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Chapter 12 Part Two: Systematics: The Science of Biological Diversity.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Part Two: Systematics: The Science of Biological Diversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 Part Two: Systematics: The Science of Biological Diversity





6 Development of classification A. Until relatively recently organisms were classified as either plants or animals and two kingdoms were recognized. 1. Non-motile autotrophs were placed in the plant kingdom 2. Motile heterotrophs were placed in the animal kingdom

7 Many organisms didn’t fit 1. Euglena is a unicellular, motile autotroph 2. Fungi (mushrooms and molds), traditionally classified as plants, are non- motile heterotrophs

8 Technology led to better classifying cells 1. Prokaryotes (bacteria) - lack: nuclei, organelles, flagella, chromosomes, multicellularity and sexuality 2. Eukaryotes (nearly all other organisms) - have: nuclei, organelles, flagella, DNA associated with histone proteins to form chromatin/chromosomes, sexual reproduction and most are multicellular

9 Thomas Whitaker (1969) 5 kingdom system All Prokaryotes were placed into a single kingdom (Monera i.e. bacteria) and the Eukaryotes were placed into four kingdoms: Plantae, Fungi, Animalia and Protista (unicellular)

10 Three domains A. Recent genetic and molecular investigations have demonstrated that there are two major groups of prokaryotes. They differ radically in the composition of their cell walls, membrane lipids, ribosomal RNA, and a variety of other biochemical features

11 Therefore, our text recognizes three domains above the rank of kingdom

12 1. Domain Bacteria - prokaryotes with muramic acid in cell walls. Majority of bacteria plus cyanobacteria ("blue green algae")

13 2. Domain Archaea (ancient bacteria) - prokaryotes that lack muramic acid in cell walls. Many inhabit "harsh" environments. Includes methane producers, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles, acidophiles and one group which lacks cell walls acidophiles

14 3. Domain Eukarya -all eukaryotes, four kingdoms: a)Animalia b)Plantae c)Fungi d)Protista

15 Kingdom Animalia (Animals) - motile, multicellular, lack plastids and cell walls, heterotrophic via ingestion, sexual reproduction

16 Kingdom Plantae (Plants) - nonmotile, multicellular, plastids and autotrophic via photosynthesis, cell walls made of cellulose, adapted for life on land, mostly sexual reproduction. "Algae" are not included in this kingdom

17 Kingdom Fungi (Mushrooms and Molds) - nonmotile, filamentous, lack plastids, cell walls are made of chitin, heterotrophic via absorption of nutrients from dead (saprophytic) or living (parasitic) matter. Virtually all are multicellular except yeast. Both sexual and asexual reproduction

18 Kingdom Protista - lack multicellularity. Heterogeneous assemblage of unicellular, colonial and multicellular Eukaryotes that do not have the distinctive characters of plants, animals or fungi. They have various types of reproduction from simple cell division through sexual, and various types of nutrition Includes all groups previously called protozoa as well as all the algae except blue greens. Also includes some organisms previously called fungi






24 Origin of a Photosynthetic eukaryotic cell from a heterotrophic prokaryote








32 Endosymbiosis in Vorticella

33 Electron Micrograph of a Vorticella Autotrophic endosymbiotic alga




37 Fungi Lichen Fungus mushroom

38 Fungi- red blanket lichen Florida swamp

39 White coral fungus Clavariacea

40 Mushrooms genus Mycena Rainforest Peru

41 Earthball Scleroderma citrinum

42 Protist Plasmodium slime mold Postelsia palmiformis- “sea palm” Volvox- green alga Fauchea- red alga Pennate diatom

43 Plasmodium slime mold

44 Postelsia palmiformis- “sea palm”

45 Volvox- green alga

46 Fauchea- red alga

47 Pennate diatom

48 Plants Three phyla of bryophytes Sphagnum (peat moss) Marchantia (thallose liverworts) Club moss Seven phyla of vascular plants Wood Horsetail Maidenhair fern Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Strawberry cactus Foxtail barley Cymbidium orchids Sugar pine

49 Sphagnum (peat moss) Bryophytes

50 Marchantia (thallose liverworts)

51 Club moss

52 1. Wood Horsetail Vascular plants

53 2. Maidenhair fern

54 3. Dandelion Taraxacum officinale

55 4. Strawberry cactus

56 5. Foxtail barley

57 6. Cymbidium orchids

58 7. Sugar pine

59 The principal types of Life cycles First eukaryotic organism probably haploid and asexual For plants the stage was set for diploidy Reproduction is primarily sexual Alternating haploid and diploid generations Unifying character of the plantae is the presence of a embryo during the sporophytic phase of the life cycle-- thus “embryophyte” synonymous with plant

60 Zygotic meiosis- Fungi, some algae- two haploid form diploid then split to form haploid again Gametic meiosis Sporic meiosis

61 4 Divide by mitosis Give rise to gametes by differentiation

62 Zygotic meiosis Gametic meiosis- by “accident” some of these cells undergo mitosis with a “delay”meiosis Sporic meiosis

63 4 haploid Green/brown

64 Zygotic meiosis Gametic meiosis Sporic meiosis- results in the production Of spores, not gametes, spores undergo mitosis And produce multicellular haploid organisms these haploid organisms can then produce gametes that in turn fuse to form Zygote

65 4 haploid Spores Don’t act as gametes and Undergo Mitotic division produce Differentiate to form Sporophyte

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