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Persuasion Dale Walker University of Wyoming College of Arts & Sciences ALADN 2005 – New Orleans.

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Presentation on theme: "Persuasion Dale Walker University of Wyoming College of Arts & Sciences ALADN 2005 – New Orleans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Persuasion Dale Walker University of Wyoming College of Arts & Sciences ALADN 2005 – New Orleans

2 Persuasion I.Social Psychology II.Ethos III.Myth

3 Persuasion Q: What about logic and reason? A: That’s what you studied in college, and you know that’s only a small part. So let’s look at other things.

4 Persuasion I.Social Psychology II.Ethos III.Myth

5 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity 2.Consistency 3.Social proof 4.Authority 5.Likeability 6.Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

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7 1. Reciprocity Cialdini One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

8 1. Reciprocity Cialdini One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

9 1. Reciprocity Cialdini give a flower then ask for a donation LBJ called in favors; Carter had none to call in; political patronage send prospect pre-printed return address labels with solicitation letter small gifts and comped meals I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us E.g:

10 1. Reciprocity I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us Cialdini Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution

11 1. Reciprocity I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution Cialdini Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to

12 1. Reciprocity I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to Cialdini Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; or present the undesirable option first

13 1. Reciprocity I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; present undesirable option first Cialdini

14 2. Consistency Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous Cialdini

15 2. Consistency Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous Cialdini

16 2. Consistency Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment) Cialdini

17 2. Consistency Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment) Cialdini

18 2. Consistency Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments begin to shape a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment) Cialdini

19 2. Consistency Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs Cialdini

20 2. Consistency Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs Cialdini

21 2. Consistency Cialdini negotiating a car price “Hi, how are you?” Howard Dean’s campaign (meet ups and volunteers writing letters) have customers not salespeople fill out sale agreements testimonials campaign leadership Examples:

22 3. Social Proof One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct. The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct. Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us Cialdini

23 3. Social Proof One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct. The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct. Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us Cialdini

24 3. Social Proof Cialdini laugh tracks faith communities mob behavior inaction toward crime or emergency Jonestown applause testimonials Examples:

25 4. Authority We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure Cialdini

26 4. Authority We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure Cialdini

27 4. Authority Titles Uniforms Clothes Trappings of status Cialdini

28 5. Likeability We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like Cialdini

29 5. Likeability We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like Cialdini

30 5. Likeability Cialdini similarity of opinion, life-style, background, personality traits familiarity and contact cooperation in shared goals Compliance factors:

31 5. Likeability Cialdini physical attractiveness compliments association with positive things (beauty, what’s hip, food) success smile Compliance factors:

32 5. Likeability Cialdini Tupperware parties peer solicitation good cop / bad cop eating together celebrity endorsements Examples:

33 6. Scarcity Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited We want it even more when we are in competition for it E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week Cialdini

34 6. Scarcity Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited We want it even more when we are in competition for it E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week Cialdini

35 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity 2.Consistency 3.Social proof 4.Authority 5.Likeability 6.Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

36 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us 2.Consistency 3.Social proof 4.Authority 5.Likeability 6.Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

37 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us 2.Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done 3.Social proof 4.Authority 5.Likeability 6.Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

38 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us 2.Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done 3.Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct 4.Authority 5.Likeability 6.Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

39 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us 2.Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done 3.Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct 4.Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority 5.Likeability 6.Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

40 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us 2.Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done 3.Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct 4.Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority 5.Likeability: we say yes to someone we like 6.Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

41 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us 2.Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done 3.Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct 4.Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority 5.Likeability: we say yes to someone we like 6.Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

42 I. Social Psychology 1.Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us 2.Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done 3.Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct 4.Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority 5.Likeability: we say yes to someone we like 6.Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

43 Persuasion I.Social Psychology II.Ethos III.Myth

44 Ethos The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. Goal = credibility Personae: expert, friend, genuine

45 Ethos Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech

46 Ethos Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech

47 Ethos Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker E.g., the simple rustic

48 Ethos Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker E.g., the simple rustic

49 Ethos

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51

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53 the absentminded professor the overbearing school principal the precocious child the immature father the rich snob the bimbo Comedy thrives on personality types.

54 Ethos simplicity or sophistication elitism or egalitarianism emphasis on faculty or students, research or teaching careers and professionalism or the liberal arts athletics or academics regional or national or global Variable elements of institutional ethos:

55 Ethos

56 diversity, tolerance, and openness inquiry and discovery heritage and history location, region and campus community sports Common elements of institutional ethos:

57 Ethos The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. What is the ethos of your school? It’s defining characteristics and values? What is the ethos you bring to your writing and speaking? What is the ethos you wish to project?

58 Persuasion I.Social Psychology II.Ethos III.Myth

59 Myth Popular meaning = lies Greek  mythos  = story Greek  mythos  opposes λογος (logos), i.e., reason Goal: frame or define a situation to create common ground Benefit: enliven rhetoric

60 Myth some myths / stories explain why and how we do the things we do (the first Thanksgiving); some reinforce the values we share in common (Horatio Alger); some frame the way we view the world (manifest destiny)

61 What is your story? Help your donors see themselves in a story, especially a meaningful story Touch big ideas Make the story sensory Fill it with shared values (ethos) Provide meaning to your donors’ lives and their philanthropy Create their self-image as donors

62 Persuasion I.Social Psychology II.Ethos III.Myth

63 Persuasion


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