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Unit 6 (B): Classical Conditioning: Expanding Pavlov’s Understanding Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 6 (B): Classical Conditioning: Expanding Pavlov’s Understanding Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 6 (B): Classical Conditioning: Expanding Pavlov’s Understanding Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology

2 Do-Now: (In Journal) Pavlov’s Experiment in “Classical Conditioning” Pavlov’s Experiment in “Classical Conditioning” Identify the following components of Pavlov’s experiment. Identify the following components of Pavlov’s experiment. 1.__ Neutral Stimulus 1.__ Neutral Stimulus 2.__ Unconditioned (Unlearned) Stimulus 2.__ Unconditioned (Unlearned) Stimulus 3.__ Unconditioned (Unlearned) Response 3.__ Unconditioned (Unlearned) Response 4.__ Conditioned (Learned) Stimulus 4.__ Conditioned (Learned) Stimulus 5.__ Conditioned (Learned) Response 5.__ Conditioned (Learned) Response A. Bell B. Food C. Salivation (to Food)D. Salivation (to Bell)

3 Acquisition Acquisition: Acquisition: Classical Conditioning: Classical Conditioning: Initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus Initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus Neutral stimulus begins triggering conditioned response Neutral stimulus begins triggering conditioned response Operant Conditioning: Operant Conditioning: The strengthening of a reinforced response The strengthening of a reinforced response Neutral stimulus should come (.5 seconds) before the unconditioned stimulus Neutral stimulus should come (.5 seconds) before the unconditioned stimulus

4 Acquisition The Conditioned Stimulus (CS) needs to come half a second before the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) for acquisition to occur.

5 Acquisition Higher-Order Conditioning: Higher-Order Conditioning: The conditioned stimulus in one experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus The conditioned stimulus in one experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus E.g. An animal that learns that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and may begin responding to the light alone E.g. An animal that learns that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and may begin responding to the light alone

6 Generalization Generalization: Generalization: The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses John B. Watson, Rosalie Rayner: “Little Albert” John B. Watson, Rosalie Rayner: “Little Albert”

7 Generalization Interpret this quote: Interpret this quote: “The cat, having sat upon a hot stove lid, will not sit upon a hot stove lid again. But he won't sit upon a cold stove lid, either.” –Mark Twain

8 Discrimination Discrimination: Discrimination: The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

9 Discrimination Can you think of an Can you think of an example of how a pet dog may exhibit discrimination of a stimulus?

10 Extinction Extinction: Extinction: The diminishing of a conditioned response The diminishing of a conditioned response Classical Conditioning: Classical Conditioning: An unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) An unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) Operant Conditioning: Operant Conditioning: A response is no longer reinforced A response is no longer reinforced

11 Extinction How could Pavlov make the conditioned response (salivating to the sound of a bell) become extinct? How could Pavlov make the conditioned response (salivating to the sound of a bell) become extinct?

12 Spontaneous Recovery Spontaneous Recovery: Spontaneous Recovery: The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished response The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished response

13 Learned Helplessness Learned Helplessness: Learned Helplessness: The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated or aversive events The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated or aversive events

14 Learned Helplessness How might being bullied as a child lead to the individual experiencing “learned helplessness?” How might being bullied as a child lead to the individual experiencing “learned helplessness?” How might school leveling/tracking lead to the individual experiencing “learned helplessness?” How might school leveling/tracking lead to the individual experiencing “learned helplessness?” How would you suggest the individual should work to correct this learned behavior? How would you suggest the individual should work to correct this learned behavior?

15 Biological Predispositions John Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning but other stimuli (sight or sound) did not.

16 Biological Predispositions Even humans can develop classically to conditioned nausea.

17 Biological Predispositions Psychologists may suggest that alcoholics use “Antabuse,” a pill that causes nausea when combined with alcohol Psychologists may suggest that alcoholics use “Antabuse,” a pill that causes nausea when combined with alcohol The use of this drug may serve to condition the alcoholic to become nauseous when drinking alcohol (aversive conditioning) The use of this drug may serve to condition the alcoholic to become nauseous when drinking alcohol (aversive conditioning)

18 Applications of Classical Conditioning 1. Former crack cocaine users should avoid cues (people, places) associated with previous drug use. 2. Through classical conditioning, a drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response may cause the taste of the drug to invoke the immune response.

19 Applications of Classical Conditioning John B. Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations, including Maxwell House, making the “coffee break” an American custom.

20 Review What is acquisition? What is acquisition? Provide an example of the following elements of Classical Conditioning: Provide an example of the following elements of Classical Conditioning: Generalization Generalization Discrimination Discrimination Extinction Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Spontaneous Recovery In what ways was the Study of “Little Albert” unethical? In what ways was the Study of “Little Albert” unethical?

21 Homework Unit 6 Key People Unit 6 Key People Research Study # 10: “Little Emotional Albert” (Pgs ) Research Study # 10: “Little Emotional Albert” (Pgs ) Unit 6 Quiz: “Learning” Unit 6 Quiz: “Learning”


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