3Tobacco UseTobacco use is the number one leading cause of preventable disease and death in the U.S.Despite the numerous health risks related to smoking, chewing, or dipping tobacco, many teenagers begin to use this highly addictive drug
4NicotineIt is because of this addictive drug that many tobacco users find it very difficult to drop the habit.Being a stimulant, nicotine increases the action of your central nervous system, heart, and other organs.It raises blood pressure, heart rate, and contributes to heart disease and stroke.Once you’re hooked you need more and more to satisfy your need for the drug.
5Cigarette smoke: more than just stink Tobacco smoke is TOXICIt has been classified as a Group A carcinogen: the most dangerous type of carcinogen
6Cigarette Cocktail: Tar with a splash of carbon monoxide Tar: thick, sticky, dark fluid produced when tobacco burns.Penetrates into the respiratory system & destroys cilia & lung tissue, & damages air sacs.Smoking makes you more susceptible to bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema, & cancer
7Cigarette Cocktail: Tar with a splash of carbon monoxide Carbon Monoxide: colorless, odorless, & poisonous gas.Taken up more easily than oxygenReplaces oxygen in the blood thus depriving tissues and cells.Increases the chance for: high blood pressure, heart disease, & hardening of the arteries.
9Pipes and CigarsCigars contain MORE nicotine & produce more tar & carbon monoxide than cigarettesONE cigar = one PACK of cigarettesPipe & cigar smokers have an INCREASED risk of developing cancer of the mouth, lip, & throat
10Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco: Not a safe alternative SniffedChewedDippedNot a safe alternativeNicotine & carcinogen are absorbed through the mucous membranes or digestive tractCan deliver 2 to 3 times the amount of nicotine as a single cigaretteIf you chew 8-10 plugs a day it equals 2 packs of cigarettes a dayCan develop leukoplakiaCancers of the pancreas, throat, larynx, esophagus, & stomach are common.
11Short-term effects Changes in brain chemistry CravingsWithdrawal symptomsIncreased respiration & heart ratePhysical activity may become more difficultMay cause an irregular heart beatDulled taste buds & reduced appetiteBad breath & an unshakable stench
12Long-term effectsTakes a toll on respiratory, cardiovascular, & digestive systemsImmune system is weakenedChronic bronchitisEmphysemaLung cancerCoronary heart disease & stroke
24Short-term Effects Nervous System Cardiovascular Sys. Brain is less able to control the bodyMemory & concentration are dulledJudgment &coordination are impairedCardiovascular Sys.Low intake: increased heart rate & blood pressureHigh intake: decreased heart rate & blood pressureRisk of cardiac arrest increases
25Short-term Effects Digestive System Respiratory System Stomach acid increases resulting in nausea & vomitingAs the liver metabolizes alcohol toxic chemicals are released which cause inflammation & scarringKidneys increase urine output which can cause dehydrationRespiratory SystemCarbon dioxide formed by the liver is released from the body through the lungsAlcohol depresses nerves that control functions such as breathes which means that breathing can slow, become irregular, or stop
26Short-term EffectsEffects vary from person to person and depend on various factors:Body size & genderFemale have a higher percentage of body fat & less water which means alcohol is less diluted & will have a stronger & longer effectFoodAmount & rate of intake
27Alcohol & other drugsInteraction between alcohol & other drugs can be extremely dangerousThis can result in a multiplier effect in which the drug has a greater or different effect than if it were taken alone
28Typical alcohol-drug interactions Alcohol slows down the body’s absorption of a drug which lengthens the time of alcohol in the body & increases the risk of side effects.May increase the number of metabolizing enzymes which can cause a faster breakdown which decreases their effectiveness.
29Typical alcohol-drug interactions Metabolizing enzymes can change medications into chemicals that can damage the liver or other organsAcetaminophen, a common painkiller & fever reducer, can cause serious liver damageAlcohol can increase the effects of some meds.Antihistamines, can cause excessive dizziness & sleepiness
30Driving under the influence Alcohol impairs vision, reaction time, & coordination.When mixed with driving, alcohol can have deadly results.Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the amount od alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage.Signs of intoxication can show as early as 0.02
31Alcohol PoisoningA severe & potentially fatal physical reaction to an alcohol overdose.As a depressant, alcohol shuts down involuntary actions such as breathing & gag reflex, which prevents chokingToo much alcohol could lead to a complete shut down of these functions & result in choking on one’s own vomit
32Effects of Alcohol Poisoning Passing out is a common effect of too much alcohol in the system, BUT the alcohol does not stop entering the bloodstream at this point.Do not assume that “sleeping it off” will ensure the safety of the inebriated person.
33Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning Mental confusion, stupor, coma, inability to wake, vomiting, seizuresSlow respiration10 seconds between breaths or fewer than 8 breaths per minuteIrregular heartbeatHypothermia or low body temperaturePale or bluish skin colorSever dehydration from vomiting
34Long-term effects Changes to the brain Cardiovascular changes AddictionLoss of brain functionsBrain damageCardiovascular changesDamage to heart muscleEnlarged heartHigh blood pressure
35Long-term effects Liver problems Digestive system problems Fatty liver (fat blocks the flow of blood to the liver cells resulting in cell death)Alcoholic hepatitis (inflammation/infection of liver)Cirrhosis (scar tissue replaces liver tissue which can lead to liver failure & death)Digestive system problemsDigestive lining is damaged which can result in ulcers & cancer of the stomach & esophagus
36Long-term effects Pancreas problems Lining to the pancreas swells which block chemicals the small intestine needs for digestion.These chemicals begin to destroy the pancreas which causes pain & vomiting & death in sever cases.
37Drinking during pregnancy Women who drink while pregnant are also in turn giving alcohol to their unborn childFetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): a group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical pain & metal problemsSmall head & deformities of limbsSlow growth & coordinationDifficulties with learning, attention, memory, & problem solving
38AlcoholismA disease in which a person has a physical or psychological dependence on drinks that contain alcohol.Symptoms:CravingLoss of controlPhysical dependenceToleranceHealth, family, legal problems
39Stages of alcoholism Stage 1: Abuse Stage 2: Dependence Drinks on a regular basis & needs more alcohol to have the desired effects. Blackouts & memory loss are common. The person also begins to lie about their problem.Stage 2: DependenceThe person cannot stop drinking & they begin making excuses for the problem. Home & work begin to suffer.Stage 3: AddictionAlcohol becomes the most important thing in the person’s life. Liver damage means less alcohol is needed to produce intoxication. Stopping would result in sever withdrawal symptoms.