2Questions for Consideration Questions for Consideration Groups and TeamworkQuestions for ConsiderationQuestions for Consideration1. Why select a team?2. Does everyone use teams?3. Do teams go through stages while they work?4. How do we create effective teams?5. Does trust make a difference?6. What if there is a lot of diversity on the team?7. How do virtual teams work?8. Are teams always the answer?
3Teams vs. Groups: What’s the Difference? Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have a stable relationship, a common goal, and perceive themselves to be a groupTeamsGroups that work closely together toward a common objective, and are accountable to one anotherMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pagesA Conference Board of Canada Report found that over 80 percent of its 109 respondents used teams in the workplace. This is similar to the United States where 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies have half or more of their employees on teams. And 68 percent of small U.S. manufacturers are using teams in their production areas.The evidence suggests that teams typically out-perform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills, judgment, and experience. As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and efficiently, they have turned to teams as a way to better utilize employee talents. Teams can quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband. Teams are an effective means for management to democratize their organizations and increase employee motivation.
4Exhibit 5-1 Stages of Group Development Prestage IStage IStage IIStage IIIStage IVStage VFormingStormingNormingPerformingAdjourningMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pagesForming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. Members are “testing the waters” to determine what types of behaviour are acceptable. This stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of a group.The storming stage is one of intragroup conflict. Members accept the existence of the group, but resist the constraints that the group imposes on individuality. When this stage is complete, a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership will emerge within the group.In the third stage close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. There is now a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie. This norming stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behaviour.This fourth stage, when significant task progress is being made is called performing. The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand.For permanent work groups, performing is the last stage in their development. However, for temporary committees, teams, task forces, and similar groups that have a limited task to perform, there is an adjourning stage. In this stage, the group prepares for its disbandment.
5Stages of Group Development Stage I: FormingThe first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertaintyStage II: StormingThe second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflictStage III: NormingThe third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesivenessMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
6Stages of Group Development Stage IV: PerformingThe fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functionalStage V: AdjourningThe final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performanceMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
7Putting the Five-Stage Model Into Perspective Groups do not necessarily progress clearly through the stages one at a timeGroups can sometimes go back to an earlier stageConflict can sometimes be helpful to the groupContext can matter: airline pilots can immediately reach performing stageMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on page 145.
8The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model First phaseThe first meeting sets the group’s direction.The first phase of group activity is one of inertia.TransitionA transition takes place at the end of the first phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time.The transition initiates major changes.Second phaseA second phase of inertia follows the transition.Last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activityMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pagesStudies confirm that groups do not develop in a universal sequence of stages, however, the timing of when groups form and change the way they work is highly consistent. The first meeting sets the group's direction, the first phase of group activity is one of inertia, then a transition takes place which initiates major changes, then a second phase of inertia follows the transition, and finally the group's last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity. The punctuated-equilibrium model characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes triggered primarily by their members' awareness of time and deadlines.
9Exhibit 5-2 The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model CompletionTransitionFirstMeetingPhase 1Phase 2(High)(Low)A(A+B)/2TimeBPerformanceMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pagesThe Punctuated-Equilibrium Model. It’s been found that(1) the first meeting sets the group’s direction;(2) the first phase of group activity is one of inertia;(3) a transition takes place at the end of the first phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time;(4) the transition initiates major changes;(5) a second phase of inertia follows the transition; and(6) the group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity.These findings are shown in Exhibit 5-2.
10Exhibit 5-3 Characteristics of an Effective Team 1. Clear Purpose2. Informality3. Participation4. Listening5. Civilized disagreement6. Consensus decisions7. Open communication8. Clear rules and work assignments9. Shared leadership10. External relations11. Style diversity12. Self-assessmentMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 147.This is a checklist for knowing when you have an effective team.
11Characteristics of Ineffective Teams Not sharing issues and concernsOverdependence on the leaderFailure to carry out decisionsHidden conflictNot resolving conflictSubgroupsMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pagesThese are some key indicators to determine whether a team is working effectively, or needs help.
12Exhibit 5-4 A Model of Team Effectiveness Work design•AutonomySkill varietyTask identityTask significanceProcessCommon purposeSpecific goalsTeam efficacyConflictSocial loafingCompositionAbilityPersonalityRoles and diversitySizeFlexibilityPreference for teamworkContextAdequate resourcesLeadershipPerformanceevaluationand rewardsMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pages
13Abilities Teams need the following skills to perform effectively Technical expertiseProblem-solving and decision-making skillsInterpersonal skillsMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on page 150.
14Roles in Groups Task-oriented roles Maintenance roles Individual roles Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplishedMaintenance rolesRoles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the groupIndividual rolesRoles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the group on taskMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on page 151.
15Exhibit 5-5 Roles That Build Task Accomplishment Material pertinent to this illustration is found on page 152.
16Exhibit 5-5 Roles That Build and Maintain a Team Material pertinent to this illustration is found on page 152.
17Group Size Research Evidence Smaller groups faster at completing tasks When problem-solving, larger groups do betterMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
18Roles of Team Leaders Creating a real team Setting a clear and meaningful directionMaking sure that the structure will support working effectivelyEnsuring that the team has a supportive organizational environmentProviding expert coachingMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
19Exhibit 5-6 Dimensions of Trust This material is found on pages
20Dimensions of Trust Integrity Competence Consistency Loyalty Openness Honesty and truthfulnessCompetenceTechnical and interpersonal knowledge and skillsConsistencyReliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situationsLoyaltyWillingness to protect and save face for a personOpennessWillingness to share ideas and information freelyThis material is found on pages
21Building TrustDemonstrate that you’re working for others’ interests as well as your own.Be a team player.Practice openness.Be fair.Speak your feelings.Show consistency in the basic values that guide your decision making.Maintain confidence.Demonstrate competence.Supplemental material if you want to extend the discussion on trust.
22Exhibit 5-7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity Multiple perspectivesGreater openness to new ideasMultiple interpretationsIncreased creativityIncreased flexibilityIncreased problem-solving skillsDisadvantagesAmbiguityComplexityConfusionMiscommunicationDifficulty in reaching a single agreementDifficulty in agreeing on specific actionsMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pagesManaging diversity on teams is a balancing act. Diversity typically provides fresh perspectives on issues, but it makes it more difficult to unify the team and reach agreements. Heterogeneous teams bring multiple perspectives to the discussion, thus increasing the likelihood that the team will identify creative or unique solutions. Remember that diverse groups have more difficulty at first in working together, but that this dissipates with time.
23Teams and Workforce Diversity Impact of diverse groupsDiversity in personality age, gender and experience promotes conflict, which stimulates creativity and idea generation, which leads to improved decision makingCultural diversity in groups initially leads to more difficulty in building cohesion, gaining satisfaction, being productiveProblems pass with time (certainly by three months)Culturally diverse groups bring more viewpoints outMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pages
24Virtual TeamsTeams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.AdvantagesCan do all the things other teams do, but at a distanceDisadvantagesLack paraverbal and nonverbal cues, and have limited social contactMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pages
25Building Trust on Virtual Teams Start with an electronic “courtship” and provide some personal informationAssign clear roles so members can identify with each otherHave good attitudes (eagerness, enthusiasm, and intense action orientation) in messagesAddress feelings of isolationProvide recognition and feedbackMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pages
26Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer Questions to determine whether a team fits the situation:Can the work be done better by more than one person?Does work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals?Are members of the group interdependent?Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
27Summary and Implications The introduction of teams into the workplace has greatly influenced employee jobsFactors affecting group performanceNorms control group member behaviour by establishing standards of right and wrong.Status inequities create frustration and can adversely influence productivity.The impact of size on a group’s performance depends upon the type of task in which the group is engaged.A group’s demographic composition is a key determinant of individual turnover.Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
28Summary and Implications High-performing teams have common characteristics:They contain people with special skillsThey commit to a common purpose, establish specific goalsThey have the leadership and structure to provide focus and directionThey hold themselves accountable at both the individual and team levelsThere is high mutual trust among membersMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
29Summary and Implications It is difficult to create team players. To do so, managers should:Select individuals with interpersonal skillsProvide training to develop teamwork skillsReward individuals for cooperative effortsMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
31For Review 1. How can teams increase employee motivation? Describe the five-stage group development model.What is the punctuated-equilibrium model?What are the characteristics of an effective team?What are the characteristics of an ineffective team?What is the difference between task-oriented roles and maintenance roles?How can a team minimize social loafing?What are the five dimensions that underlie the concept of trust?Contrast the pros and cons of having diverse teams.What conditions favour creating a team, rather than letting an individual perform a given task?Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 163.
32For Critical ThinkingHow could you use the punctuated-equilibrium model to better understand team behaviour?Have you experienced social loafing as a team member? What did you do to prevent this problem?Would you prefer to work alone or as part of a team? Why? How do you think your answer compares with that of others in your class?What effect, if any, do you expect that workforce diversity has on a team’s performance and satisfaction?Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 163.
33Sports Teams as Models Poor Models Good Models Successful teams integrate cooperation and competitionSuccessful teams score early winsSuccessful teams avoid losing streaksPractice makes perfectSuccessful teams use halftime breaksWinning teams have a stable membershipSuccessful teams debrief after failures and successesPoor ModelsAll sport teams aren’t alikeWork teams are more varied and complexA lot of employees can’t relate to sports metaphorsWorkteam outcomes aren’t easily defined in terms of wins and lossesMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on page 164.
34Breakout Group Exercises Form small groups to discuss the following topics.1. One of the members of your team continually arrives late for meetings and does not turn drafts of assignments in on time. In general this group member is engaging in social loafing. What can the members of your group do to reduce social loafing?2. Consider a team with which you’ve worked. Was there more emphasis on task-oriented or maintenance-oriented roles? What impact did this have on the group’s performance?3. Identify 4 or 5 norms that a team could put into place near the beginning of its life that might help the team function better over time.Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 165.
35Paper Tower ExerciseEach group will receive 20 index cards, 12 paper clips, and 2 marking pens (1 red, 1 green)Using these materials you will build a paper tower that will be judged on: height, stability, and beautyStage 1 (12 minutes). Plan your construction. No building allowed.Stage 2 (15 minutes). Construct the tower. Be sure to put your group # somewhere on the tower.Towers will be delivered to the front of the room, where they will be judged by the class.This exercise is described on page 166.Use this slide to briefly describe the exercise to the class.
36Paper Tower QuestionsWhat percent of the plan did each member of group contribute, on averageDid your group have a leader? Why or why not?How did the group respond to ideas during the planning stage?Did you have task-oriented roles? Maintenance-oriented roles? How helpful and/or effective were these roles?To what extent did you follow the five-step model of group development?What were helpful behaviours? Non-helpful behaviours? Why?This exercise is described on page 166.These are the debriefing questions I use after the towers are built.
37Conducting a Team Meeting 12 steps to more efficient and effective meetings:Prepare a meeting agendaDistribute the agenda in advanceConsult with participants before the meetingGet participants to go over the agendaEstablish specific time parametersMaintain focused discussionEncourage and support participation of all membersMaintain a balanced styleEncourage the clash of ideasDiscourage the clash of personalitiesBe an effective listenerBring proper closureMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on page 169.