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Uppers, Downers and All Arounders Chapter 6 All Arounders.

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1 Uppers, Downers and All Arounders Chapter 6 All Arounders

2 General History –Psychedelic Plants and fungi –More than 4000 plants have psychedelic properties –Hundreds of primitive tribes have used psychedelics fro thousands of years –Other than marijuana, psychedelics continued to be popular among youth

3 General All arounders usually act as stimulants and occasionally depressants, but mostly psychedelics Creates illusions, delusions and hallucinations Five main Classifications: –Indole psychedelics LSD, psilocybin mushrooms –Phenylalkyamines Peyote, MDMA (ecstasy), –Anticholingernics (belladonna, datura) –Ketamine, PCP –Cannabinoids (cannabis, marijuana)

4 General Effects are dependant on: –Amount ingested –Experience with the drug –Basic emotional makeup of user –Mood and mental state at the time of use –Preexisting mental illnesses –Surroundings in which the drug is taken Physical and mental effects –Stimulate the sympathic nervous system Causing rise in blood pressure and pulse rate Can trigger sweating, palpitations or nausea

5 General Physical and mental effects (continued) –Interferes with dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, anandamine, alpha psychoism, and especially serotonin –Stimulation of brain stem causes overload on sensory pathways making user acutely aware of all sensation –Disruption of visual and audio centers can confuse perception

6 General Illusions, delusions and hallucinations –Illusions: mistaken perception of an external stimulus –Delusions; mistaken idea that is not swayed by reason or other powerful evidence –Hallucination: sensory experience that does not come from external stimuli Illusions and delusions are primary experiences with LSD & most psychedelics Hallucinations are primary with mescaline, psilocybin and PCP

7 Indole Psychedelics LSD –Synthesized form of the ergot fungus that infects rye and other grasses –Responsible for thousands of deaths throughout the centuries, especially in Europe –Two types of ergot fungus Gangrenous ergotism (St Anthony’s Fire) –Marked by fever, hallucinations and rotting away of gangrenous extremities of the body Convulsive ergotism –Marked by visual and auditory hallucinations, vomiting, diarrhea & convulsions

8 Indole Psychedelics LSD first extracted by Dr. Albert Hoffman (1938) 1950’s LSD used for therapy for mental illness and alcoholism 1960’s LSD-25 popularized by Harvard psychologists, Timmothy Leary and Richard Alpert 1966 LSD made legal 1970 LSD is made a Schedule I drug 1974, LSD considered having no therapeutic value

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10 Indole Psychedelics- LSD Manufacturing of LSD is primarily done in Northern California –Production involves use of volatile chemicals –Crystalline LSD is dissolved in alcohol and drops of the solution placed on blotter paper Doses as low as 25 micrograms can cause mental changes Usual doses are micrograms Effects appear 15 minutes to 1 hour after ingestion Lasts 6-8 hours

11 Indole Psychedelics- LSD Tolerance develops rapidly to psychedelic effects Lost rapidly after cessation, usually a few days Withdrawal is usually more mental and emotional Physical effects –Rise in heart rate and blood pressure –Higher body temperature –Dizziness –Dilated pupils –Sweating –User sees light trails

12 Indole Psychedelics- LSD Mental Effects –Overloads brainstem causing sensory distortions (seeing sounds, feeling smells, or hearing colors –Dreaminess –Depersonalization –Altered mood –Impaired concentration –Greatest dangers is loss of judgement & impaired reasoning Bad Trips (acute anxiety reactions) –Affects the emotional center of the brain –Subject to extremes of euphoria and panic

13 Indole Psychedelics- LSD Mental Illness –Proponents believe that LSD will afford the user a short cut to uncovering trauma –Opponents say LSD is dangerous and can trigger psychotic episodes –LSD can aggravate a preexisting mental illness Dependence –Does not produce compulsive use –Effects of LSD tend to diminish with continued use

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15 Indole Psychedelics-”Magic Mushrooms” Psilocybin and psilocin are active ingredients in mushrooms found in U.S., Mexico, South America, South Asia and Europe Especially important for Indian cultures of mexico and in pre-Colombian Americas Used in ceremonies, dating back to 1000 B.C. Contained in 75 species of mushroom Chemical structure is similar to LSD

16 Indole Psychedelics-”Magic Mushrooms” Most mushrooms containing psilocybin cause nausea Psychedelic effects include –Visceral (primal) sensations –Changes in sight, taste, hearing and touch –Altered states of consciousness Major danger is mistaking poisonous mushrooms for those containing psilocybin

17 Other Indole Psychedelics Other indole psychedelics –Ibogaine Long lasting psychedelic in high doses and stimulant in lose doses Used in Native cultures in Western and Central Africa Research into use to treat heroin and cocaine addiction –DMT (dimethyltryptamine) Similar to psilocin South American tribes used for over 400 years as snuff Blow into the noses through hollow reed for ceremony Can be made in basement labs Causes intense visual hallucinations Lasts minutes Nickname is “businessman’s special”

18 Other Indole Psychedelics –Morning Glory Seeds (ololiuqui) Hawaiian Wood Rose Seeds) Contains a LSD-like substance (1/10 potency of LSD) Sold commercially, but dipped in toxic substance to prevent misuse –Foxy (5-methoxy-N-N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-Me- DIPT) & AMT (alphamethyltryptamine) Appeared in early 2000s, but not listed as scheduled drugs People have been prosecuted under Federal Drug analogue statue Effects include hallucinations, euphoria, empathy, visual and auditory disturbances (illusions) and emotional distress Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea –Yage Amazonian vine Causes intense vomiting and diarrhea Dreamlike state lasting up to 10 hours

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20 Peyote, MDMA and Other Phenylalkylamine Psychedelics Peyote (mescaline) –Mescaline is the active component of the peyote cactus –Used by native Americans in ceremony –1990, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that use of peyote not protected by Constitution and states can ban it –Effects Derived from tops of peyote cactus cut at ground level Lasts approx. 12 hours Similar to LSD with emphasis on colorful visions

21 Psycho-Stimulants MDMA (ecstacy, rave, “XTX,” “X”, “Adam,” & “E” –Shorter acting than MDA (4-6 vs hours) –Can be snorted, swallowed or injected –Usually sold in capsules, tablets or powder –Taken at raves –First discovered in 1914, but not until 1969 was a study first published –Recommended use was for patients with repressed memories –2002 about 7.2% of high school seniors used MDMA –Capsule or tablet cost $10 – $35 –DEA report found that % of tablets sold at raves had no MDMA, but contained other drugs, including amphetamines, PCP or MDA

22 MDMA –MDMA has effects similar to amphetamines Tightness of muscles, Muscle spasms, Clenching of teeth just before psychic effects begin to appear Tolerance is rapid Physical side effects include: –High body temperature –High blood pressure –Seizures

23 MDMA Emotional Side Effects Feelings of hapiness Clarity Peace Pleasure Altered perceptions without depersonalization Nonsexual empathy for others First few hours ecstasy forces nerve cells to release their reservoirs of serotonin into the synaptic gap, depleting vesicles in 3hours Takes up to a week or more to produce a sufficient amount of serotonin Excessive stimulation cause serotonin receptors to retreat causing severe depression and suicidal ideation High-dose can result in acute anxiety

24 Belladonna, Henbane, Mandrake & Datura Used in ancient times through Middle Ages and Renaissance Plants contain scopolamine, hyoscyamine and atropine Used in magic ceremonies, sorcery, witchcraft and religious rituals Used as poison To mimic insanity Beauty aid for women to dialate pupils and make the eyes more stricking Speeds heart rate, creates intense thirst and raises body temperatures to dangerous levels

25 Belladonna, Henbane, Mandrake & Datura Creates some hallucinations Separation from reality Deep sleep for 48 hours Synthetic anticholingergics like Cogentin and Artane are used to treat side effects of antipsychotic drugs Also used to treat Parkinson’s Disease Derived from legal sources then abused

26 Ketamine Disassociative general anesthetic used in human and veterinary medical procedures Very similar to PCP Shares the same receptor site as PCP, although both have different duration of action Ketamine is shorter than PCP Can be crystalized by microwave from medical and dental supplies then smoked in cocaine freebase pipe or ground and snorted Full psychedelic experience includes: –Out-of-body or near-death experience with depersonalization –Hallucinations –Delirium –Bizarre or mystical experiences

27 Ketamine Toxic Side Effects include –Respiratory depression –Increased heart rate and blood presure –Belligerent Behavior –Convulsions –Coma –Major effects lasts one hour or less –Classified as a Schedule III drug

28 PCP “Angel Dust,” “Peep,” “KJ” “Shermans,” “Ozone” Originally produced as an anesthetic for humans Only supplies now are illegal ones Can be snorted, swallowed, smoked or injected Acts like ketamine, only lasts longer Low dose last 1-2 hours Moderate dose 4-6 hours High dose last up to 48 hours High frequency of bad trips as well as blackouts

29 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols Exsited for over 10,000 years Origin in China and Asian, then spread to almost every country 2001 more than 12 million Americans were using marijuana on a monthly basis, with an average of 18 joints 110,000 emergency room visits 39% of adult males and 26% of adult females arrested had marijuana in their systems 53% of juvenile males and 38% female juveniles arrested had marijuana in their systems

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31 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols Sinsemillia growing technique increase the potency of marijuana plant Rolled in joints or smoked in pipes Can be eaten or cooked in foods Sticky resin pressed into cakes are called “hashish” –Extracted from plant using solvents Majority of marijuana comes from Mexico and Colombia People in U.S. grow their own with risk of legal consequences

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33 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols 420 chemicals in marijuana plant Psychoactive agent is Delta9 Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC THC concentration increased from 1-3% in 1960s to 4-15% since then 1990 researchers found receptor sites in brain specifically reactive to marijuana Marijuana has relative few receptor sites to attach to in the autonomic nervous system so difficult to overdose

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35 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols Short-term Effects –Physical relation –Sedation –Some pain control –Bloodshot eyes –Coughing from lung irritation –Increase in appetite –Increased heart rate –Increased blood flow through mucous membranes of the eye –Decreased nausea –Can act as both a stimulant and depressant depending on variety, the amount absorbed in brain and setting in which it is used and personality of person –Causes disruption of the secretion of male hormone testosterone

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37 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols Mental Effects –Within a few minutes a user becomes confused –Mentally separated from environment –Produces a feeling of déjà vu –Aloof feeling –Drowsiness –Difficulty concentrating –Produces giddiness –Increased alertness –Major distortions of time, color and sound –Exaggerates mood and personality –Makes smokers empathic to other’s feelings –Can impair judgement

38 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols Long-term effects –Respiratory problems –Acute and chronic brochitis –Destroys cilia in breathing passages –Cellular changes in cell nucleus –Precursor to cancer Immune System –Heavy use can depress immune system and increase risk of disease and infection Learning and Emotional Maturation –Slow learning and disrupt concentration on short-term memory –Thoughts and feelings internalized Acute mental Effects –Can cause anxiety or temporary psychotic reactions –Can cause paranoia or have effects similar to cocaine or amphetamine or PCP

39 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols Tolerance –Occurs in rapid and dramatic fashion –Persists in body for up to 3 months though effects lasts 3-6 hours after smoking Withdrawal (Not everyone experiences) –No rapid onset of withdrawal since much is retained in the brain –Anger –Pains –Chills –Inability to concentrate –Depression –Sleep disturbances –Decreased appetite –Sweating –And craving

40 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols 1994 anatagonist receptor discovered and blocked in an experiment which caused animals to go into major withdrawals Chronic smokers have difficulty quiting Has the ability to induce compulsive use Gateway drug through associating with others who smoke and use other illicit drugs Most widely used illicit drug D

41 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols Impairs Driving due to effects of drowsiness and impaired judgement Limited data on amount of THC in body Many arrested for DUI had marijuana too 65% of heavy drinkers smoke marijuana

42 Marijuana and Other Cannabinols Medical use –Treat insomnia –Calm anxiety –Control headaches –Childbirth inducer –Control asthma –Treat withdrawal from opiates –Control spasms –Increase appetite –Recommended for glacoma –Nausea control Marinol: legal synthetic oral form of THC but rarely prescribed


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