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Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 5 Working in Teams

2 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Groups and Teamwork 1. Why select a team? 2. Does everyone use teams? 3. Do teams go through stages while they work? 4. How do we create effective teams? 5. Does trust make a difference? 6. What if there is a lot of diversity on the team? 7. How do virtual teams work? 8. Are teams always the answer? Questions for Consideration

3 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Teams vs. Groups: What’s the Difference? Groups –Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have a stable relationship, a common goal, and perceive themselves to be a group Teams –Groups that work closely together toward a common objective, and are accountable to one another

4 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Exhibit 5-1 Stages of Group Development Stage I Forming Prestage IStage II Storming Stage III Norming Stage IV Performing Stage V Adjourning

5 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stages of Group Development Stage I: Forming –The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty Stage II: Storming –The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict Stage III: Norming –The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness

6 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stages of Group Development Stage IV: Performing –The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional Stage V: Adjourning –The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance

7 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Putting the Five-Stage Model Into Perspective Groups do not necessarily progress clearly through the stages one at a time Groups can sometimes go back to an earlier stage Conflict can sometimes be helpful to the group Context can matter: airline pilots can immediately reach performing stage

8 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model First phase –The first meeting sets the group’s direction. –The first phase of group activity is one of inertia. Transition –A transition takes place at the end of the first phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time. –The transition initiates major changes. Second phase –A second phase of inertia follows the transition. Last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity

9 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Exhibit 5-2 The Punctuated- Equilibrium Model Completion Transition First Meeting Phase 1 Phase 2 (High) (Low) A(A+B)/2 Time B Performance

10 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Exhibit 5-3 Characteristics of an Effective Team 1. Clear Purpose 2. Informality 3. Participation 4. Listening 5. Civilized disagreement 6. Consensus decisions 7. Open communication 8. Clear rules and work assignments 9. Shared leadership 10. External relations 11. Style diversity 12. Self-assessment

11 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Characteristics of Ineffective Teams Not sharing issues and concerns Overdependence on the leader Failure to carry out decisions Hidden conflict Not resolving conflict Subgroups

12 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Exhibit 5-4 A Model of Team Effectiveness Team effectiveness Work design Autonomy Skill variety Task identity Task significance Process Common purpose Specific goals Team efficacy Conflict Social loafing Composition Ability Personality Roles and diversity Size Flexibility Preference for teamwork Context Adequate resources Leadership Performance evaluation and rewards

13 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Abilities Teams need the following skills to perform effectively –Technical expertise –Problem-solving and decision-making skills –Interpersonal skills

14 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Roles in Groups Task-oriented roles –Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished Maintenance roles –Roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group Individual roles –Roles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the group on task

15 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Exhibit 5-5 Roles That Build Task Accomplishment

16 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Exhibit 5-5 Roles That Build and Maintain a Team

17 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Group Size Research Evidence –Smaller groups faster at completing tasks –When problem-solving, larger groups do better

18 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Roles of Team Leaders Creating a real team Setting a clear and meaningful direction Making sure that the structure will support working effectively Ensuring that the team has a supportive organizational environment Providing expert coaching

19 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Exhibit 5-6 Dimensions of Trust

20 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Dimensions of Trust Integrity –Honesty and truthfulness Competence –Technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills Consistency –Reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations Loyalty –Willingness to protect and save face for a person Openness –Willingness to share ideas and information freely

21 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Building Trust Demonstrate that you’re working for others’ interests as well as your own. Be a team player. Practice openness. Be fair. Speak your feelings. Show consistency in the basic values that guide your decision making. Maintain confidence. Demonstrate competence.

22 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Exhibit 5-7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity Advantages Multiple perspectives Greater openness to new ideas Multiple interpretations Increased creativity Increased flexibility Increased problem- solving skills Disadvantages Ambiguity Complexity Confusion Miscommunication Difficulty in reaching a single agreement Difficulty in agreeing on specific actions

23 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Teams and Workforce Diversity Impact of diverse groups –Diversity in personality age, gender and experience promotes conflict, which stimulates creativity and idea generation, which leads to improved decision making –Cultural diversity in groups initially leads to more difficulty in building cohesion, gaining satisfaction, being productive Problems pass with time (certainly by three months) Culturally diverse groups bring more viewpoints out

24 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Advantages –Can do all the things other teams do, but at a distance Disadvantages –Lack paraverbal and nonverbal cues, and have limited social contact

25 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Building Trust on Virtual Teams Start with an electronic “courtship” and provide some personal information Assign clear roles so members can identify with each other Have good attitudes (eagerness, enthusiasm, and intense action orientation) in messages Address feelings of isolation Provide recognition and feedback

26 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer Questions to determine whether a team fits the situation: –Can the work be done better by more than one person? –Does work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals? –Are members of the group interdependent?

27 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Summary and Implications The introduction of teams into the workplace has greatly influenced employee jobs Factors affecting group performance –Norms control group member behaviour by establishing standards of right and wrong. –Status inequities create frustration and can adversely influence productivity. –The impact of size on a group’s performance depends upon the type of task in which the group is engaged. –A group’s demographic composition is a key determinant of individual turnover.

28 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Summary and Implications High-performing teams have common characteristics: –They contain people with special skills –They commit to a common purpose, establish specific goals – They have the leadership and structure to provide focus and direction –They hold themselves accountable at both the individual and team levels –There is high mutual trust among members

29 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Summary and Implications It is difficult to create team players. To do so, managers should: –Select individuals with interpersonal skills –Provide training to develop teamwork skills –Reward individuals for cooperative efforts

30 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. OB at Work

31 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. For Review 1. How can teams increase employee motivation? 2.Describe the five-stage group development model. 3.What is the punctuated-equilibrium model? 4.What are the characteristics of an effective team? 5.What are the characteristics of an ineffective team? 6.What is the difference between task-oriented roles and maintenance roles? 7.How can a team minimize social loafing? 8.What are the five dimensions that underlie the concept of trust? 9.Contrast the pros and cons of having diverse teams. 10.What conditions favour creating a team, rather than letting an individual perform a given task?

32 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. For Critical Thinking 1.How could you use the punctuated-equilibrium model to better understand team behaviour? 2.Have you experienced social loafing as a team member? What did you do to prevent this problem? 3.Would you prefer to work alone or as part of a team? Why? How do you think your answer compares with that of others in your class? 4.What effect, if any, do you expect that workforce diversity has on a team’s performance and satisfaction?

33 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Sports Teams as Models Good Models –Successful teams integrate cooperation and competition –Successful teams score early wins –Successful teams avoid losing streaks –Practice makes perfect –Successful teams use halftime breaks –Winning teams have a stable membership –Successful teams debrief after failures and successes Poor Models –All sport teams aren’t alike –Work teams are more varied and complex –A lot of employees can’t relate to sports metaphors –Workteam outcomes aren’t easily defined in terms of wins and losses

34 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Breakout Group Exercises Form small groups to discuss the following topics. 1. One of the members of your team continually arrives late for meetings and does not turn drafts of assignments in on time. In general this group member is engaging in social loafing. What can the members of your group do to reduce social loafing? 2. Consider a team with which you’ve worked. Was there more emphasis on task-oriented or maintenance-oriented roles? What impact did this have on the group’s performance? 3. Identify 4 or 5 norms that a team could put into place near the beginning of its life that might help the team function better over time.

35 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Paper Tower Exercise Each group will receive 20 index cards, 12 paper clips, and 2 marking pens (1 red, 1 green) Using these materials you will build a paper tower that will be judged on: height, stability, and beauty Stage 1 (12 minutes). Plan your construction. No building allowed. Stage 2 (15 minutes). Construct the tower. Be sure to put your group # somewhere on the tower. Towers will be delivered to the front of the room, where they will be judged by the class.

36 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Paper Tower Questions What percent of the plan did each member of group contribute, on average Did your group have a leader? Why or why not? How did the group respond to ideas during the planning stage? Did you have task-oriented roles? Maintenance- oriented roles? How helpful and/or effective were these roles? To what extent did you follow the five-step model of group development? What were helpful behaviours? Non-helpful behaviours? Why?

37 Chapter 5, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Conducting a Team Meeting 12 steps to more efficient and effective meetings: –Prepare a meeting agenda –Distribute the agenda in advance –Consult with participants before the meeting –Get participants to go over the agenda –Establish specific time parameters –Maintain focused discussion –Encourage and support participation of all members –Maintain a balanced style –Encourage the clash of ideas –Discourage the clash of personalities –Be an effective listener –Bring proper closure


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