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Learning Representations

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Maximum likelihood s r s?s? World Activity Probabilistic model of neuronal firing as a function of s Generative Model

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Maximum likelihood s r ss World Activity r i =f i (s)+n i Generative Model

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Maximum likelihood W D WW World Observations s r ss World Activity Probabilistic model of neuronal firing as a function of s Probabilistic model of how the data are generated given W Generative Model

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Maximum likelihood W WW World Observations y*=f(x,W)+n Generative Model D={x i, y i* }

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Maximum likelihood learning To learn the optimal parameters W, we seek to maximum the likelihood of the data which can be done through gradient descent or analytically in some special cases.

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Maximum likelihood W D={x i, y i* } WW World Observations y*=Wx+n Generative Model

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Maximum likelihood W D={x i, y i* } WW World Observations y*=Wx+n Generative Model Note that the y*’s are treated as corrupted data Product over all examples

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Maximum likelihood learning Minimizing quadratic distance is equivalent to maximizing a gaussian likelihood function.

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Maximum likelihood learning Analytical Solution Gradient descent: Delta rule

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Maximum likelihood learning Example: training a two layer network Very important: you need to cross validate

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Maximum likelihood learning Supervised learning: The data consists of pairs of input/output vectors {x i,y i* }. Assume that the data were generated by a network and then corrupted by gaussian noise. Learning:Adjust the parameters of your network to increase the likelihood that the data were indeed generated by your network. Note: if your network is nothing like the system that generated the data, you could be in trouble.

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Maximum likelihood learning Unsupervised learning The data consists of input vectors only {x i }. Causal models assume that the data are due to some hidden causes plus noise. This is the generative model. Goal of learning: given a set of observations, find the parameters of the generative model. As usual, we will find the parameters by maximizing the likelihood of the observations.

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Maximum likelihood learning Causes Sensory stimuli Generative model Example: unsupervised learning in a two layer network The network represents the joint distribution

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Maximum likelihood learning Wait! The network is upside down! Arent’t we doing things the wrong way around? No: the idea is that what’s responsible for the sensory stimuli are high order causes like the presence of physical objects in the world, their identity, their location, their color and so on. Generative model goes from the causes/objects to the sensory stimuli Recognition will go from stimuli to objects/causes

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Maximum likelihood learning The network represents the joint distribution P(x,y). Given the joint distribution, inferences are easy. We use Bayes rule to compute P(y|x) (recognition) or P(x|y) (expectations).

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Mixture of Gaussians x1 x2

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Maximum likelihood learning Example: Mixture of gaussians Causes Sensory stimuli Generative model: 5 parameters, p(y=1), p(y=2), y

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Maximum likelihood learning Example: mixture of gaussians Causes Sensory stimuli Recognition model: given a pair x’s, what was the cluster? y

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Maximum likelihood learning Causes Sensory stimuli Generative model Example: unsupervised learning in a two layer network

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Maximum likelihood learning Causes Sensory stimuli Recognition

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Maximum likelihood learning Learning consist in adjusting the weights to maximum the likelihood of the data, Problem: the generative model specifies: The data set does not specify the hidden causes y i, which we would need for a learning rule like delta rule…

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #1. You don’t know y i ? Estimate it! Pick the MAP estimate of y i on each trial (Olshausen and Field, as we will see later): Note that the weights are presumably incorrect (otherwise, there would be no need for learning). As a result, the y’s obtained this way are also incorrect. Hopefully, they’re good enough… Main problem: this breaks down if p(y i |x i,w) is multimodal.

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #2. Sample y i from P(y|x i,w) using Gibbs sampling. Slow, and again we’re sampling from the wrong distribution…However, this is a much better idea for multimodal distributions.

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix # 3. Marginalization Use gradient descent to adjust the parameters of the likelihood and prior (very slow).

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #3. Marginalization. Gradient descent for mixture of two gaussians Even when the p(x|y)’s are gaussian, the resulting likelihood function is not quadratic.

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #3. Marginalization Rarely feasible in practice If y is binary vector of N dimension, that sum contains 2 N terms…

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #4. The expectation-maximization algorithm (EM)

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Maximum likelihood learning EM: How can we optimize p(y|w)? Let 1 be p(y=1|w) But we don’t know this… Trick: use an approximation We have samples of this

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Maximum likelihood learning E-step: use the current parameters to approximate p true (y|x) with p(y|x,w)

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Maximum likelihood learning EM: M step: optimize p(y) From E step

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Maximum likelihood learning EM: M step. For the mean of p(x|y=1) use: From E step

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Maximum likelihood learning EM: Iterate the E and M step. Guaranteed to converge, but it could be a local minima.

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #5. Model the recognition distribution and use EM for training. Wake-Sleep algorithm (Helmholtz machine).

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Maximum likelihood learning Causes Sensory stimuli Generative model P(x|y,w) Helmholtz machine Recognition model Q (y|x,v)

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #5. Model the recognition distribution and use EM for training. Wake-Sleep algorithm (Helmholtz machine). (Wake) M step: Use x’s to generate y according to Q(y|x,v), and adjust the w in P(x|y,w).

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Maximum likelihood learning Causes Sensory stimuli Generative model P(x|y,w) Helmholtz machine Recognition model Q (y|x,v)

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #5. Model the recognition distribution and use EM for training. Wake-Sleep algorithm (Helmholtz machine). (Wake) M step: Use x’s to generate y according to Q(y|x,v), and adjust the w in P(x|y,w). (Sleep) E step: Generate y with P(y|w), and use it to generate x according to P(x|y,w). Then adjust the v in Q(y|x,v).

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Maximum likelihood learning Causes Sensory stimuli Generative model P(x|y,w) Helmholtz machine Recognition model Q (y|x,v)

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Maximum likelihood learning Fix #5. Model the recognition distribution and use EM for training. Wake-Sleep algorithm (Helmholtz machine). Advantage: After several approximations, you can get both learning rules to look like delta rule… Usable for hierarchical architectures.

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Sparse representations in V1 Ex: Olshausen and Field: a natural image is generated according to a two step process: 1.a set of coefficients, {a i } is drawn according to a sparse prior (Cauchy or related) 2.The image is the result of combining a set of basis functions weighted by the coefficient c i and corrupted by gaussian noise

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Sparse representations in V1 Network representation aiai x y i (x,y): Generative weights

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Sparse representations in V1 The sparse prior favors solution with most coefficients set to zero and a few with a high value. Why a sparse prior? Because the response of neurons to natural images is non gaussian and tend to be sparse.

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Sparse representations in V1 The likelihood function:

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Sparse representations in V1 The generative model is a model of the joint distribution P(I,a i

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Sparse representations in V1 Learning: 1.Given a set of natural images, how do you learn the basis functions? Answer: find the basis functions maximizing the likelihood of the images, P({I k }| i . Sure, but where to you get the a’s? Olhausen and Field: For each image, pick the a’s maximizing the posterior over a, P(a|I k, i (Fix#1).

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Network implementation

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aiai x y Recognition weights

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Sparse representations in V1 The sparse prior favors patterns of activity for which most neurons are silent and a few are highly active.

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Projective fields

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Sparse representations in V1 The true receptive fields are input dependent (because of the lateral interactions) in a way that seems somewhat consistent with experimental data With dots With gratings

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Infomax idea Represent the world in a format that maximizes mutual information given the limited information capacity of neurons. Is this simply about packing bits in neuronal firing? What if the code is undecipherable?

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Information theory and learning The features extracted by infomax algorithms are often meaningful because high level features are often good for compression. Example of scanned text: a page of text can be dramatically compressed if one treats it as a sequence of characters as opposed to pixels (e.g. this page: 800x700x8 vs 200x8, 2400 compression factor) General idea of unsupervised learning: compress the image and hope to discover high order description of the image

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Information theory and learning Ex: Decorrelation in the retina leads to center-surround receptive fields. Ex: ICA (factorial code) leads to oriented receptive fields. Problem: what can you do beyond ICA? How can you extract features that simplify computation? We need other constraints…

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Sparse Coding Ex: sparseness… Why sparseness? Grandmother cells: very easy to decode and very easy to use for further computation. Sparse is non gaussian which often corresponds to high level features (because it goes against the law of large number)

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Learning Representations The main challenges for the future: –Representing hierarchical structure –Learning hierarchical structure

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Varieties of Helmholtz Machine Peter Dayan and Geoffrey E. Hinton, Neural Networks, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp.1385-1403, 1996.

Varieties of Helmholtz Machine Peter Dayan and Geoffrey E. Hinton, Neural Networks, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp.1385-1403, 1996.

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