2 Meeting Notes from 28/04/2006Provide 2 examples of structure of workshopsOne to add on to employabilityOne stand alone…then we thought…One to engage with agenda – hearts and mindsOne to contain interactive activities with discussions – consider inviting students?Provide examples and case studies containing theoretical and interactive material
3 Ice Breaker.. Name What you *do* One thing that no one else here knows about you
4 Objectives of the workshop: NOT to *teach you entrepreneurship*!To provide resources for staffTo provide resources for staff to use with studentsTo provide ideas about how to engage in the enterprise/entrepreneurship agenda within the HEI and with studentsEnterprise and entrepreneurship can provide interesting and exciting curriculum development and assessment opportunities -
5 Entrepreneurship and enterprise are important components in all university curricula Strongly Neutral StronglyAgree DisagreeLine and split into a few groupings – get each group to discuss and settle on a very short statement that summarises their collective position on the matter and for them to nominate a spokesperson to explain why. Open for comments.
6 There is already a lot of enterprise and entrepreneurial activities within modules on our GEES awardsStrongly Neutral StronglyAgree DisagreeRe-line and split into groupings – again, get each group to discuss and settle on a very short statement that summarises their collective position on the matter and for them to nominate a spokesperson to explain how/why. Plenary discussion.
7 Enterprise and Entrepreneurship What’s the difference between these terms?Why does enterprise and entrepreneurship matter…to you…to students, to the HEI?How does enterprise feature in your curricula?How is enterprise currently displayed/promoted within your own Faculty/Department?How is *success* in this area measured?Take each in turn and discuss within the groupEntrepreneurship - Term first used by Richard Cantillon in 1734Discuss inclusion in HEI’s Employability Policy/Strategy and PDP Policy/Strategy if this has not arisen previously
8 Characteristics of entrepreneurs or enterprising people? Individually, please take 1 min. to write down three attributes, in rank order, that you particularly associate with entrepreneursEntrepreneurs are…Before we get on to thinking about how we can incorporate more enterprise/entrepreneurial activity into what we do we should consider what it is we are actually aiming for…so…..what *is* an entrepreneur?
9 Characteristics of an Entrepreneur: Visionary; creative; innovativeAdaptable; problem-solverPersuasive; inspirationalConfident; determined; motivated; a self-believer; selfishCompetitive; ambitious; a risk-taker; one who perseveresHonestDisciplined; hard workingOrganised; a planner; a decision-makerUnderstandingLeader; team workerNetworkerTaker of opportunitiesResearcher; enquirerAdd to this list as suggestions come forward…
10 Born…or made?Trait Theory – seeks to identify common links that bind themSocial Development Approach – includes risk, family influences, constraints etc.Structure Opportunity Model – includes wider social factors such as family, neighbourhood, school, peer group, work environment etc.
11 Enterprise…involves measures to encourage individuals to become entrepreneurs and equip them with the necessary skills to make a business successful(Mason, 2000)In essence, enterprise is about spotting opportunities, creating new ideas and having the confidence and capabilities to turn these ideas into working realities (Nixon, 2004)
12 Entrepreneurship…is an activity which leads to the creation and management of a new organisation designed to pursue a unique, innovative opportunity(Hindle & Rushworth, 2000)Fundamentally, it is about using enterprise to create new business, new businesses and ‘can-do’ organisations and services(Nixon, 2004)
13 Intrapreneurship…is the art of working within an organisation to effect change, by developing new ideas, procedures or products, by innovating practice and thereby enhancing the business(Kneale, 2002)Enterprise, entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship according to the HEA…“Enterprise is an inclusive concept which provides both the context in which subject disciplines can be explored, as well as an approach, through skill development, which can be taken to the exploration and discovery of a discipline. In these respects, it can provide a challenging environment within which to explore a variety of teaching areas (the small business context) as well as provide a dimension to learning, that of developing the skills of being enterprising, which provide students with an attitude towards learning, which rewards and supports innovation, change and development.Enterprise supports the recognition of new market opportunities as well as develops the opportunity to change and develop at the individual, business and industry/sector levels. This includes the exploration of new ideas and developments from a corporate perspective (as intrapreneurship) as well as the creation of new ventures, social programmes and the exploration of new opportunities.”
14 Social entrepreneurship …involves using entrepreneurial skills for the public good rather than for private profit, that is using imagination to identify new opportunities and determination to bring them to fruition(School for Social Entrepreneurs)
15 Arguments for Entrepreneurship In the US, 18% of graduates start their own businesses; in the UK it is 7%Significant numbers of undergraduates aspire to start their own businessIt is not necessarily about *making money* but developing skills and competences
16 So………..What are the problems, difficulties and challenges in incorporating [more] enterprise/entrepreneurship into the curriculum?Take offers from the group and try to settle on a prioritised list.
17 Problems with incorporating enterprise/entrepreneurship into the curriculum There is a limited amount of roomMany academics prefer to teach their own research workIt doesn’t fit into traditional academic discourseSome students aren’t interested in being enterprising or entrepreneurial
18 Incorporating enterprise/entrepreneurship into the curriculum… Develops and enhances skills, aptitudes and attitudes - provides students with the opportunities and motivation to:work creatively and independentlydevelop research, analysis and critical thinking skillspractice time, project, risk and people management skillsbe able to work in unfamiliar environments and respond to unexpected eventsbetter understand their own capabilities and traits and to enhance their confidence in their own abilities
19 Incorporating enterprise/entrepreneurship into the curriculum… Aids business and financial knowledge and understandingTrue…many staff in the GEES disciplines may be less well equipped to provide detailed information on the business/financial knowledge required to set up a business than, say, Business School staffHowever…supporting the students in the these skills areas empowers them to seek out and take advantage of other sources of informationMany higher education institutions offer:booklets, workshops, courses, guidance, advice etc.…to support entrepreneurship through their careers services, enterprise units and business schoolsMany universities now have graduate business start-up facilities, and incubator units
20 For example… Enterprise Fellowship Scheme Knowledge Transfer PartnershipsSPEEDEntrepreneur AwardsShell LiveWIRELink out to comparable schemes at host institution.
22 A few questions to consider… What does your Dept. understand by enterprise and entrepreneurship? How is it discussed?What forms of pedagogy and assessment are appropriate to support enterprise and entrepreneurial activity?Can you identify where enterprise and entrepreneurship manifest themselves in your programmes?
23 A few questions to consider… Where is enterprise and entrepreneurship taught and practiced in the Dept./Faculty?Are enterprise and entrepreneurship knowledge and skills made explicit within learning outcomes?Can students actually *be* enterprising and entrepreneurial on your awards? How are they made aware of this, by whom and when?
24 A few questions to consider… How is enterprise and entrepreneurial activity monitored and reviewed when updating modules?How are students acquainted with enterprise and entrepreneurship and of its influence on their self development?How is enterprise and entrepreneurial activity promoted, advertised and managed within the Dept.?
25 A few questions to consider… How are staff currently *developed* into a greater acceptance of, and open attitude toward, enterprise and entrepreneurship?How is enterprise and an entrepreneurial culture currently given ‘visibility’ in the Dept./Faculty?
26 Strategies for linking enterprise/entrepreneurship with institutional strategies Embed within policy and strategiesExplain to, and involve staff and students in, appropriate activitiesAudit teaching and assessment strategies – modifying where necessaryDevelop special events and structures to promote and facilitate enterprise and entrepreneurshipReview staff enterprise activities and incentivesReview links between staff consultancy/applied research and teachingReview staff interview and induction processes to integrate aspects of enterprise and entrepreneurship
27 Strategies for linking enterprise/entrepreneurship with courses and programmes Develop student’s understanding of enterprise by:Developing curriculumDeveloping their awarenessDeveloping their understanding
28 Strategies for linking enterprise/entrepreneurship with courses and programmes Develop student’s ability to be enterprising & entrepreneurial by:Getting them to *be* enterprisingAssessing their enterprise activityProviding them with some training/development and developing/promoting student’s involvement in enterpriseEmbedding enterprise into the curriculum
29 Strategies for linking enterprise/entrepreneurship with courses and programmes Further develop student’s understanding of enterprise by:Following through on the strategy delivering the employability policyFollowing through on the strategy delivering the PDP policyEvaluating student’s experience of enterprise and entrepreneurship and feeding this back into the curriculum
30 Use the output from this to drive discussions in the post-workshop phase
31 Strategies to develop entrepreneurial skills InspireDemonstrate through the good examplesBy practiceLead by example – show/tell them what you doResearch – research linked to teachingEnquiry through to research; problem solving and project work.Outline ideas succinctlyWord limits / tutorials / presentations / outline & essay planning /dissertation proposals /Negotiable/negotiated learningAssess own strengths or weaknessesPeer group assessment / critical evaluation /Discussion/ tutorial/ questionMarking schemeSelf assessment/ profilingCommunicate effectivelyBuild teamNetworkHuman skills interactivityInspiration comes from a varietyGood accommodationStimulating teaching/subjectEnthusiasmGood equipmentHave ideasMake things happenInnovateBring relevant/new experience from outsideKeep up to date/new techniquesThinking differentlyUtilising experienceExpose students to best practiceAlumni networkGuest speakersFT/PT mixOff campus venues, events & activitiesSo….at what level would such strategies best be introduced?
32 Question…At what level, and how, is enterprise & entrepreneurship best incorporated into your curriculum?Level 1,2 or 3? Vertical Project? Programme Event? Embedded within core modules? Stand alone optional module?
33 I would…Focus on the acquisition of skills and explain why this is importantGet students to interview or talk to or to listen to entrepreneursInvite enterprising people in to talkSimulate pre-start up, and start up, activitiesUse case studies includingany in-class students who havea business
34 I wouldn’t… Use the word ‘entrepreneurship’ too much Use a text book about entrepreneurshipUse concepts and modelsFocus on knowledge acquisitionOnly focus on the good or on the bad points of being self-employed
35 Examples of practiceIn groups, please look through the examples of good practice and decide on one or two, but no more, that you collectively ‘like the look of’Settle on a short summary of why it appeals to you and what specifically interests you - nominate a spokesperson15 min. to look through the examples – no more than 5 min. each to feedback.
36 More resources… Context case materials - Intrapreneurship GEES Enterprise, Skills & Entrepreneurship Resource PackHEA’s Supporting Entrepreneurial Skills Matrix (SESM)Stanford Technology Ventures ProgramInstitute for Leeds Met.Context case materials - Intrapreneurship
37 More resources… The Institute for Enterprise – Leeds Met. Uni. White Rose Centre for EnterpriseNorthern Ireland Centre for EntrepreneurshipBusiness LinkHarvard Business SchoolKnowledge Transfer PartnershipsInnovation NetworkThe Lambert Review – Uni./Business CooperationPrince’s Trust
38 More resources… Social enterprises Skoll Foundation Said Business School Oxford – Skoll foundationDuke Uni. – Centre for Advancement of Social EntrepreneurshipCabinet Office – Third SectorCommunity Action Network
39 Final thoughts…Take 5 min. to consider a NEW way that you might modify a learning object or an assessment within a module that are involved with to specifically develop a student’s enterprise skillsWrite it down!
40 and finally… Thank you for your time….. Questions, points, more information?GEES Subject Centre