Presentation on theme: "Warm Up b How many domains are there? b What are they (try your best here) b How many kingdoms do you think there are? b What are they? (try your best."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up b How many domains are there? b What are they (try your best here) b How many kingdoms do you think there are? b What are they? (try your best here)
The Tree of Life Evolves Five KingdomsFive Kingdoms –Scientists realized there were enough differences among organisms to make 5 kingdoms: – –Monera – –Protista – –Fungi – –Plantae – –Animalia
The new Kingdom Six KingdomsSix Kingdoms –Recently, biologists recognized that Monera were composed of distinct groups: and –Recently, biologists recognized that Monera were composed of two distinct groups: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.
Changing Number of Kingdoms Introduced Names of Kingdoms 1700’s Late 1800’s 1950’s 1990’s Plantae Animalia ProtistaPlantae MoneraProtista Fungi Plantae Eubacteria Archae- bacteria Animalia ProtistaFungiPlantae
The Three-Domain System b The -Domain System b The Three-Domain System –Molecular analyses have given rise to a new taxonomic category that is now recognized by many scientists. –The is a more inclusive category than any other— than a –The domain is a more inclusive category than any other—larger than a kingdom.
The Three-Domain System The three domains are: – –Eukarya, which is composed of protists, fungi, plants, and animals. –Bacteria –Bacteria, which corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria. – –Archaea, which corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria.
Domain Bacteria b Domain Bacteria = Eubacteria Kingdom –Members of the domain Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes. –Their cells have thick, rigid cell walls that surround a cell membrane. –Their cell walls contain peptidoglycan. –Autotrophs or Heterotrophs –Ex. Streptococcus, Escherichia. Coli
Domain Archaea b The domain Archaea corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria. –are unicellular prokaryotes. –They live in extreme environments. –Their cell walls lack peptidoglycan, and their cell membranes contain unusual lipids not found in any other organism. –Autotrophs or heterotrophs –Ex. Methogens and Helophiles
Domain Eukarya b b Domain Eukarya – –The domain Eukarya consists of organisms that have a nucleus. – –This domain is organized into four kingdoms: – –Protista – –Fungi – –Plantae – –Animalia
Kingdom Protista composed of eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as s, plants, or fungi.composed of eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi. –Its members display the greatest variety. –They can be or multicellular –They can be unicellular or multicellular – or heterotrophic – photosynthetic or heterotrophic –and can characteristics with plants, fungi, or animals. –and can share characteristics with plants, fungi, or animals. –Ex. Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp
Kingdom Fungi EukaryoticEukaryotic Are -Most fungi feed on dead or decaying organic matter by secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing small food molecules into their bodies.Are heterotrophs -Most fungi feed on dead or decaying organic matter by secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing small food molecules into their bodies. –They can be either multicellular or unicellular –Cell walls made of chitin –Ex. Mushrooms, yeast
Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular photosynthetic – contains chloroplasts photosynthetic autotrophs – contains chloroplasts —they cannot move from place to place. nonmotile—they cannot move from place to place. cell walls that contain.cell walls that contain cellulose. Ex. includes cone-bearing and flowering plants as well as mosses and ferns.Ex. includes cone-bearing and flowering plants as well as mosses and ferns.
Kingdom Animalia multicellular heterotrophic. –The cells of animals do have cell walls. –The cells of animals do not have cell walls. –Most animals move about. –Most animals can move about. –There is great within the animal kingdom, and many species exist in nearly part of the planet. –There is great diversity within the animal kingdom, and many species exist in nearly every part of the planet. –Ex. Humans, birds, worms, Insects, fish, mammals, Clams, Lobsters, Sponges
What Is a Virus? b bViruses are particles of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases, lipids. Viruses can reproduce only by infecting living cells. b Viruses differ widely in terms of size and structure. b All viruses living cells and use the infected cell to produce viruses. b All viruses enter living cells and use the infected cell to produce more viruses..
Viruses and Living Cells b b Viruses must infect a living cell in order to grow and reproduce. b b They take advantage of the host’s respiration, nutrition, and all other functions of living things. b Viruses have many of the characteristics of living things. b After infecting living cells, viruses can reproduce, regulate gene expression, and even evolve.
Viruses and Living Cells b Because viruses are on living things, it seems likely that viruses developed after living. b Because viruses are dependent on living things, it seems likely that viruses developed after living cells. b The first viruses may have from genetic material of living cells. b The first viruses may have evolved from genetic material of living cells. b Viruses have continued to evolve over billions of years.
Viruses vs Living Cells CharacteristicsVirusCells Structure DNA or RNA core, capsid Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and organelles Reproduction Only with in host cell Asexually or sexually Genetic Code DNA or RNA DNA Growth and Development Noyes Obtain and use energy Noyes Response to environment Noyes Change over time Yesyes