2News Women Gain Rights, Fashion, and Flappers Prohibition Goes into EffectBenito Mussolini New Prime Minister of ItalyMohandas Gandhi Sent to JailHitler and His Beer Hall PutschLucky Lindy and the Spirit of St. LouisSacco and Vanzetti Go to CourtScopes Monkey Trial
31920: 19th Amendment PassedSuffrage granted to women…Britain follows in 1923Matrimonial Clauses Act…Men and Women Equal in DivorceWomen Adopt New ImageShort Hair and SkirtsArchbishop of Naples (Italy) Blames Earthquake on ItCars Get Electrical Starters…Who Needs a Man Now?Women Smoke in Public and Wear CosmeticsColleges and High Schools Open to Both Genders
4National News, Vol. 1 Women Gain Rights, Fashion, and Flappers Picketing outside of the White House, suffragettes like Alice Paul were arrested and force-fed when they went on a hunger strike.But after the passage of the 19th Amendment, they had their political beaus.
13Arts Roundup Walt Disney presents Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie Earnest Hemingway publishes The Sun Also RisesT.S. Elliot writes free-verse poem, The Waste LandGeorge Gershwin produces Rhapsody in BlueCharlie Chaplin stars in The KidJohn Barrymore, Douglas Fairbanks, and Mary Pickford to star in flicks. Dr. Jeckel and Mr. Hyde released. The Jazz Singer, first talkie hits the screen.Europeans Stravinsky, Ravel, Shaw, Huxley, and Joyce redefine music and literatureOh, yeah. In Harlem, NYC, there was a renaissance among the negro folks
30American Protection Association Noble men are in our ranks— We are not a band of cranks— We are not a lot of bigots or of fools. But, ye Roman Catholic hordes, We will buckle on our swords, If you dare to meddle with our public schools. Dare to be an A.P.A. Dare to stand alone. Dare to work for freedom’s cause. Dare to make it known.Come ye sons of Uncle Sam, Come join the gallant band. Come unite with us to fight our country’s foe. For our God is with the right. We will conquer by His might, And Slick and wily Jesuit must go.
31Excuses, Excuses, Excuses A. Palmer Mitchell, US Attorney-General prosecutes suspected anti-AmericansLoyalty questioned of any and all Southern and Eastern European immigrantsStem from Russian Revolution by Bolsheviks (Communists)US troops tried to restore Romanov family after WWI
35Prosperity Turned Sour America fed the world during the Great WarAfter the War soldiers returned to the fieldsAmerican goods were less neededPrices decreasedFarmers earned less, but had the same expensesFarmed harder, bought less finished productsFactories laid off workers or closedCity workers has less to spend and repay creditMore closures of factories, banks, and stores
41Prohibition Goes Into Effect The “Noble Experiment”Passage of the 18th Amendment (1919)Cure for All Evils of SocietyCrooked PoliticiansChild and Wife AbuseFailure of Immigrants to AssimilateExperiment FailureOrganized CrimeSpeakeasiesMoonshiners
43Both Sides of the Question Can we legislate morality?Is alcohol a cause or effect of societal problems?How can we predict consequence of rules?
44A Long History of Temperance: Carrie Nation Issue of alcohol, drugs, tobacco and gun control is common in reform movements from the Great Awakenings to the present.Usually taken up by WASP women and Fundamentalist groups in the Northeast and the Southern Bible Belt
45For Every Action, There is an Equal and Opposite Reaction NYC has 32,000 Speakeasies operating during Prohibition$60,000,000 made in 1927 by Al Capone from bootleggingSmuggling operations brings in booze from Canada, Mexico, and the West IndiesHomemade “hooch” from wood alcohol leads to blindness, paralysis, and death
46Criminal Activity and Defense Northside RaidFederal Bureau of Investigation Founded
49Benito Mussolini in Italy Journalist, teacher, and father of five becomes Europe’s first Fascist dictator—Il DuceKing Victor Emmanuel names Black Shirt leader Prime Minister after March on Rome in 1922Brits and Frogs see peace aheadItalian children recruited for Il Duce
50Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Jailed Gandhi, aka Mahatma “Great Soul”, imprisoned for resisting Brit control of IndiaPacifist uses non-violence and civil disobedience as protestsIndia Act of 1919 not fast enough for former London law student and South African attorney
51Adolph Hitler: Beer Hall Putsch Angry Austrian corporal takes over National German Socialist Workingman’s PartyAttempted coup in Bavaria results in arrest of Party’s FuhrerSpeech vows for revenge after Treaty of Versailles leaves Germans in financial woesWrites Mein Kampf in jail
52International Dateline Vladimir Ilyich Ulanov Lenin, USSR chief, dies under mysterious circumstanceJoseph Stalin becomes Soviet dictatorElizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor born—baby girl to become future Brit queenDancer Isadora Duncan suffocated in car accidentEgypt granted independence from BritsLebanon now a republic with dual Moslem/Christian leadersSun Yat-sen takes over China from Manchu empireImmigrants Houdini and Valentino die in unrelated cases of peritonitis
5425 Year-Old Airmail Pilot Reaches France 05/20/1927 Charles Augustus Lindbergh touches down near Paris & meets 100,000 fans2 French pilots die in earlier attemptsJune 1928: Amelia Earhart first to repeat feat
55Charles Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis Celebrity leads to a fallen hero and the loss of his child
56Lindbergh Baby Kidnapped Child taken from homeParents out, babysitter suspected, but clearedRansom paid, child found deadBruno Hauptmann accused, found guilty, and executedKidnapping becomes a federal capital offense
58Sacco and Vanzetti Combine a false charge and false witnesses Add Red Scare and Crime for motivation/ impetusToss in povertyHeat with fear of changeServe on suspicion for anything foreignIsolate as a preservative
61They were convicted and executed. Their charge was murder of a security guard during an attempted robberyWitnesses placed them elsewhere, but their testimony was discredited because of the politics of one of the witnesses.They were convicted and executed.
68News Briefs Diabetes beaten 1921—Charles Best discovers insulin Albert Einstein awarded Nobel Prize in PhysicsImmunization against TBVitamin E found by Evans and BishopVitamin C isolated by Szent-GyorgylTutankhamen’s Tomb discovered in Egypt by Charles Carter and George HerbertHenry Ford’s plant rolls Model T out of DetroitBBC created after 1920 radio broadcasts heardClarence Birdseye finds method to freeze food in the AntarcticJohn Baird introduces his TV; Charles Jenkins broadcasts in 1927Alexander Fleming uses mold for penicillin and antibioticsFirst motel opens in CAKodak introduces color 16mm filmBabe Ruth hits 60 HR
70Cause and Effect Victorian, middle-class WASP and rural majority Before the 1920sBy the end of the 1920sVictorian, middle-class WASP and rural majorityIndustrialization was regulated and the primary source of US incomeWorld War I left the nation wanting peace and isolationism from foreign entanglementsGood and bad were absolutesHard Times hit every householdRole of family and women were changed foreverEducation was available and expectedCities were increasingly more powerful and exoticEuropean fascism was on the rise
71Legacy of the 20s Questioning of gender, generation, and genetics Technology and economics as motivationDebate on the role of governmentChange from rural to urban as the American way of lifeMorality is not absoluteHero has many meanings