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Unit 5: Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Ch. 21,22,23.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Ch. 21,22,23."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5: Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Ch. 21,22,23

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3 Tobacco Use Tobacco use is the number one leading cause of preventable disease and death in the U.S. Despite the numerous health risks related to smoking, chewing, or dipping tobacco, many teenagers begin to use this highly addictive drug

4 Nicotine It is because of this addictive drug that many tobacco users find it very difficult to drop the habit. Being a stimulant, nicotine increases the action of your central nervous system, heart, and other organs. It raises blood pressure, heart rate, and contributes to heart disease and stroke. Once you’re hooked you need more and more to satisfy your need for the drug.

5 Cigarette smoke: more than just stink Tobacco smoke is TOXIC It has been classified as a Group A carcinogen: the most dangerous type of carcinogen

6 Cigarette Cocktail: Tar with a splash of carbon monoxide Tar: thick, sticky, dark fluid produced when tobacco burns. –Penetrates into the respiratory system & destroys cilia & lung tissue, & damages air sacs. Smoking makes you more susceptible to bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema, & cancer

7 Cigarette Cocktail: Tar with a splash of carbon monoxide Carbon Monoxide: colorless, odorless, & poisonous gas. –Taken up more easily than oxygen –Replaces oxygen in the blood thus depriving tissues and cells. Increases the chance for: high blood pressure, heart disease, & hardening of the arteries.

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9 Pipes and Cigars Cigars contain MORE nicotine & produce more tar & carbon monoxide than cigarettes –ONE cigar = one PACK of cigarettes Pipe & cigar smokers have an INCREASED risk of developing cancer of the mouth, lip, & throat

10 Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco: –Sniffed –Chewed –Dipped Not a safe alternative Nicotine & carcinogen are absorbed through the mucous membranes or digestive tract Can deliver 2 to 3 times the amount of nicotine as a single cigarette If you chew 8-10 plugs a day it equals 2 packs of cigarettes a day –Can develop leukoplakia –Cancers of the pancreas, throat, larynx, esophagus, & stomach are common.

11 Short-term effects Changes in brain chemistry –Cravings –Withdrawal symptoms Increased respiration & heart rate –Physical activity may become more difficult –May cause an irregular heart beat Dulled taste buds & reduced appetite Bad breath & an unshakable stench

12 Long-term effects Takes a toll on respiratory, cardiovascular, & digestive systems Immune system is weakened Chronic bronchitis Emphysema Lung cancer Coronary heart disease & stroke

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20 So… Knowing all this, why do you think people choose to smoke anyway? Everyone is aware of the harmful effects of tobacco so why use it?

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24 Short-term Effects Nervous System –Brain is less able to control the body –Memory & concentration are dulled –Judgment &coordination are impaired Cardiovascular Sys. –Low intake: increased heart rate & blood pressure –High intake: decreased heart rate & blood pressure Risk of cardiac arrest increases

25 Short-term Effects Digestive System –Stomach acid increases resulting in nausea & vomiting –As the liver metabolizes alcohol toxic chemicals are released which cause inflammation & scarring –Kidneys increase urine output which can cause dehydration Respiratory System –Carbon dioxide formed by the liver is released from the body through the lungs –Alcohol depresses nerves that control functions such as breathes which means that breathing can slow, become irregular, or stop

26 Short-term Effects Effects vary from person to person and depend on various factors: –Body size & gender Female have a higher percentage of body fat & less water which means alcohol is less diluted & will have a stronger & longer effect –Food –Amount & rate of intake

27 Alcohol & other drugs Interaction between alcohol & other drugs can be extremely dangerous This can result in a multiplier effect in which the drug has a greater or different effect than if it were taken alone

28 Typical alcohol-drug interactions Alcohol slows down the body’s absorption of a drug which lengthens the time of alcohol in the body & increases the risk of side effects. May increase the number of metabolizing enzymes which can cause a faster breakdown which decreases their effectiveness.

29 Metabolizing enzymes can change medications into chemicals that can damage the liver or other organs –Acetaminophen, a common painkiller & fever reducer, can cause serious liver damage Alcohol can increase the effects of some meds. –Antihistamines, can cause excessive dizziness & sleepiness Typical alcohol-drug interactions

30 Driving under the influence Alcohol impairs vision, reaction time, & coordination. When mixed with driving, alcohol can have deadly results. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the amount od alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage. –Signs of intoxication can show as early as 0.02

31 Alcohol Poisoning A severe & potentially fatal physical reaction to an alcohol overdose. As a depressant, alcohol shuts down involuntary actions such as breathing & gag reflex, which prevents choking –Too much alcohol could lead to a complete shut down of these functions & result in choking on one’s own vomit

32 Effects of Alcohol Poisoning Passing out is a common effect of too much alcohol in the system, BUT the alcohol does not stop entering the bloodstream at this point. Do not assume that “sleeping it off” will ensure the safety of the inebriated person.

33 Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning Mental confusion, stupor, coma, inability to wake, vomiting, seizures Slow respiration –10 seconds between breaths or fewer than 8 breaths per minute Irregular heartbeat Hypothermia or low body temperature –Pale or bluish skin color Sever dehydration from vomiting

34 Long-term effects Changes to the brain –Addiction –Loss of brain functions –Brain damage Cardiovascular changes –Damage to heart muscle –Enlarged heart –High blood pressure

35 Long-term effects Liver problems –Fatty liver (fat blocks the flow of blood to the liver cells resulting in cell death) –Alcoholic hepatitis (inflammation/infection of liver) –Cirrhosis (scar tissue replaces liver tissue which can lead to liver failure & death) Digestive system problems –Digestive lining is damaged which can result in ulcers & cancer of the stomach & esophagus

36 Long-term effects Pancreas problems –Lining to the pancreas swells which block chemicals the small intestine needs for digestion. –These chemicals begin to destroy the pancreas which causes pain & vomiting & death in sever cases.

37 Drinking during pregnancy Women who drink while pregnant are also in turn giving alcohol to their unborn child Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): a group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical pain & metal problems –Small head & deformities of limbs –Slow growth & coordination –Difficulties with learning, attention, memory, & problem solving

38 Alcoholism A disease in which a person has a physical or psychological dependence on drinks that contain alcohol. Symptoms: –Craving –Loss of control –Physical dependence –Tolerance –Health, family, legal problems

39 Stages of alcoholism Stage 1: Abuse –Drinks on a regular basis & needs more alcohol to have the desired effects. Blackouts & memory loss are common. The person also begins to lie about their problem. Stage 2: Dependence –The person cannot stop drinking & they begin making excuses for the problem. Home & work begin to suffer. Stage 3: Addiction –Alcohol becomes the most important thing in the person’s life. Liver damage means less alcohol is needed to produce intoxication. Stopping would result in sever withdrawal symptoms.

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