2 Biological Dispositions in Learning Preparedness and Conditioning –Classical Conditioning Conditioned taste aversion –Formation of association over long delay –One-trial conditioning –Specificity of associations Belongingness: innate tendency to readily associate certain types of events with each other
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 3 Biological Preparedness Equipotentiality premise – all environmental stimuli that can be detected by an organism can serve as conditioned stimulus. A given stimulus will be equally good in all contexts Belongingness: innate tendency to redily associate certain types of events with each other
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 4 Garcia and Koelling 1966 CS1 - bright noisy water CS2 – taste US1- illness US2- shock
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 5 Conditioned Food Preferences
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 6 Preparedness in Operant Conditioning Response-Reinforcer relationships
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 7 Operant-Respondent Interactions Instinctive Drift –A genetically based fixed action pattern gradually emerges and displaces the behavior that is being operantly conditioned. Sign Tracking –Organism approaches a stimulus that signals the presentation of an appetitive event.
9 Autoshaping Brown and Jenkins (1968) Negative automaintenance –Williams and Williams (1969)
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 10 Analysis of Operant/Respondent Interactions Operants and respondents are defined by experimental producers that produce them. Responses with similar topographies may be either operant or respondent. Intrusion of reflexive behavior can occur during operant conditioning. Respondent procedures are often embedded in the arrangement of operant contingencies.
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 11 Analysis of Operant/Respondent Interactions Respondent Contingencies Predominate over Operant Regulation of Behavior Breland and Breland –Instinctive drift Sign Tracking - approaching a sign Autoshaping (Brown and Jenkins, 1968) Negative Automaintenance (Williams and Williams, 1969)
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 12 Adjunctive Behavior Falk (1961) Excessive pattern of behavior that emerges as a by-product of an intermittent schedule of reinforcement for some other behavior. Schedule-induced polydipsia
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 13 Adjunctive Behavior Occurs during a period immediately following consumption of an intermittent reinforcer Affected by level of deprivation for the scheduled reinforcer Function as reinforcer for other behaviors Optimal interval for development of adjunct
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 14 Adjuncts in Humans Nail biting, talkativeness, snacking, coffee consumption Drug and alcohol abuse??
Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D. 15 Adjunctive Behavior Displacement activity: an apparently irrelevant activity sometimes displayed by animals when confronted by conflict or thwarted from obtaining a goal.