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1 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW-2011-6315, 6 Dec 2011 FUELS: The Naphthalene Question.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW-2011-6315, 6 Dec 2011 FUELS: The Naphthalene Question."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW , 6 Dec 2011 FUELS: The Naphthalene Question – Its Origins & Impact – JOHN P. HINZ Health Risk Assessment Toxicologist U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine/OEHR Air Force Research Laboratory Wright-Patterson AFB, OH

2 2 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW , 6 Dec 2011 THE NAPHTHALENE QUESTION - origins - What started all the fuss? What does it all mean? –NTP: two important bioassays o Mouse (1992) – cytotoxicity with lung neoplasia unusual  Rat (2000) – cytotoxicity with unusual nasal neoplasia  “Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen” ‒ EPA-IRIS (2004): fast-tracked naphthalene’s re-exanimation o Predicts de minimus risk  2 ppt o 20X the potency of benzene – an established human carcinogen ‒ Cancer determination: USAF mission & stewardship impact? o Exposure guidance – labels fuels/lubes carcinogenic? o Operations – ESOH; emissions compliance; restoration? ‒ Stakeholders  MOA research program … are we like rats?

3 3 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW , 6 Dec 2011 THE NAPHTHALENE QUESTION - origins - Key question – how much is in our fuels? Federal agency authority – EPA vs. OSHA –EPA/NCEA & IRIS with authority for guidance o Risk assessment  exposure guidance   compliance values regulation ‒ OSHA with authority for regulation o 29CFR et al. [ (d) (5) (ii)] mixture If carcinogen content ≥ 0.1% (vol% or wt%), then the mixture is considered to be carcinogenic … and must be so labeled Crude oil ≥ 0.1%Gasoline 0-5% Jet fuel 1-3%Additives/lubes/blends ≤ 10% OSHA’s 0.1%  a regulatory “bright line” Key question – how much is in our fuels?

4 4 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW , 6 Dec 2011 THE NAPHTHALENE QUESTION - origins - Previous information – issues & analyses –“Mil Specs” for jet fuel performance-based (<25% aromatics) o Constituent content varies with fuel source/supplier  swift KITA! ‒ MSDS sheets generic  express range of values ‒ TPHCWG monographs  data based on limited sample sets ‒ CRC “World Fuel Sampling Program”  broader data set but generic ‒ CRC & API experts  analytical results hostage to analytical technique ‒ Most reports  TOTAL naphthalenes, including substituted forms o Substituted forms (~15 in jet fuel)  exaggerate published data  biological activities unknown naphthalene ‒ EPA/IRIS target  specifically naphthalene naphthalene –USAF analytical target  specifically naphthalene Pentagon  must know with precision the N-content of our fuel ‒ Analytical program designed & approved

5 5 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW , 6 Dec 2011 THE NAPHTHALENE QUESTION - origins - Jet Fuel(s) Analytical Program –Specifically identify and quantitate benzene ………………………… human carcinogen naphthalene ……………………. current EPA target 1-methyl naphthalene ………… IRIS file, future target ? 2-methyl naphthalene …………. IRIS file, future target ? total naphthalenes – (D1840) … methods & N comparison total naphthalenes – (D6379) … methods & N comparison total aromatics – (D5186) …….. methods & N comparison –Different analytical techniques express results as vol% vs. wt% For comparison - convert all results to one convention reference to OSHA 0.1% threshold –Surprise issue … “the density follies”! Reference literature – 10 values for density of naphthalene impact on vol% vs. wt% conversion  OSHA threshold

6 6 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW , 6 Dec 2011 THE NAPHTHALENE QUESTION - origins - Characterizing “generic” jet fuel stock-1stock-2stock-3stock-4stock-5blend (units) [density] [0.799][0.825][0.808][0.806][0.800][0.806] benzene µg/mL naphthalene µg/mL 1-methyl-N µg/mL 2-methyl-N µg/mL t-Ns (D1840) vol% t-Ns (D6379) vol% t-aromatics vol% (D1319)  Overall, N-content of most fuels exceeded the OSHA threshold.

7 7 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW , 6 Dec 2011 THE NAPHTHALENE QUESTION - origins - Questions?


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