/Lapses Rule based (RB) RB Mistakes Knowledge based (KB) KB Mistakes ___________________________ * James Reason, Human Error, Cambridge U Press, (1990) p96

26 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 26 Fall 2003 Rassmussen Classification of Human Error * Dimension SB Errors RB Errors KB Errors Type of Activity Routine Problem solving activities Focus of Attention On something other than task To problem related issues Control Mode Automatic processors (schemata) Automatic processors (stored rule) Limited conscious processes

27 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 27 Fall 2003 Rassmussen Classification of Human Error * Dimension SB Errors RB Errors KB Errors Predictability Predictable (actions) Predictable (rules) Variable Ratio Error: Opportunities Many errors; small percentage Many errors; small % Few;opportunity ratio high Situational Factors Effect Low to moderate Extrinsic factors dominate

28 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 28 Fall 2003 Rassmussen Classification of Human Error * Dimension SB Errors RB Errors KB Errors Ease of Detection Rapid and effective Largely Predictable (rules) Variable Relationship to Change Knowledge of change not invoked When and how change is unknown Changes not prepared for or anticipated

29 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 29 Fall 2003 For More Information 1 Check out the WEB Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI): Bobby: Check out the WEB Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI): Bobby:

30 Student Name Server Utah School of Computing slide 30 Fall 2003 For More Information 2 Check out the WEB Accessibility: (Web Accessibility Initiative)www.w3.org/WAI Kids & Computers: Microsoft Accessibility: Check out the WEB Accessibility: (Web Accessibility Initiative)www.w3.org/WAI Kids & Computers: Microsoft Accessibility:

31 Utah School of Computing End Human Factors…


Download ppt "Utah School of Computing The “Human” Side of HCI: Human Factors Psychology and Assistive Technology Margaret Jelinek Lewis, PhD."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google