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Image Review #4 muscle and neural tissue

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1 Image Review #4 muscle and neural tissue

2 What are the three types of muscle? Which types are striated muscle? What are the three types of muscle? Which types are striated muscle?

3 What are the three types of muscle? –Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac Which types are striated muscle? –Skeletal and cardiac What are the three types of muscle? –Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac Which types are striated muscle? –Skeletal and cardiac

4 Big  small: –Fasicle made up of myofibers made up of myofibrils which contain sarcomeres What is a syncytium? What is the epimysium? What is the perimysium? Edomysium? Big  small: –Fasicle made up of myofibers made up of myofibrils which contain sarcomeres What is a syncytium? What is the epimysium? What is the perimysium? Edomysium?

5 Big  small Fasicle made up of myofibers made up of myofibrils which contain sarcomeres What is a syncytium? –Multiple nuclei but continuous cytoplasm What is the epimysium? –Connective tissue covering of the muscle What is the perimysium? –CT surrounding each fasicle Edomysium? –Surronds individual myofibers Big  small Fasicle made up of myofibers made up of myofibrils which contain sarcomeres What is a syncytium? –Multiple nuclei but continuous cytoplasm What is the epimysium? –Connective tissue covering of the muscle What is the perimysium? –CT surrounding each fasicle Edomysium? –Surronds individual myofibers

6 Skeletal Muscle The key is to look for striation

7 Smooth Muscle Look to see if you can find it cut on both planes Also look to see if you can see the characteristic whorls (not in this picture) Look to see if you can find it cut on both planes Also look to see if you can see the characteristic whorls (not in this picture)

8 smooth muscle

9 Smooth muscle Dense Regular CT

10

11 Cardiac muscle

12 Some things to note about Cardiac Muscle –It is NOT a syncitium so nuclei are more centrally located and only one per cell –Joined by intercalating discs Some things to note about Cardiac Muscle –It is NOT a syncitium so nuclei are more centrally located and only one per cell –Joined by intercalating discs

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14 cardiac skeletal

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16 cardiac

17 Parts of the Neuron Neuronal perikaryon—contains Nissl substance Dendrites—processes extending from cell body, branched, tapering.. Contain nissl substance Axon hillock—wider than the axon Axons—constant diameter with little branching – NO NISSL SUBSTANCE Synapses—occur between various parts of neurons Neuronal perikaryon—contains Nissl substance Dendrites—processes extending from cell body, branched, tapering.. Contain nissl substance Axon hillock—wider than the axon Axons—constant diameter with little branching – NO NISSL SUBSTANCE Synapses—occur between various parts of neurons

18 Neurons cont. What are the possible synapses? Talk to me about synaptic vesicle recycling What are the possible synapses? Talk to me about synaptic vesicle recycling

19 Neurons cont. What are the possible synapses? –Axo-somatic—axon to cell body –Axo-dendritic—synapse onto dendrite –Axo-axonic—axon to axon Talk to me about synaptic vesicle recycling –Reclaimed by endocytosis involving CLATHRIN Neurons cont. What are the possible synapses? –Axo-somatic—axon to cell body –Axo-dendritic—synapse onto dendrite –Axo-axonic—axon to axon Talk to me about synaptic vesicle recycling –Reclaimed by endocytosis involving CLATHRIN

20 Development of Neurons Growth cone—drives axon elongation –Leading edge—filopodia sense environment and grow in proper places Netrins—guidance molecules for neuronal growth –Axoplasmic transport Anterograde—toward terminal—kinesins Retrograde—toward cell body—dyeins –If I were you I would ABSOLUTELY KNOW THESE Growth cone—drives axon elongation –Leading edge—filopodia sense environment and grow in proper places Netrins—guidance molecules for neuronal growth –Axoplasmic transport Anterograde—toward terminal—kinesins Retrograde—toward cell body—dyeins –If I were you I would ABSOLUTELY KNOW THESE

21 Non-neuronal cells Astrocytes –Proliferate and form scars after injury—gliosis Oligodendrocytes (Schwann cells in PNS) –CNS myelin forming cells Astrocytes –Proliferate and form scars after injury—gliosis Oligodendrocytes (Schwann cells in PNS) –CNS myelin forming cells

22 Peripheral Nervous System What are the three main parts of the PNS?

23 Peripheral Nervous System What are the three main parts of the PNS? –Ganglia—clusters of neuron cell bodies w/support cells –Nerve fibers—axons and support cells, no cell bodies –Nerve endings and organs of special sense What are the three main parts of the PNS? –Ganglia—clusters of neuron cell bodies w/support cells –Nerve fibers—axons and support cells, no cell bodies –Nerve endings and organs of special sense

24 Peripheral Nerves Circle of wavy shit – works every time

25 Peripheral nerves Cont. Like muscle there is CT around the nerves Epineurium around the whole thing Perineurium—surrounds each bundle of axons Endoneurium—surrounds each axon Like muscle there is CT around the nerves Epineurium around the whole thing Perineurium—surrounds each bundle of axons Endoneurium—surrounds each axon

26 Myelination Schwann cells What does myelination do? –Increases conduction velocity –Nodes of ranvier are where Na+ channels are concentrated in myelinated axons Schwann cells What does myelination do? –Increases conduction velocity –Nodes of ranvier are where Na+ channels are concentrated in myelinated axons

27 Ganglion = fried eggs

28 NODE OF RANVIER

29 LOTS OF FUN REVIEW IMAGES

30 Smooth muscle NONE OR VERY LITTLE SPACE between cells Silky looking LESS NUCLEI then dense regular CT –Nuclei are also ligher in smooth muscle b/c they arent as smashed SMALLER FASCICLES than skeletal –But both have peripheral nuclei Can go in 50 different directions –Compare this to dense regular CT that all moves the same direction at the same time NONE OR VERY LITTLE SPACE between cells Silky looking LESS NUCLEI then dense regular CT –Nuclei are also ligher in smooth muscle b/c they arent as smashed SMALLER FASCICLES than skeletal –But both have peripheral nuclei Can go in 50 different directions –Compare this to dense regular CT that all moves the same direction at the same time

31 What is this?

32 DENSE REGULAR CT Nuclei are DARK and PLENTIFUL Tissue looks like its all moving together Nuclei are DARK and PLENTIFUL Tissue looks like its all moving together

33 Way fewer nuclei in the smooth muscle on the right

34 Where do we find lots of smooth muscle? GI tract for peristalsis Around arteries So if I were you if they label stuff that is making a tube (artery or esophagus) I would keep smooth muscle in mind GI tract for peristalsis Around arteries So if I were you if they label stuff that is making a tube (artery or esophagus) I would keep smooth muscle in mind

35 Around artery What kind of fibers do we see around the innermost part of the artery?

36 Around artery What kind of fibers do we see around the innermost part of the artery? ELASTIC – wavy looking

37 Smooth muscle is also often found in the same tissue cut both ways – both longitudinally and cross section –This is another good clue Smooth muscle is also often found in the same tissue cut both ways – both longitudinally and cross section –This is another good clue

38 Here you see the smooth muscle going different ways

39 In cross section smooth muscle has VERY LITTLE space between the cells and the nuclei are found in the periphery like skeletalmuscle, but the fascicles are MUCH SMALLER

40 What in the hell is this?

41 Well, you can see the little pinocytic vescicles around the side – CAVEOLAE!! You also see dense bodies and plaques in the cytoplasm Not so hard anymore, its smooth muscle Well, you can see the little pinocytic vescicles around the side – CAVEOLAE!! You also see dense bodies and plaques in the cytoplasm Not so hard anymore, its smooth muscle

42 Skeletal muscle HUGE GIANT fascicles Nice and red in most slides Peripherally placed nuclei Also look for dense regular CT tendon around it If I were you I would know very well the divisions of the skeletal muscle sarcomere and what is found in each one HUGE GIANT fascicles Nice and red in most slides Peripherally placed nuclei Also look for dense regular CT tendon around it If I were you I would know very well the divisions of the skeletal muscle sarcomere and what is found in each one

43 TERMS TO KNOW: –M line –Z line BLACK –A band –I band –H zone TERMS TO KNOW: –M line –Z line BLACK –A band –I band –H zone

44 Also in EM Look for mitochondria between the sarcomeres, they think its funny to label it here and catch everyone off guard

45 Looks striated Peripheral nuclei Easy enough – skeletal muscle Looks striated Peripheral nuclei Easy enough – skeletal muscle

46 Hi, what am I?

47 perimyseum enodmyseum

48 Endomyseum vs. perimyseum –Perimyseum has much more CT, surrounds many fibers vs. just ONE like endomyseum Endomyseum vs. perimyseum –Perimyseum has much more CT, surrounds many fibers vs. just ONE like endomyseum

49 Same shot, cross section Endo around ONE FIBER, peri around MANY and is much more CT looking Same shot, cross section Endo around ONE FIBER, peri around MANY and is much more CT looking

50 One last time

51 cardiac Intercalated disks –Sometime you have to look for these, please do so Branching Like skeletal, is striated One central nuclei per cell LOTS MORE SPACE between cells when cut in cross section vs. smooth muscle Intercalated disks –Sometime you have to look for these, please do so Branching Like skeletal, is striated One central nuclei per cell LOTS MORE SPACE between cells when cut in cross section vs. smooth muscle

52

53

54 LOTS OF SPACE in X section

55 vs. little space in smooth

56 What are these intercalated disks you speak of? Have DESMOSOMES Have GAP junctions Lets demonstrate: Lets also look for lots of mito and maybe even a little glycogen (but not in this image) – these cells need lots of energy Have DESMOSOMES Have GAP junctions Lets demonstrate: Lets also look for lots of mito and maybe even a little glycogen (but not in this image) – these cells need lots of energy

57 Nice little summary

58 neurons Lab 10

59 Nerve cell body NO NISSL SUBSTANCE IN AXON HILLOCK OR AXON – JUST DENDRITES AND CELL BODY! –Helps when you have to decide axon vs. dendrite NO NISSL SUBSTANCE IN AXON HILLOCK OR AXON – JUST DENDRITES AND CELL BODY! –Helps when you have to decide axon vs. dendrite

60 Has nissl, thus, dendrite No nissl, thus, axon

61 Neurons have a prominent nucleolus Why? Making neurotransmitter, that’s why there is lots of nissl stain too –Remember, nissl is for RER  protein making Why? Making neurotransmitter, that’s why there is lots of nissl stain too –Remember, nissl is for RER  protein making

62 Ganglion = fried eggs. Works every time.

63 Hi, we look like fried eggs

64 What the….!?!?

65 Myelinated axons Must say myelinated, if you don’t then you will die. In EM almost all the time, looks like a bunch of black surrounding a cell On our written last year they gave us 4 pics of a neuron being myelinated and asked us to put them in chronological order, so you may want to be familiar with this topic Must say myelinated, if you don’t then you will die. In EM almost all the time, looks like a bunch of black surrounding a cell On our written last year they gave us 4 pics of a neuron being myelinated and asked us to put them in chronological order, so you may want to be familiar with this topic

66 What would you say this is?

67 Well I would say that is a schwann cell Why? It is surrounding a nerve fiber and myelinating it Well I would say that is a schwann cell Why? It is surrounding a nerve fiber and myelinating it

68 Another look…. Hi, I am a nice schwann cell nucleus

69 Peripheral nerves How do you know what these look like? EVERY SINGLE TIME it is a circle of wavy shit. If they label something and it is circular and is filled with random wavy shit, it is peripheral nerve.

70 Circles of wavy shit

71 Neural coverings. Know them. Epi around a bunch of peripheral nerves Each peripheral nerve (circle of wavy shit) surrounded by a perineurium the axons surrounded by endoneurium Each individual axon may or may not be surrounded by myelin sheath Epi around a bunch of peripheral nerves Each peripheral nerve (circle of wavy shit) surrounded by a perineurium the axons surrounded by endoneurium Each individual axon may or may not be surrounded by myelin sheath

72 Enjoy this picture

73

74 Epi has the most CT-like appearance and peri around each individual circle of wavy shit

75 Epi around many circles of w. s.

76 Peri around 1 circle of w.s.

77 Endo surrounds the little axons in the c.o.w.s.

78 Where is epi? Where is peri?

79 Get it? peri epi

80 Quiz time

81 Ganglion why? Fried eggs.

82

83 Myelinated axon. Must say myelinated. If you don’t you will miss it.

84 What are these?

85 Peripheral nerves why? Circle of wavy shit.

86 Green arrow is pointing to…?

87 Well you see nissl substance, so dendrite

88

89 Unmyelinated axon, no black around it

90

91 COLLAGEN do not be fooled. Looks too perfectly round to be glycogen, which has irregular borders

92

93 Motor end plate why? Neuron ending on skeletal muscle

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95 Karyotype I told you not to forget this

96

97 Left is glycogen – black clumping looking stuff Right is RER. You can see the ribosomes and the sacs are very flattened Left is glycogen – black clumping looking stuff Right is RER. You can see the ribosomes and the sacs are very flattened

98 What cytoskeletal element do we see here

99 It’s a desmosome – looks hairy that makes the answer intermediate filaments

100

101 Centriole its by the nucleus – here b/c it does stuff in cell division

102 What stain is this

103 PAS – goblet cells are magenta

104

105 SER – looks like a bunch of blebs. We don’t see any here but we would also look for….? Round mito!

106

107 Brown fat – red b/c of mito and many fat drops per cell

108

109 Spongy bone spicule

110

111 Adipose tissue

112 And I leave you with the mullet of the week Don’t be that guy


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