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VERSITET Senior Researcher Marianne Thomsen & Post.Doc. Massimo Pizzol Department of Environmental Science Faculty of Technology and Science Aarhus University.

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Presentation on theme: "VERSITET Senior Researcher Marianne Thomsen & Post.Doc. Massimo Pizzol Department of Environmental Science Faculty of Technology and Science Aarhus University."— Presentation transcript:

1 VERSITET Senior Researcher Marianne Thomsen & Post.Doc. Massimo Pizzol Department of Environmental Science Faculty of Technology and Science Aarhus University AARHUS UNIVERSITET 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 UNI GREENING ELECTRONICS Lessons from a Danish study on WEEE

2 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 WEEE -REGULATION Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) › fastest growing waste fraction in EU (UNEP 2009) › classified as hazardous waste › EU Directive 2002/96/EC (WEEE Directive) › collection, recycling and recovery targets › EU Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS Directive) › restriction of six HS in EEE: lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) 2

3 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 ACTORS WITHIN THE DANISH WEEE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM › Extended producer responsibility › DPA System competent authority (WEEE regulation, registration and reporting) › Collective schemes › Business ≠Consumer products › Collection/pre- processing/disposal 3

4 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 WEEE STATISTICS › Marketed EEE › Collected WEEE collection sites) › Treated WEEE › UNBALANCE due to: › no reporting of business products (e.g. if delivered directly to pre-processing facility) › use and stockpiling (Quantity???) › collected with MSW (Quantity???) 4

5 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS (MFA) DANISH PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY › Averhoff, Aarhus (Elretur collective scheme) › tons/y treated for WEEE cat. 2- Small household appliances 4 - Consumer equipment 5 › Manual sorting › Shredding › Size sorting › Magnetic separation

6 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 MFA AVERHOFF (continued) 6 Fraction from over-belt magnet (electromotor and transformer waste ). Output from the multi-cyclone filter.

7 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 MFA AVERHOFF (continued) Materials/components in the output fraction Mix of flat panel displays; printed wiring boards without Br-FR; cables (mix); shredder iron fraction; mobiles, non-ferrous metal fraction Plastics parts from dismantling (HS below ROHS/REACH values); CRT tubes; Ni-Cd, NiMH, Li-containing, and mixed batteries; CFC/HCFC/HFC cooling and freezing appliances Mix of toner and ink cartridges Wood fractions and pieces from dismantling; Plastics parts from dismantling (HS above ROHS/REACH values); glass fractions from dismantling; CRT glass pieces; residual waste from dismantling; filter residue Electrolyte capacitors; mix of PCB-containing capacitors; mercury-containing components; filter residues; special displays and beryllium-containing units. 7 ≈ 1500 tons/year Total weight of WEEE where energy is recovered in a power plant ≈ 41.5 tons/year Total weight of remaining WEEE which is disposed to landfill

8 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 LIMITATIONS OF DANISH WEEE DATA › poor and not sufficient for SFA › non-transparent flow of different materials › in the collection and pre-processing stages › generic WEEE nomenclature › generic knowledge of HS content in WEEE › no chem. analysis › manual sorting according to equipment list from WEEE- directive. › HS content in new products? 8

9 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 SUBSTANCE COMPOSITION OF WEEE SubstanceOccurrence in WEEEConcentratio n in WEEE (mg/kg) a Halogenated compounds: - PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) Condensers, Transformers13 - TBBP-A (tetrabromo- bisphenol-A) Flame retardants for plastics (thermoplastic components, cable insulation) PBB (polybrominated biphenyls) * TBBA is presently the most widely used flame retardant in printed wiring boards (PWB) and casings. - PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) * Flame retardants in PWBs, connectors and plastic covers Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Cooling unit, Insulation foam - PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Cable insulation Metals: - Diantimony trioxideContained in flame retardants in PWBs - ArsenicSmall quantities in the form of gallium arsenide within light emitting diodes - BariumGetters in CRT - BerylliumPower supply boxes which contain silicon controlled rectifiers and x-ray lenses 9 - Cadmium * Rechargeable NiCd-batteries, fluorescent layer (CRT screens), printer inks and toners, photocopying-machines (printer drums), accumulators Chromium VI * Data tapes, floppy-disks Gallium arsenideLED light emitting Diode, solar cells (ECHA, 2010 b ), semiconductors (microchips) in wireless and wi-fi consumer electronic products (EECA, 2007) - GermaniumPhotodiodes - IndiumbLCD glass, semiconductors - Lead * CRT screens, batteries, printed wiring boards, accumulators LithiumLi-batteries - Mercury * Fluorescent lamps and vapour lamps. Fluorescent lamps that provide backlighting in LCDs. Some alkaline batteries. Mercury wetted switches, accumulators NickelRechargeable NiCd-batteries or NiMH-batteries, electron gun in CRT, accumulators Radio-active substances: - AmericiumMedical equipment, fire detectors, active sensing element in smoke detectors *Regulated by RoHS

10 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 HS OF CONCERN OUTSIDE RoHS CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFICATION › Subst. dangerous in accordance with the Dangerous Substances Directive (Directive 67/548/EEC), that applies to pure chemicals marketed in the EU › Subst. Of very high concern (SVHC) in accordance with REACH › Subst. found as contaminants in humans and biota › Subst. with hazardous degradation products 10

11 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 HS OF CONCERN OUTSIDE RoHS (1) Candidate substanceMain use in EEETotal quantity used in EEE [t/y in EU]* Recommendation Tetrabromo bisphenol A (TBBP-A) Reactive FR in epoxy and polycarbonate resin, Additive FR in ABS 40000Inclusion in RoHS(Gross et al., 2008) Hexabromo- cyclododeca ne (HBCDD) Flame retardant in HIPS, e.g. in audio-visual equipment, wire, cables 210Inclusion in RoHS(Gross et al., 2008) Bis (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) Plasticizer in PVC cables; Encapsulation/potting of electronic components 29000Inclusion in RoHS(Gross et al., 2008) Butylbenzyl- phthalate (BBP) Plasticizer in PVC cables Encapsulation/potting of electronic components Total use: (no data available on share of EEE applications) Inclusion in RoHS(Gross et al., 2008) Dibutylphthal ate (DBP)Plasticizer in PVC cables; Encapsulation/potting of electronics components Silber conductive paint for variable resistors Total use: (no data available on share of EEE applications) Inclusion in RoHS(Gross et al., 2008) 11

12 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 HS OF CONCERN OUTSIDE RoHS (2) Candidate substance Main use in EEETotal quantity used in EEE [t/y in EU]* Recommendation Beryllium metal Optical instruments, X-ray windowsBe metal 2Labelling for correct end-of-life treatment, classified as a carcinogen, class 2 (Gross et al., 2008) Beryllium-containing alloys: current carrying springs,integrated circuitry sockets, Silicon-controlled rectifiers (Robinson, 2009), Connectors in printed wiring boards (Tsydenova, 2010) Be-alloys: 11,5 Beryllium oxide (BeO) BeO ceramic applications: Laser bores and tubes 15Labelling for correct end-of-life treatment, classified as a carcinogen, Cat. 2 (Gross et al., 2008) Power transistors, transistor and valve bases, some resistors (Defra, 2004) n/n IndiumPhosp ide (InP) Semiconductorsn/nLabelling as carcinogen and toxic for reproduction (ECHA, 2010a and b) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) LED,mobile handsets and Wi-Fi applications, opto-electronics, and control systems n/nLabelling as Carc., Cat. 1; R45; Repro. Cat. 2; R60; T; R48/23 (ECHA, 2010c) 12

13 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 SUBSTANCE FLOW ANALYSIS (SFA) For 9 selected HS in a Danish pre-processing facility (6 RoHS subst. + 3 not included in RoHS) Objectives › Quantify amount HS in specific output fractions. › Estimate “contamination” of fractions to be recycled/disposed via thermal treatment › Individuate hot spots for potential impacts 13

14 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 SFA 1 – MATCHING OUTPUT FLOW DATA Output Fraction% of total inputDestination Morf et al. (2004)Averhoff, 2010 (aggregated) Morf et al. (2004) Averhoff (2010) Morf et al. (2004)Averhoff (2010) Pollutant carrier (batteries/capacitors) mix of PCB containing capacitors; mercury components; electrolyte capacitors; Ni-Cd batteries; NiMH batteries; Li-containing batteries ; mix of all batteries 1%0.18% [Batteries Recycling] Fine particulatesFilter residues7%0.07%[Metal recycling][Special disposal] Cu cablesCables (mix)2%6.57%[Metal recycling] Printed wiring boards (PWB) Mix of PWB from dismantling; mobiles ; PWB and power supply units 2%14.95%[Metal recycling] Cathode ray tube componentsCRT 'tubes' from dismantling20%29.15%[Recycling] Plastics and wooden castings (PC/TV) plastics 'parts' from dismantling; wood fractions from dismantling (mix); “pure” wood pieces; metal/plastics mixtures 3%25.00% [Waste incineration] [Recycling and thermal treatment] Fine grained plastics fractions (<10mm) Nn20%Nn [Waste incineration] Nn Fine grained metal fractions (<10mm) Nn7%Nn[Metal recycling]Nn Metal scrap fractions Other 'metal fractions' from dismantling; deflection units; mix of flat panel displays; electric motors/dry transformers (mix) 7%8.19%[Metal recycling] Fe scrap fractionsshredder iron fraction31%15.89%[Metal recycling] 14

15 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 SFA 2 – CONCENTRATION DATA [mg/kg]Be HBCDD TBBP-A Pollutant carrier (batteries/capacitors)0.00 Fine particulates Cu cables Printed circuit boards Cathode ray tube components0.00 Plastics and wooden castings (PC/TV) Metal scrap fractions Fe scrap fractions › Substances included in RoHS + others › HS Conc. data in WEEE sorted fractions, from literature (Morf et al, , Swiss case study) › Data prior to RoHS!!!  expected overestimation of RoHS HS flows

16 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 SFA 3 - RESULTS › Total amount (kg) HS per different output fractions. › Calculated total HS content of input WEEE 16 Tetrabromo-bisphenol-A (TBBP-A) Chromium (Cr)

17 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 SFA-4 DISCUSSION › Printed wiring board carrier for metal pollutants Manual sorting best solution (shredded PWB may end in other fractions) › Toxic organic compounds in plastic fraction › high quantities of plastic (ca tons/year) and › high concentration of HS (TBBP-A ca mg/kg; HBCDD ca. 174 mg/kg). › Metals and HS in plastic fraction obstacle for thermal treatment or recycling. 17

18 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 POTENTIAL IMPACTS FROM HS IN WEEE › WEEE treatment  Primary emissions › WEEE reaction products  secondary emissions 18

19 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 WORKERS EXPOSURE › Classification of equipment  failure in recognizing equipment containing HS  Accidental exposure via dermal contact/inhalation › Manual disassembly: long-term exposure to HS via inhalation of dust; HS from accidental breakage of equipment; dermal contact when cutting, breaking, handling the material. › Dust from shredding, exposure via inhalation/dermal contact EXTREME SCARCITY OF DATA (e.g. For HS emissions; monitoring of indoor HS concentration e.g. in dust/air; biomonitoring) 19

20 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 IMPACTS ON HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENT › Primary& secondary emission from thermal treatment of › Contaminated plastic from WEEE sorting › EEE products collected with MSW (e.g. mobile phones) › Not yet quantifiable due to lack of data › HS Emissions and Fate › SFA first stage › Use of emission factors from literature for thermal treatment, landifll › Life Cycle Impact assessment method applied to SFA results 20

21 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES › WEEE hazardous waste, growing amounts, changing composition, new products › Gaps in reporting and monitoring of WEEE flows › Incomplete info on HS substance content, specially for new HS (not inclued in RoHS) › SFA for facilities is possible with literature data  difficult to upscale to national › Recommended improvements: › Flow monitoring at National scale (Stocks & flow analysis) › Chemical analysis of WEEE composition (focus on new subst.) › Monitoring of indoor conc., › Life Cycle impact assessment based on SFA data 21

22 AARHUS UNIVERSITET GREENING ELECTRONICS MARIANNE THOMSEN 29. SEPTEMBER 2011 THANK YOU Presentation based on the project and report citet below: Pizzol, M., Hansen, M.S. & Thomsen, M Greening of Electronics – Identification of hazardous compounds. Danish EPA report, in press 22


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