3 AnswerState and local employment rises steadily and federal employment remains constantMandates and grants both cause higher state/local employment by either dictating or suggesting what they need to accomplish independent of the federal government
4 Decrease Approval Ratings 2003 #1 – TaylorFighting a losing warJohnson in VietnamBusch’s War on TerrorPersonal problems-public feels cheated, and the press focuses on the flaw of the presidentNixon - Watergate ScandalClinton - Monica LewinskyReagan - Iran-Contra
5 Increase Approval Ratings Prosperous economyCreates more jobsPeople have more money to spendIncreases job securityPeople have a positive outlookFighting a successful warPeople feel like they are supporting a heroic effort“us v. them” mentality
6 2004 Q4 - SamiDivided government is defined as having different political parties occupying the executive and legislative branches at the same time. Currently the democrats have the presidency while the republicans have the congress.Divided government has contributed to the decline in trust and confidence in government by creating an increased sense of partisanship and a situation called gridlock where bills and initiatives proposed either by the president or the congress go no where due to the lack of compromise; and because of the feeling that nothing gets done, the people’s trust and confidence in the government decreases.The increased cost of election campaigns in the US has also contributed to the decline in trust of the government. Due to the increased cost it seems like only the rich are able to run and generate enough revenue to compete and with many donations coming from private corporations and political action committees it creates a sense of donor and recipient connection in which the candidates are in the pockets of the contributors. And even with attempts to reform campaign finance there are still many loopholes and this causes a loss in faith in the government.
7 2004 Q4 Cont.One of the biggest consequences of the loss in trust and confidence in the government is the decline in American voting. With all the backroom deals and closed door bargains many Americans feel like their vote doesn’t matter and as a result our voting rate is so low compared to other developed nations.Another consequence of the decline in trust and confidence is that Americans have begun to identify more with Independents and Third-Parties., with the Tea Party being a good example. The rise of these groups has caused even greater levels of polarization and partisanship and many Tea Party candidates have led the government even further away from negotiation and compromise. The result of all of this is the lowest level of satisfaction since the Great Depression.
8 2012 Q2 FRQ2012 AP® UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICSFREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS2. (a) Using the chart above, compare minority representation in 1960 and 2010.(b) Explain how each of the following assisted in the removal of barriers to minority voting.• Voting Rights Act of 1965• Twenty-fourth Amendment(c) Identify one barrier that currently impedes minority representation in Congress. Explain why the barrieryou identified inhibits minority representation in Congress.Anthony Letterle
9 a) 1960- African American population 10 a) African American population 10.6% and their house representation was at .1%. Hispanics population at 6% and their representation was also at .1% African American population at 12.8% and their house representation rose to 9.7%. Hispanic population grew to 14.8% and their house representation grew to 6.4% Trend- House is increasing the ratio of population to representation of minorities b) Voting rights act of Banned the use of literacy tests 24th Amendment- Banned the use of poll taxes c) Gerrymandering is a big barrier for minorities because in either pack people on a district to keep minorities from electing a minority candidate or split apart a district with a large minority group to, again, keep a minority representative out of congress
11 This question asks that the student explain the workings of judicial appointments at the federal level and compare and contrast the appointments of Bush and Obama respectively.A) One point - describe one similarity, possible similarities:In both cases more than half the appointees were white.In both cases the percentage of Hispanic appointees was similar.In both cases Asian Americans were the lowest demographic.B) Two points - two correct differences required, possible answers:Obama appointed a significantly higher percentage of women.Obama appointed many more racial minorities than Bush; 18% of the Bush appointees were non-white while 41% of Obama’s appointees were non-white.Obama appointed more minorities in every category (Hispanic, Black and Asian) compared to Bush.C) One point - explain how political affiliation causes differences in appointments:Party identification is a rough indicator of who will be chosen as a federal judge. A president wants to nominate someone who will agree with their positions.A president will choose someone who will go on to support their political coalition in the future regardless of the affiliation of future Presidents in order to help their party win future elections.D) One point - explain how a President can increase the likelihood of having their judicial nominations confirmed:Consulting with the senate / using senatorial courtesy.Choosing a moderate.Choosing a well qualified candidate.
12 B.) Explain two advantages of each form of participation identified. 2.Citizens often choose to participate in the political process in ways other than voting. Jake 2003 #2Identify two forms of participation in the political process other than voting.Peaceful ProtestingJoin Political Action CommitteeB.) Explain two advantages of each form of participation identified.Advantages to peaceful protesting include calling direct attention to a specific issue and gaining support for your issue from media and other people becoming aware of the topicJoining a PAC gives you the possibility to vote for whom others ca vote for and a chance to raise funds for they're party.
13 Both party leadership and committees in Congress play key roles in the legislative process – 4 - DanielleDefine two of the following elements of the congressional committee system and explain how each influences the legislative progress: Specialization, Reciprocity/logrolling, Party representation on committeesSpecialization: members of Congress develop policy expertiseDevelopment of expertiseIndependence from executiveMore attention to legislativeDivision of laborBetter legislation (efficient/knowledge)Reciprocity/logrolling: vote trading/exchanges, bargainingSpeeds ProcessGovernment does moreParty representation on committees: representation reflective of chamber as a wholeParty pushes own agendaDetermines leadership in committees
14 Assignment of members to committees Assignment of committee chairs Both party leadership and committees in Congress play key roles in the legislative processIdentify two ways party leadership in Congress can influence the legislative process and explain how each way influences the processAssignment of members to committeesAssignment of committee chairsSchedulingAgenda-setting (rules committee)Party disciplineLeadership use of mediaRecognition on floorLeadership of electoral supportAnd explain . . .
16 2004 – 3 - Sarah. Minor parties have been a common feature of U. S 2004 – 3 - Sarah. Minor parties have been a common feature of U.S. politics.Describe the point of view expressed about minor parties in the political cartoon above.Answer should include an accurate description of the cartoon’s point of view: voting for a minor party is equivalent to throwing a vote away.b) Identify and explain how two rules of the U.S. electoral system act as obstacles to minor party candidates winning elections.Accepted answers include an accurate depiction of the winner-take-all aspect of the electoral college, ballot access, campaign financing (the rules and limits, not the effects), federal funding of presidential elections, exclusion from presidential debates, and single-member plurality districts.c) Minor parties make important contributions to the U.S. political system in spite of the institutional obstacles to their candidate’s success. Describe two of these contributions.Acceptable answers may include accurate depictions of new or different ideas or issues, voice for fringe, safety valve for discontent, enhanced participation, room for critical voices, pushing major parties to include otherwise underrepresented concerns or groups, or clarifying major party candidate’s positions.
17 2013 Q1 John Edwards Describe a Direct Democracy Describe a Republic Everybody votes on everythingEx. Ancient AthensDescribe a RepublicElected officials vote on thingsEx. Ancient Rome1 reason framers chose a republicDistrust of the public - they feared direct political responsibility would cause conflict that might undermine the original values of the constitutionModels of congressional representationTrustee – the congress member makes political decisions based on their personal experiences and ideologiesDelegate – the congress member makes decisions based upon the views of their constituentsWhy would a member of congress act as a trustee rather than a delegate?In a situation where the issue relates to their personal experiencesEx. A former District Attorney strengthening anti drug laws
18 2012 Question 1 Lindsey Dunham 1. Members of Congress are charged with three primary duties—writing laws, overseeing the implementation of laws, and serving the needs of their constituents. (a) Describe the role of each of the following in lawmaking. • Senate filibuster • House Rules Committee • Conference committee (b) Describe one method by which Congress exercises oversight of the federal bureaucracy. (c) Explain how casework affects members’ attention to legislation.
19 3 points Describe the role of each of the following in lawmaking (Must describe the role in lawmaking explicitly.)Senate filibuster allows a senator on the floor to:Prevent/delay action on a particular bill.Prevent/delay other business from being conducted.Rules Committee schedules or manages the flow of legislation on the floor to:Make it easier or more difficult for a bill to pass.Make the process more efficient/orderly/manageable.Conference Committee reconciles differences in House and Senate versions of a bill.1 point Describe one method by which Congress exercises oversight of the federal bureaucracy.(Must describe the context in which Congress uses the method to oversee the bureaucracy)Budgetary process (power of the purse)Committee hearingsConfirmation or rejection of political appointments to the bureaucracyInvestigationsNew legislationLegislative veto1 point Explain how casework affects members’ attention to legislation.Diverts time, resources, and staff, thus reducing members’ ability to focus on legislation.Develops awareness of problems, thus focusing more time and resources on related legislation
20 2012 Q3 Matt KentThe judiciary is often assumed to be isolated from politics. However, politics affects many aspects of the judiciary.The President has to be sure that his opinion is heard, and therefore appoints judges that share his ideologyThe Senate also has to approve the choiceThe judiciary is checked by Congress in any amendments that are made to the Constitution, the document that they must adhere toThe judiciary is checked by the executive branch in that members of the judiciary are nominated by the executive, making them more likely to agree with them.
22 Campaign contributions Grass roots/mass mobilizing Identify the techniques used by different interest groups and give examplesLitigationCampaign contributionsGrass roots/mass mobilizingAn action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself; a judicial contest; any disputeNAACP used the courts to progress civil liberties with judicial review.Campaign finance is all funds raised for a political candidate, idea, interest group, or organization that gets involved politically.The mobilizing of the civilian population in order to protest or support a political movement.
23 2013 Question 3:Analyze the ways in which the United States sought to advance its interests in world affairs between 1789 and (Indya)Potential Outside Information•National security: neutrality and isolationism, war, and diplomacy.Possible United States Interests in World Affairs•Territorial expansion, including the impact on Native Americans.•Economic interests: exports, slave trade, tariffs, and free trade.•Relations with Europe and the newly independent Latin American republics.•Establishment and maintenance of national honor and respect.Potential Relevant Historical Information•Federalist pro-British ideas and policies and Democratic-Republican pro-French ideas and policiesexerted an influence on the conduct of foreign affairs.George Washington•Tariff of 1789.•Haitian Revolution (1791–1804).•Neutrality Proclamation and Act of 1793.•Citizen Genet Affair.•Invention of cotton gin by Eli Whitney (1793) led to the beginning of increased cotton production and exports.•Jay’s Treaty (1794).•Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain (1795), also called Treaty of San Lorenzo.•Washington’s Farewell Address (1796).John Adams•Quasi-war or naval war with France ( ).•XYZ Affair (1797).•Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) suppressed Democratic-Republican’s and Jeffersonian Republican’s support for France.•Neutrality in the Napoleonic Wars (1799–1815).•Convention of 1800 — ends 1778 Treaty of Alliance with France and quas
24 2013 Q2 A Sunny Patel Production And sponsored by Garamond, the official font of SP Productions
25 Political parties play important rules in US elections and government institutions. Over the past several decades, the influence of political parties in elections has declined while the strength in Congress has increasedDescribe two important functions of political parties in US electionsDescribe one important role political parties play within Congress to promote the party’s public policy agendaExplain how Direct Primaries and Candidate-centered campaigns have weakened the influence of political parties over the political processExplain how party polarization has strengthened party influence in Congress
26 A) Describe two important functions of political parties in US elections Political parties can:• Provide cues for voters• Provide a platform of issues• Recruit candidates for government office• Nominate candidates for governmentoffice• Raise funds for their candidates’campaigns• Support for candidates’ campaigns• Mobilize voters and get out the votes
27 B) Describe one important role political parties play within Congress to promote the party’s public policy agenda• Leadership positions in Congress are assigned on a party basis.• Party leaders articulate legislative policy priorities of the party.• Party leaders facilitate legislative policy priorities of the party.• Majority party selects committee chairs who promote the party’s legislative priorities in committee.• Majority party appoints and controls the standing committees.• Majority party controls floor debates.• Majority party controls the rules and calendar favorable to majority party’s policy priorities.
28 C) Explain how Direct Primaries and Candidate-centered campaigns have weakened the influence of political parties over the political processDirect primaries:Gives parties less control over the nomination process of candidatescandidates appeal directly to voters and bypass partiescandidates may win who are not favored by the party eliteCandidate-centered campaigns:Candidates appeal directly to votersCandidates can raise money by appealing to voters or PACs directlyCandidates choose their own issues to campaign on
29 D) Explain how party polarization has strengthened party influence in Congress Party Polarization strengthens party influence in Congress because:Members of political parties vote along party line; therefore they are less likely to cross party lines to vote with the other party
31 6 pointsPart (a): 2 pointsOne point is earned for a correct explanation of the importance of each of the following in the formation ofthe policy agenda:Media• Affects agenda setting by what it chooses to cover (priming/gatekeeping/watchdog).• Media framing of issues.Elections• Election winners control agenda.• Initiative process.• Issues raised during campaigns.Part (b): 2 pointsOne point is earned for a correct description of the role of each of the following in the enactment ofpublic policy:Congressional committees: committee actions related to the enactment of public policy(gatekeeper/mark-up legislation/hold hearings).Executive Orders• Presidents use executive orders to enact policy.• Bypass Congress.Part (c): 2 pointsOne point is earned for a correct explanation of the importance of each of the following in theimplementation of public policy:Bureaucratic discretion: bureaucrats have the ability to shape implementation of public policy.Issue networks or iron triangles• Interest group(s)/congressional committee(s) pressure bureaucracy to implement policy thatbenefits them.• Bureaucracy can shape policy implementation to benefit interest group(s).
32 Part AA. The media displays candidates in elections, representatives, leaders, and policy in a way to make the citizen favor one side over the other. This changes the way citizens vote, and the people they vote for form public policy.Elections are when citizens vote for a candidate who’s opinion is closest to themselves or who is best fit for the job. This view of the candidates and opinions of the citizens can be altered by media and campaigning. The people citizens select to represent them form public policy.
33 Part BB. The congressional committee is where bills originate. Committee leaders have the power to kill any bill related to the committees job. They also have the powers to display what they believe to be as the best bills. It is sort of like a filter for public policy. The bills presented to congress by the committee is seen as the most knowledgeable as their topic.Executive orders are orders by the president which have the power of a law but do not need to be passed by The Senate or House of Representatives. They do need to be related to or connected to a law previously passed. These allow the president a high level of a form of discretionary authority with laws and actions of the federal government.
34 Part CC. Bureaucratic discretion allows for bureaucrat leaders to enact laws in a way they seem fit. This gives them a good amount of power, which is called discretionary authority. The bureaucratic leaders can interpret laws passed by congress with a good amount of leniency, which changes implementation of public policy.Iron triangles are the organization of congress, interest groups, and the bureaucracy. Each corner of the triangle has power, but a balance is kept. The interest groups keep congress members in office with campaigning and funding, the congress members keep the bureaucracy funded with public policy. The connection between those three groups keep the federal government from implementing certain public policy that would hurt interest groups, and give the bureaucracy too mush discretionary authority or stop funding for federal organizations and the bureaucracy.
35 2004 Question 1 Badal PatelPresidents are generally thought to have advantages over Congress in conducting foreign policy because of the formal and informal powers of the presidency.(a) Identify two formal constitutional powers of the President in making foreign policy.(b) Identify two informal constitutional powers of Congress in making foreign policy.(c) Identify two informal powers of the President that contribute to the President’s advantage over Congress in conducting foreign policy.(d) Explain how each of the informal powers identified in (c) contributes to the President’s advantage over Congress in conducting foreign policy.
36 Answer(a) Commander-in-chief; power to commit troops. Appointment of ambassadors and foreign policy officials. Negotiate/make treaties. Recognition of nations. Receive ambassadors and other public ministers.(b) Confirm ambassadors. Power of purse in military/ foreign policy matters. Declare war. Pass laws/resolutions. Regulate foreign commerce (including trade agreements). Ratify treaties(c) Execute agreements. Access to media/bully pulpit/morale building. Agenda setting. Meet with world leaders. Crisis manager. International coalition building. President has access to more information, knowledge, or expertise than does Congress. Recognized as global leader(d) Persuade Congress: negotiate, offer support, threats. Persuade public: on foreign policy process/issues. Ability to circumvent the formal process