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Chapter Eleven Congress
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Structure and Powers of Congress Congress has two separate chambers. Representation in the House is based on population. Each state has two senators.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Structure and Powers of Congress (Cont’d) The Constitution gives the House and Senate essentially similar legislative tasks, though each has powers that are only its own. The House initiates impeachment proceedings against a President or federal judges. Bills with revenue must originate in the House.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Structure and Powers of Congress (Cont’d) The Senate impeachment trial votes to convict the President or federal judges and remove them from office. The Senate must approve major presidential appointments. The Senate has the sole power to affirm treaties.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Electing Congress Incumbents have a very high rate of return to Congress. Incumbents remain protected by district lines that are gerrymandered to protect incumbents or the dominant party during the process of district reapportionment every ten years after the federal census is conducted.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Electing Congress (Cont’d) Name recognition, largely through media exposure, contributes to voters’ familiarity with the incumbent. Casework, or services to constituents, further provides an electoral advantage to the incumbent over the challenger.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Figure 11.1: Incumbents: Life is Good
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Electing Congress (Cont’d) The opposing party and sympathetic PACs may target vulnerable incumbents, thus giving a challenger a better chance to succeed. The members of Congress are not representative of the U.S. population in terms of demographics and thus do not meet the descriptive representation criteria.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Electing Congress (Cont’d) A Supreme Court ruling in 1993 ruled states’ efforts to increase minority representation through racial gerrymandering unconstitutional.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Congressional Agenda Some issues get on the agenda because an event (like Sept. 11th) draws our attention to a problem. Presidential support can also move an issue onto the agenda quickly. Congressional party leaders and committee chairs have the best opportunity to influence the agenda.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Legislative Process: An Overview After being introduced, bills go to committee and then usually to a subcommittee. After a bill has been passed by a committee, it goes to the full membership for debate, possible amendment, and a vote. The President may sign or veto any bill that Congress has passed.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Figure 11.4: The Legislative Process
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Committees: The Workhorses of Congress Congress has committees for the same reason that any large organization is subdivided into specialized groups or divisions: to develop and use expertise in specific areas. Committee types include standing, joint, select and conference.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Committees: The Workhorses of Congress (Cont’d) Influence on committees grows formally with seniority and informally with increased expertise. Within each committee, the senior member of the majority party usually becomes the committee chair.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Committees: The Workhorses of Congress (Cont’d) Much public policy decision-making takes place in committees and subcommittees, especially in markup sessions. To follow through on legislation, oversight is a process of reviewing the operations of an agency to determine whether it is carrying out policies as Congress intended.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Committees: The Workhorses of Congress (Cont’d) Both pluralism and majoritarianism play a role in congressional behavior.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Leaders and Followers in Congress Each of the two parties in the two houses has a leadership hierarchy.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Leaders and Followers in Congress (Cont’d)
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Leaders and Followers in Congress (Cont’d) The operation of the House and the Senate is structured by both formal rules and informal norms. Unwritten norms of behavior help to keep both houses operating smoothly.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Legislative Environment The most important influences that determine how a legislator will vote seem to be the following: Political parties The President Constituents Interest groups
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Dilemma of Representation All members of Congress live in two worlds. In Washington they spend time dealing with the great issues of national concern. But they also spend much of their time traveling back to their district or state, where they meet with constituents and give speeches to local groups.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Dilemma of Representation (Cont’d) According to English political philosopher Edmund Burke, representatives are obligated to consider the views of their constituents, but they are not obligated to vote according to those views if they think they are misguided, termed a trustee.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Dilemma of Representation (Cont’d) Other philosophers believe that a legislator’s primary responsibility is to represent the majority view of his or her constituents, regardless of their own view, known as a delegate.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Pluralism, Majoritarianism, and Democracy The framework that legislators use in making decisions has broad implications for governing. Parliamentary systems are a point of comparison. They fit the majoritarian model of democracy to a much greater extent than does Congress.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Pluralism, Majoritarianism, and Democracy (Cont’d) Congress’s inability to reduce the budget deficit in the 1980s and early 1990s reflected the pluralistic nature of congressional policymaking.
Congress Branch of the people. Powers of Congress Duties of the House and Senate The House of Representatives -Initiates impeachment proceedings against.
Chapter 11 CONGRESS. Learning Outcomes 11.1 Explain the structure and powers of Congress as envisioned by the framers and enumerated in the Constitution.
Congress. 13 | 2 The purpose of this chapter is to describe the roles and organization of Congress. After reading and reviewing the material in this.
CONGRESS Chapter Thirteen. How Congress Operates Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 | 2 Awesome video explanation.
Chapter Thirteen Congress. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 | 2 The Evolution of Congress The intent of the Framers: –To oppose.
Congress: The People’s Branch Chapter 11. Your Congressmen:
UNIT 3 RULES WERE MADE TO BE BROKEN… OR AT LEAST INTERPRETED” GPS STANDARD 1 What does the legislative branch do? 1 What does the legislative branch do?
Whose house? “House” work Commit- tees What they do Leaders & groups ElectionMis-cell- any AP Government Jeopardy – Congress.
Legislature Congress: the Senate and the House of Representatives This presentation is the property of Dr. Kevin Parsneau for use by him and his current.
Chapter The Origin and Powers of Congress The Great Compromise created two separate, powerful legislative chambers Equal representation in.
CONGRESS. Reading Quiz 1.Name the two houses of Congress. 2.How long is a term for a Representative? 3.How long is a term for a Senator? 4.Briefly describe.
Congress. Congress and the Constitution Bicameral – Great Compromise – Pluralism Differences between House and Senate – Qualifications and Terms – Filibuster.
CHAPTER 5 SECTIONS 3 & 4 The House of Representatives and The Senate.
Congress House & Senate: Differences in Representation Bicameral System: Two Chambers –Each state has two senators –Representation in the House determined.
Ch. 6 Congress at Work. Ch. 6, Section 1: Organization of Congress Essential Questions – What are the terms and sessions of Congress? – How is congressional.
Unit 4 Review Congress. The People’s Influence Constituents’ views (Delegate) Party Views (Partisan) Personal Views (Trustee) Congress in the Constitution.
Chapter Eleven Congress. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved In the congressional setting, casework refers to a. members’
Presentation by Eric Miller, Blinn College, Bryan, Texas. CHAPTER 11 Congress: Balancing National Goals and Local Interests.
Congress Chapter 7. Congress We will cover: Intentions of Framers/Changes The Constitution and the Legislative Branch Functions How Congress is Organized-differences.
Chapter 5 Vocabulary Section 1. Chapter 5 Vocabulary Section 1.
Chapter 11 Congress. Rule initiation Interest representation Rule application Rule Interpretation Constituency Service Purposes of Congress.
Chapter 9 Congress (The Legislative Branch). Bi-Cameral Two Houses House of Representatives and Senate Similar to England’s House of Commons and House.
Unit 4: The Legislative Branch The Structure and Function of our Law-making Body.
Jeopardy House 1Senate 2Prez 3Speaker 4 Leader 5 Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Final Jeopardy.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman.
The Senate House of Rep. Bills to Laws Congress Checks & Balances Exec. & Judicial Checks & Bal.
Chapter Twelve: Congress 1. Learning Objectives Explain the major functions of Congress, including lawmaking, representation, constituent service, oversight,
The Legislative Branch: Congress. The Evolution of Congress Intent of Framers Congress generally dominant over the presidency for more than 140 years.
Unit IV: The Legislative Branch. 1. Purpose of legislative branch: to write laws 2. All of the instructions for Congress (the legislative branch) can.
Pearson Education, Inc. © 2005 Chapter 11 CONGRESS.
6 Congress. Trace the roots of the legislative branch outlined by the U.S. Constitution Characterize the demographic attributes of members of Congress,
U3, C11 Congress. Major Differences Between the House and Senate HOUSESENATE Larger body (435 members)Smaller body (100 members) Shorter term (2 years);
Congress. Conflicting Views We disdain the “Institution” of Congress We “love” our individual members.
Structure and Organization of Congress
Representing the American People The United States Congress is a bicameral legislature in which power is divided between two chambers: the House and the.
Chapter 11. Congress as a Career: Election to Congress Using incumbency to stay in Congress The service strategy: taking care of constituents Campaign.
Congress--the legislative branch of the federal government Senate House of Representatives.
Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning CONGRESS Chapter Eleven.
1 Chapter 12. The Representatives and Senators The Job – Salary of $174,000 with retirement benefits – Office space in D.C. and at home and staff to fill.
To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson.
Congress: Balancing National Goals and Local Interests Chapter 11.
Chapter 9 Congress Congress Origins, Structure, and Membership Bicameral Differences Rules of Lawmaking: How a Bill Becomes a Law Budgeting and Oversight.
Congress Questions. Lots of frequent flier miles!!! Very busy schedules! Balancing work for constituents (pork/earmarks, casework) with work to.
American Government: Roots and Reform, 2014 Election Update, 12e O'Connor | Sabato | Yanus Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights.
Section 1- How Congress is organized?. How Congress is Organized The House 435 members, 2 year terms of office. Initiates all revenue bills, more influential.
The Congress Chapter “ In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable.
Aim: What is the role of the Legislative Branch? Do Now: What do you remember about the make-up of the Legislative Branch?
Chapter 9 The Congress. Why was Congress Created? founders feared tyrannical rulers founders also had experienced the weakness of the congress under the.
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