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Číslo projektuCZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0028 Číslo materiáluVY_32_INOVACE_176 Název školyGymnázium, Tachov, Pionýrská 1370 Autor Mgr. Eleonora Klasová Předmět Anglický jazyk Ročník 4.4. Datum vytvoření11. 5. 2014 Anotace Výklad nové látky – Relative clauses, s příklady a následními cvičeními - prezentace Metodický pokynprezentace je určena jako výklad do hodiny i jako materiál k samostudiu Pokud není uvedeno jinak, použitý materiál je z vlastních zdrojů autora. Výukový materiál zpracován v rámci projektu EU peníze školám
RELATIVE CLAUSES We use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information about something. E.g. We bought a new house. It is very modern. that We bought a new house that is very modern. John lives in London. He enjoys living in London. which John lives in London, which he enjoys. Relative pronouns we use are: who, which, that who/that - for people which/that – for things We can also use: whose - for possessions, where - for places, when - for time.
Some more examples: who Paul is the man who has that fierce dog. who Sam is annoyed with the man who stole her wallet. that Jim is a boy that plays the drums. that The woman that lived here before is a writer. which The children saw the spacecraft which landed on the moon. which There are many restaurants which do Saturday lunches. that It is the film that I saw yesterday. where We met in the town where we studied. when The winter when we met was very cold and cruel.
There are two types of relatives clauses - Defining and Non-defining clauses. Defining relative clauses are used to identify the person or thing we are talking about. We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses. In defining relative clauses we learn which woman, man, car, etc. the speaker is talking about. Examples: whoI spoke to the woman who lives next door. thatDid you see the man that came this morning? whichThe car which was parked outside belongs to my brother.
who, which, that.Leaving out who, which, that. who, which, that can be the subject or object of a defining relative clause. Example: Paul is the boy who gave me the ring. Here, who is the subject, so we can´t leave it out. /Paul gave me it/. When who, that, which are objects, we often leave them out. Example: Peter is the boy /who/ we met yesterday. That man is the friend /who/ I invited to my birthday party. Here who is the object so we can leave it out.
Join sentences using who, which or that: 1/ I spoke to a woman. She bought the house. 2/ Did you see the letter? It came yesterday. 3/ The man was very nice. He interviewed me. 4/ The keys have disappeared. They were on a coffee table. 5/ That is the woman. She works in the bank. 6/ What is the name of that girl? She telephoned you. 7/ What happened to the boy? He was in your class? 8/ They are the people. They offered Jim their help. 9/ The car has now been repaired. It was broken. 10/ Most of the students are very nice. They study in our school.
1/ I spoke to a woman who bought the house. 2/ Did you see the letter that came yesterday? 3/ The man who interviewed me was very nice. 4/ The keys which were on a coffee table have disappeared. 5/ That is the woman who works in the bank. 6/ What is the name of that girl who telephoned you. 7/ What happened to the boy who was in your class? 8/ They are the people who offered Jim their help. 9/ The car that was broken has now been repaired. 10/ Most of the students who study in our school are very nice. Answers:
Non-defining relative clauses Non-defining relative clauses. who whichRelative pronouns who, which introduce non- defining relative clauses. These sentences give us extra, but not absolutely necessary information. Examples: whois 30 His sister, who is 30, lives next door to me. /We know we are talking about his sister. The age is additional information./ which Mike showed me his certificate, which was on the wall. /The fact that the certificate was on the wall is additional information./
Non-defining clauses are more common in formal writing. The non-defining relative clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. We do not use the relative pronoun that in non-defining relative clauses. !!! We cannot leave out who or which in non-defining relative clauses.
Complete the exercise with commas and relative pronouns: 1/ My parents.. ……are both journalists.. now work in Prague. 2/ The people.. ……are my neighbours.. helped us to move. 3/ Have you still got the money.. ……I gave you? 4/ Prague.. …… has a population over a million.. is our capital. 5/ Eve’s brother.. ……I know for 5 years.. is a very clever boy. 6/ The TV set.. ……was broken.. has been repaired. 7/ Peter.. …….is my best friend.. decided to live in Prague. 8/ Our house.. ……is in the centre.. Is over 50 years old. 9/ The boy.. ……lives next door.. is my new schoolmate. 10/ She gave me the key.. ……I put into my pocket.
Whose in defining and non-defining clauses We use whose when we talk about possessions. It replaces his, her, their… It cannot be left out. Do not confuse whose with who’s!!! Example: I have got an English neighbour whose house was burgled. /=I have got an English neighbour. His house was burgled./
Answers: 1/ My parents, who are both journalists, now work in Prague. 2/ The people, who are my neighbours, helped us to move. 3/ Have you still got the money, which I gave you? 4/ Prague, which has a population over a million, is our capital. 5/ Eve’s brother, who I know for 5 years, is a very clever boy. 6/ The TV set, which was broken, has been repaired. 7/ Peter, who is my best friend, decided to live in Prague. 8/ Our house, which is in the centre, is over 50 years old. 9/ The boy, who lives next door, is my new schoolmate. 10/ She gave me the key, which I put into my pocket.