Presentation on theme: "The Rule of Reciprocation: We should try to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us."— Presentation transcript:
The Rule of Reciprocation: We should try to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us.
Reciprocity All human societies have this rule (Gouldner, 1960) “an honored network of obligation” (Leakey & Lewin, 1978); “web of indebtedness” (Tiger & Fox, 1971) Enables division of labor Creates interdependence and societal bonds
Regan (1971) “Art appreciation” study Reciprocity condition: confederate leaves and returns with a Coke for the participant Control condition: confederate leaves and returns Confederate asks participant to buy raffle tickets
Regan (1971) Participants given a Coke bought twice as many tickets as those not given anything For participants in the control condition, the more they liked the confederate, the more tickets they bought For participants in the reciprocity condition, liking was completely unrelated to ticket purchases
Different outcomes of persuasion Short-term compliance Long-term attitude change
Reciprocity in real life “Free” gifts “Free” samples Political donations Dating
Reciprocity in long-term relationships Reciprocity operates differently in long-term relationships (families, long-term friendships) Willingness to provide what the other needs, when it is needed. Tit-for-tat reciprocity would be awkward and unwanted It does appear that we keep some accounting
Modern thoughts on reciprocity Inclusive fitness “Generational” reciprocity
Reciprocal concessions Negotiation Rejection then retreat The “door-in-the-face” technique (Cialdini et al., 1975)
Cialdini and Ascani (1976) Students asked to donate blood in a campus blood drive Door-in-the-face: first asked to donate a pint every six weeks for three years Control: just asked to donate one pint Would they agree to donate again? Door-in-the-face: Control:
Benton, Kelley, and Liebling, 1972 Participants bargained with a “negotiation opponent” for a pool of money Opponent –Made an extreme demand and stuck with it –Made a moderate demand and stuck with it –Made an extreme demand and retreated to a moderate demand Third condition led to greater agreement, greater feelings of responsibility for the outcome, and greater satisfaction with the outcome
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