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Financial Accounting & Information System

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1 Financial Accounting & Information System
Session Objectives: Last Session Recap Quiz Session 3 Remaining Stuff (Chapter 4) Summery Accounting for Merchandising Operations (Chapter 5) Book Problem solve Home Work Assignments By M Asif Jaffer

2 Financial Accounting & Information System
Last Session Recap: Consider following partial trial balance… Prepaid Rent Rs.12,000 Unearned Revenue Rs.40,000 Office Stationary ,000 Salary Payable ,000 Accounts Rec ,000 Types of Adjusting Entries Accounting Principles Involved By M Asif Jaffer

3 Financial Accounting & Information System
Quiz By M Asif Jaffer

4 Financial Accounting & Information System
Session 3 Remaining Stuff (Chapter 4): Slides L3 By M Asif Jaffer

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6 Accounting Principles, Ninth Edition
Chapter 5 Accounting for Merchandising Operations Accounting Principles, Ninth Edition

7 Study Objectives Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies. Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system. Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system. Explain the steps in the accounting cycle for a merchandising company. Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement. Explain the computation and importance of gross profit. 1. On the topic, “Challenges Facing Financial Accounting,” what did the AICPA Special Committee on Financial Reporting suggest should be included in future financial statements? Non-financial Measurements (customer satisfaction indexes, backlog information, and reject rates on goods purchases). Forward-looking Information Soft Assets (a company’s know-how, market dominance, marketing setup, well-trained employees, and brand image). Timeliness (no real time financial information)

8 Accounting for Merchandising Operations
Recording Purchases of Merchandise Recording Sales of Merchandise Completing the Accounting Cycle Forms of Financial Statements Operating cycles Flow of costs—perpetual and periodic inventory systems Freight costs Purchase returns and allowances Purchase discounts Summary of purchasing transactions Sales returns and allowances Sales discounts Adjusting entries Closing entries Summary of merchandising entries Multiple-step income statement Single-step income statement Classified balance sheet Service Cost - Actuaries compute service cost as the present value of the new benefits earned by employees during the year. Future salary levels considered in calculation. Interest on Liability - Interest accrues each year on the PBO just as it does on any discounted debt. Actual Return on Plan Assets - Increase in pension funds from interest, dividends, and realized and unrealized changes in the fair market value of the plan assets. Amortization of Unrecognized Prior Service Cost - The cost of providing retroactive benefits is allocated to pension expense in the future, specifically to the remaining service-years of the affected employees. Gain or Loss - Volatility in pension expense can be caused by sudden and large changes in the market value of plan assets and by changes in the projected benefit obligation. Two items comprise the gain or loss: difference between the actual return and the expected return on plan assets and, amortization of the unrecognized net gain or loss from previous periods

9 Merchandising Operations
Merchandising Companies Buy and Sell Goods Wholesaler Retailer Consumer The primary source of revenues is referred to as sales revenue or sales. SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

10 Perpetual System - Goods purchased treated as assets titled ‘Inventory / Stock in trade’ - When some goods are sold, some asset becomes an expense titled ‘Cost of Goods Sold’ Periodic Inventory System - Goods purchased treated as expense titled ‘Purchases’ - At the end of the period, remaining goods are transferred from expense to asset titled ‘Inventory’

11 Consider accounting for office supplies…..
Flow of Costs Perpetual System Consider accounting for office supplies….. Two options Features: Purchases increase Merchandise Inventory. Freight costs, Purchase Returns and Allowances and Purchase Discounts are included in Merchandise Inventory. Cost of Goods Sold is increased and Merchandise Inventory is decreased for each sale. Physical count done to verify Merchandise Inventory balance. The perpetual inventory system provides a continuous record of Merchandise Inventory and Cost of Goods Sold. SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

12 Leave Periodic Inventory System
Flow of Costs Periodic System Leave Periodic Inventory System Features: Purchases of merchandise increase Purchases. Ending Inventory determined by physical count. Calculation of Cost of Goods Sold: Beginning inventory $ 100,000 Add: Purchases, net 800,000 Goods available for sale 900,000 Less: Ending inventory 125,000 Cost of goods sold $ 775,000 SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

13 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration 5-5 Made using cash or credit (on account). Normally recorded when goods are received. Purchase invoice should support each credit purchase. SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

14 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Under the perpetual inventory system, companies record in the Merchandise Inventory account the purchase of goods they intend to sell. Illustration: From INVOICE NO. 731 (Illustration 5-5) record the journal entry Sauk Stereo would make to record its purchase from PW Audio Supply. May 4 Merchandise inventory 3,800 Accounts payable 3,800 SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

15 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Freight Costs – Terms of Sale Illustration 5-6 Seller places goods Free On Board the carrier, and buyer pays freight costs. Seller places goods Free On Board to the buyer’s place of business, and seller pays freight costs. Freight costs incurred by the seller are an operating expense.

16 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume upon delivery of the goods on May 6, Sauk Stereo pays Acme Freight Company $150 for freight charges, the entry on Sauk Stereo’s books is: May 6 Merchandise inventory 150 Cash Assume the freight terms on the invoice in Illustration 5-5 had required PW Audio Supply to pay the freight charges, the entry by PW Audio Supply would have been: May 6 Freight-out (or Delivery Expense) 150 Cash SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

17 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Purchase Returns and Allowances Purchaser may be dissatisfied because goods are damaged or defective, of inferior quality, or do not meet specifications. Purchase Return Purchase Allowance Return goods for credit if the sale was made on credit, or for a cash refund if the purchase was for cash. May choose to keep the merchandise if the seller will grant an allowance (deduction) from the purchase price. SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

18 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Question In a perpetual inventory system, a return of defective merchandise by a purchaser is recorded by crediting: Purchases Purchase Returns Purchase Allowance Merchandise Inventory SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

19 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume that on May 8 Sauk Stereo returned to PW Audio Supply goods costing $300. May 8 Accounts payable 300 Merchandise inventory 300 SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

20 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Purchase Discounts Credit terms may permit buyer to claim a cash discount for prompt payment. Advantages: Purchaser saves money. Seller shortens the operating cycle. Example: Credit terms of 2/10, n/30, is read “two-ten, net thirty.” 2% cash discount if payment is made within 10 days. SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

21 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Purchase Discounts Terms 2/10, n/30 1/10 EOM n/10 EOM 2% discount if paid within 10 days, otherwise net amount due within 30 days. 1% discount if paid within first 10 days of next month. Net amount due within the first 10 days of the next month. SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

22 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume Sauk Stereo pays the balance due of $3,500 (gross invoice price of $3,800 less purchase returns and allowances of $300) on May 14, the last day of the discount period. Prepare the journal entry Sauk makes to record its May 14 payment. May 14 Accounts payable 3,500 Merchandise Inventory 70 Cash ,430 (Discount = $3,500 x 2% = $70) SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

23 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: If Sauk Stereo failed to take the discount, and instead made full payment of $3,500 on June 3, the journal entry would be: June 3 Accounts payable 3,500 Cash 3,500 SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

24 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Purchase Discounts Should discounts be taken when offered? Passing up the discount offered equates to paying an interest rate of 2% on the use of $3,500 for 20 days. Example: 2% for 20 days = Annual rate of 36.5% (365/20 = twenty-day periods x 2% = 36.5%) SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

25 Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Summary of Purchasing Transactions Illustration 4th - Purchase $3,500 $300 8th - Return 6th – Freight-in 150 70 14th - Discount Balance $3,580 SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

26 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Made for cash or credit (on account). Normally recorded when earned, usually when goods transfer from seller to buyer. Sales invoice should support each credit sale. Illustration 5-5 SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

27 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Two Journal Entries to Record a Sale #1 Cash or Accounts receivable XXX Selling Price Sales XXX #2 Cost of goods sold XXX Cost Merchandise inventory XXX SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

28 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume PW Audio Supply records its May 4 sale of $3,800 to Sauk Stereo (Illustration 5-5) as follows. Assume the merchandise cost PW Audio Supply $2,400. May 4 Accounts receivable 3,800 Sales 3,800 4 Cost of goods sold 2,400 Merchandise inventory 2,400 SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

29 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Sales Returns and Allowances “Flipside” of purchase returns and allowances. Contra-revenue account (debit). Sales not reduced (debited) because: would obscure importance of sales returns and allowances as a percentage of sales. could distort comparisons between total sales in different accounting periods. SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

30 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: Prepare the entry PW Audio Supply would make to record the credit for returned goods that had a $300 selling price (assume a $140 cost). Assume the goods were not defective. May 8 Sales returns and allowances 300 Accounts receivable 300 8 Merchandise inventory 140 Cost of goods sold 140 SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

31 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume the returned goods were defective and had a scrap value of $50, PW Audio would make the following entries: May 8 Sales returns and allowances 300 Accounts receivable 300 8 Merchandise inventory 50 Cost of goods sold 50 SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

32 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Review Question The cost of goods sold is determined and recorded each time a sale occurs in: periodic inventory system only. a perpetual inventory system only. both a periodic and perpetual inventory system. neither a periodic nor perpetual inventory system. SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

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34 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Sales Discount Offered to customers to promote prompt payment. “Flipside” of purchase discount. Contra-revenue account (debit). SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

35 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume Sauk Stereo pays the balance due of $3,500 (gross invoice price of $3,800 less purchase returns and allowances of $300) on May 14, the last day of the discount period. Prepare the journal entry PW Audio Supply makes to record the receipt on May 14. May 14 Cash 3,430 * Sales discounts 70 Accounts receivable 3,500 * [($3,800 – $300) X 2%] SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

36 Recording Sales of Merchandise
Discussion Question Q5-9 Joan Roland believes revenues from credit sales may be earned before they are collected in cash. Do you agree? Explain. Question 5-9 (textbook) 9. Agree . In accordance with the revenue recognition principle, sales revenues are generally considered to be earned when the goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer; That is, when the exchange transaction occurs. The earning of revenue is not dependent on the collection of credit sales. See notes page for discussion SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

37 Completing the Accounting Cycle
Adjusting Entries Generally the same as a service company. One additional adjustment to make the records agree with the actual inventory on hand. Involves adjusting Merchandise Inventory and Cost of Goods Sold. SO 4 Explain the steps in the accounting cycle for a merchandising company.

38 Merchandising Operations
Income Measurement Sales Revenue Not used in a Service business. Less Illustration 5-1 Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit Equals Less Net Income (Loss) Operating Expenses Equals Cost of goods sold is the total cost of merchandise sold during the period. SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

39 Operating Cycles Illustration 5-2 The operating cycle of a merchandising company ordinarily is longer than that of a service company. SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

40 Completing the Accounting Cycle
Illustration: Suppose that PW Audio Supply has an unadjusted balance of $40,500 in Merchandise Inventory. Through a physical count, PW Audio determines that its actual merchandise inventory at year-end is $40,000. The company would make an adjusting entry as follows. Cost of goods sold 500 Merchandise inventory 500 SO 4 Explain the steps in the accounting cycle for a merchandising company.

41 Completing the Accounting Cycle
Closing Entries

42 Forms of Financial Statements
Multiple-Step Income Statement Shows several steps in determining net income. Two steps relate to principal operating activities. Distinguishes between operating and non-operating activities. SO 5 Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

43 Calculation of Gross Profit
Illustration 5-13 Key Items: Net sales Gross profit Gross profit rate Illustration 5-10 SO 6 Explain the computation and importance of gross profit.

44 Forms of Financial Statements
Illustration 5-13 Forms of Financial Statements Multiple-Step Key Items: Net sales Gross profit Operating expenses SO 5 Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

45 Forms of Financial Statements
Illustration 5-13 Forms of Financial Statements Key Items: Net sales Gross profit Operating expenses Nonoperating activities Net income SO 5 Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

46 Forms of Financial Statements
Review Question The multiple-step income statement for a merchandiser shows each of the following features except: gross profit. cost of goods sold. a sales revenue section. investing activities section. SO 5 Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

47 Forms of Financial Statements
Single-Step Income Statement Subtract total expenses from total revenues Two reasons for using the single-step format: Company does not realize any type of profit until total revenues exceed total expenses. Format is simpler and easier to read. SO 5 Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

48 Forms of Financial Statements
Illustration 5-14 Single-Step SO 5 Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

49 Forms of Financial Statements
Classified Balance Sheet Illustration 5-15 SO 5 Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

50 Periodic Inventory System
Periodic System Separate accounts used to record purchases, freight costs, returns, and discounts. Company does not maintain a running account of changes in inventory. Ending inventory determined by physical count. Leave this section SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

51 Periodic Inventory System
Calculation of Cost of Goods Sold Leave this section Illustration 5A-1 $316,000 SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

52 Recording Purchases under Periodic System
Illustration: On the basis of the sales invoice (Illustration 5-5) and receipt of the merchandise ordered from PW Audio Supply, Sauk Stereo records the $3,800 purchase as follows. Leave this section May 4 Purchases 3,800 Accounts payable 3,800 SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

53 Recording Purchases under Periodic System
Freight Costs Leave this section Illustration: If Sauk pays Haul-It Freight Company $150 for freight charges on its purchase from PW Audio Supply on May 6, the entry on Sauk’s books is: May 6 Freight-in (Transportation-in) 150 Cash SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

54 Recording Purchases under Periodic System
Purchase Returns and Allowances Leave this section Illustration: Sauk Stereo returns $300 of goods to PW Audio Supply and prepares the following entry to recognize the return. May 8 Accounts payable 300 Purchase returns and allowances 300 SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

55 Recording Purchases under Periodic System
Purchase Discounts Leave this section Illustration: On May 14 Sauk Stereo pays the balance due on account to PW Audio Supply, taking the 2% cash discount allowed by PW Audio for payment within 10 days. Sauk Stereo records the payment and discount as follows. May 14 Accounts payable 3,500 Purchase discounts 70 Cash 3,430 SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

56 Recording Sales under Periodic System
Illustration: PW Audio Supply, records the sale of $3,800 of merchandise to Sauk Stereo on May 4 (sales invoice No. 731, Illustration 5-5) as follows. Leave this section May 4 Accounts receivable 3,800 Sales 3,800 No entry is recorded for cost of goods sold at the time of the sale under a periodic system. SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

57 Recording Sales under Periodic System
Sales Returns and Allowances Leave this section Illustration: To record the returned goods received from Sauk Stereo on May 8, PW Audio Supply records the $300 sales return as follows. May 4 Sales returns and allowances 300 Accounts receivable 300 SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

58 Recording Sales under Periodic System
Sales Discounts Leave this section Illustration: On May 14, PW Audio Supply receives payment of $3,430 on account from Sauk Stereo. PW Audio honors the 2% cash discount and records the payment of Sauk’s account receivable in full as follows. May 14 Cash 3,430 Sales discounts 70 Accounts receivable 3,500 SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

59 Comparison of Entries—Perpetual Vs. Periodic
Leave this section Illustration 5A-2 SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

60 Comparison of Entries—Perpetual Vs. Periodic
Leave this section Illustration 5A-2 SO 7 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

61 Worksheet for a Merchandising Company
Illustration 5B-1

62 Practice Question Practice Question Home Assignment:
1- Problem 5-2A & 5-3A (to be submitted) 45 minutes 2- Read chapter 5 (and slides) 40 minutes 3- Prepare for case study c-5 40 minutes 4-Prepare for Quiz from chapter 5

63 Copyright “Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.”


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