* Layers of the atmosphere * Pressure and Humidity * Solar energy and its role in creating seasons and air circulation * Role of atmosphere in creating weather and climate * Cold fronts, warm fronts * High pressure systems, low pressure systems * Large Scale circulation patterns (Hadley, Feral, Polar Cells) * Global wind patterns * Threats from storms (hurricanes, tornadoes)
* Air pollution: the release of air pollutants * Sources * Developing Countries: wood fires, * Industrialized Countries * coal-burning power plants, cars, industry * Outdoor (Ambient) Air Pollution is highly regulated in industrialized nations * Natural Sources * Volcanic eruptions: aerosols form when sulfur dioxide reacts with water and oxygen to form fine droplets, this can cool the atmosphere and surface of the planet * Fires: influenced by humans, but happen naturally * Winds * Largest problem today (for industrialized nations) may be our release of greenhouse gasses which contribute to global climate change * Examples: carbon dioxide, methane
* Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 * Clean Air Act of 1963 * Research funding and emissions standards for cars/stationary point sources * Clean Air Act of 1970 * Stricter standards, added mobile point sources, provided funds for control/research, allowed citizens to sue violators * Clean Air Act of 1990 * Strengthens regulations on acid deposition, ozone depletion, auto emissions, introduced emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide and other pollutants * Regulated by: * EPA which sets national standards for emissions and concentrations * States which monitor, implement and enforce regulations
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) * Carbon monoxide * Colorless, odorless gas from incomplete combustion of fuel * From cars (78%), combustion of waste, industrial processes, wood burning * Binds to hemoglobin in RBC and prevents it from binding with oxygen * Sulfur dioxide * Colorless gas with a pungent odor * From the combustion of coal in electric power plants (sulfur in coal reacts with oxygen to form SO 2 ) * Once in the air, it can reach to form SO 3 AND H 2 SO 4 which settles as acid deposition * Nitrogen dioxide * Reactive, foul smelling red/brown gas, NO X * Contributes to smog and acid deposition * Result when nitrogen and oxygen react in combustion engine, or combustion in industrial or electrical combustion
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) * Tropospheric ozone (ground level ozone) * Not the same a ozone in the stratosphere * Colorless gas with a slight odor that comes from the interaction of sunlight, heat, NO X, and volatile carbon compounds (Secondary pollutant) * O 3 looses an oxygen atom that can injure living tissue and cause breathing problems * Most common pollutant to exceed EPA standards, must measure VOC’s * http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/animation.php?shortname=anm _ozone_production http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/animation.php?shortname=anm _ozone_production * Particulate matter * Solids or liquids small enough to be suspended in the atmosphere * Includes primary (dust, soot) and secondary (sulfates, nitrates) pollutants * Can cause respiratory damage when inhaled * Lead * Heavy metal, particulate pollutant from gasoline additives, now banned in the United States * Accumulates in the food chain (bioaccumulation) and causes problems with the central nervous system
* Technology and Policy go hand in hand * Total emission have declined by 60% since the 1970’s Clean Air Act * Despite an increase in population, energy consumption, miles traveled and GDP * Carbon emission have increased 44% in that same time * Technology * Baghouse filters * Electrostatic precipitators * Scrubbers * 188 toxic pollutants (cancer, reproductive, neurological, developmental, immune, respiratory problems) are also now regulated
Watch the following video and use your textbook to diagram how a scrubber works: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EG Na5pioGUg&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EG Na5pioGUg&feature=related (2:24)
* Industrializing nations * Increasing air pollution from growing numbers of factories and power plants * Little government regulation * Traditional sources of fuel * Rural Areas * Drift from farms and industries * Feedlots * Methane, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia
* Our most common air quality problem is industrial smog from carbon and sulfur combustion * Photochemical smog is formed when sunlight drives the chemical reactions that turn primary pollutants and normal atmospheric compounds into smog * Ozone action days * Reduction * Vehicle emission inspection programs (34 states)
* This is what is often referred to as the “hole” in the ozone layer, it is actually a depletion of stratospheric ozone * Man made halocarbons (most commonly chlorofluorocarbons or CFC’s) * One free chlorine can destroy 100,000 ozone molecules * Antarctic hole appears each spring * Montreal Protocol addressed this problem http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/
* Acid or acid-forming pollutants can land on the Earth’s surface * This can be from rain, fog, gases, or dry particles * Is affected by the pH of the deposition and the acid-neutralizing capability of the substrate * Impacts * Leaching of nutrients from topsoil (calcium, magnesium, potassium) when H+ take the place of these ions and they move to the subsoil * Mobilization of toxic metals (aluminum, zinc, mercury, copper) that can be taken up by plants and kill trees * Acidification of waterways from runoff can lead to the death of fish * Addressing the problem * Scrubbers
* Generally in higher concentration than outdoor air pollution * 2-3 million deaths per year worldwide * The average U.S. citizen spends 90% of their time indoors * Sources * Burning fuelwood * Tobacco smoke * Radon * VOC’s * Plastics * Perfumes * Carpets * Copy machines * New car smell * Pesticides * Living thins (dust, mold, fungi) * Sick Building Syndrome
7 STUPID THINGS PEOPLE SAY ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE! http://www.buzzfeed.com/kellyoakes/7-stupid-things- people-say-about-climate-change-that-arent-a
* What is climate? * What is the difference between global climate change and global warming? * Factors that regulate climate (which are most important?) * Sun * Atmosphere * Oceans * Movement of planet in space * Factors that warm the lower atmosphere * Greenhouse gases: water, ozone, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, halocarbons * Greenhouse effect (anthropogenic intensification) * http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/animation.php?shortnam e=anm_greenhouse_effect http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/animation.php?shortnam e=anm_greenhouse_effect
Greenhouse GasRelative Heat Trapping ability (equivalent to CO2) Carbon dioxide1 Methane25 Nitrous oxide298 HFC14,800 Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas that we are most concerned about Why?
* Carbon dioxide (280ppm in 1700 to 389ppm in 2010) * Where should most of it be? Where/why is it moving? * Burning fossil fuels * Clearing/burning forests (2x the harm….why?) * Methane (2.5 time more now than 1700) * Fossil fuels * Livestock * Landfills * Some crops (rice) * Nitrous oxide (18% more than 1750) * Feedlots * Chemical manufacturing * Cars * Fertilizers * Ozone (36% more than 1750) * Photochemical smog
* What is a positive feedback loop? * What is a negative feedback loop? * As tropospheric temperatures increase, bodies of water on Earth should increase rates of evaporation, leading to more water in the atmosphere. * Is this a positive or negative feedback loop? * How do aerosols and water vapor differ in their impact on temperature?
* Radiative Forcing: The amount of change in thermal energy that a given factor causes * Positive forcing means….. * Negative forcing means…… * Natural rate: 342 watts/m 2 * Estimated change since 1750: 1.6 watts/m 2 * What factors influence climate? * Atmospheric conditions * Milankovitch Cycles * Axial Wobble = Variation of Tilt * Solar Output * Ocean Absorption * Ocean Circulation
* Past: Paleoclimates * Proxy indicators * Ice cores: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kr02VF3ralchttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kr02VF3ralc * Pollen grains * Tree rings * Pack rat middens * Present * Direct Measurements * Thermometers, rain gauge, anemometers, barometers, computers * Charles Keeling, 1958, Mauna Loa Observatory * Only about a century of data * Future * Modeling
* Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) * Established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)N * Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 for its work in informing the world of trends and impacts of climate change * 2007 was the last time they released a report (their 4 th Assessment Report) * Major trends observed and predicted * Global physical indicators * Regional physical indicators * Social indicators * Biological indicators
* Temperatures are rising * Precipitation is changing * Ice and Snow are melting (this has far reaching impacts) * Sea levels are rising Sea levels are rising * Coral reefs are threatened * Organisms and ecosystems are affected * Humans are affected * Agriculture * Forestry * Health * Economics * Impacts will vary regionally * This drive some of the debate between scientists
* U.S. Global Research Program * Created by congress in 1990 to coordinate federal research, reviewed in 1990 * Major predictions * Average rise of 2.2-6.1 degrees Celsius (4-11 F) by the end of the century * Worse droughts and floods * Longer growing seasons and higher CO2 levels will favor crops, but drought, heat, pests and disease will decrease most yields * Snowpack decrease in West, water shortages worsen * Colder weather illness decline, heat related problems will increase * Tropical diseases will spread north * Sea level will rise and storm surge will erode beaches and destroy wetlands and real estate * Alpine ecosystems and barrier islands will begin to vanish * Droughts, fire, and pets will alter forests (loss of sugar maples, some replacement of forest with grasslands and/or deserts) * Melting permafrost will hinder Alaskan buildings and roads
* Its all about greenhouse gasses…….. * “Climategate”
* Mitigation: pursue actions that reduce greenhouse gas emission to lessen the severity of climate change * Energy efficiency, renewable/clean energy sources * Adaptation: pursue strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change on us * Flood walls in the Maldives 2004 Pacala and Socolow projection 2011 Pacala and Socolow update
Pascala and Socolow: “When the job is too big, break it into small parts!”
* Electricity Generation * Largest source of U.S. greenhouse gasses * Issues of conservation and efficiency * Current sources of electricity? * Potential new sources? * Carbon capture/sequestration * Transportation * 2 nd largest source of U.S. greenhouse gasses * Automotive technology is in place * Consumer choices * Other ways to reduce emissions? * Agriculture * Forestry * waste management
* Kyoto Protocol * 1992, U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) * Voluntary, nation-by-nation approach * 1997, mandatory outgrowth that required signatory nations to reduce emissions to pre 1990 levels * U.S. refused to sign and remains the only developed nation to not sign, they say this is because of the inequality between developed and developing nations * Copenhagen Conference * 2009, inteneded to be a successor to the Kyoto Protocol * Never formally adopted * States and Cities * In the U.S. there is no federal action, so 1000 citites in all 50 states have signed the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement
* Will emission cuts hurt the economy? * Can market mechanisms address climate change? * Cap and Trade Emission * Carbon taxes * Carbon offsets and Carbon neutrality * Will it just take the action of caring citizens who want to reduce their carbon footprint?
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