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A New Republic.

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1 A New Republic

2 Washington Takes Office
In the electoral college each member wrote down two names. The top two vote getters would be elected as President and Vice President of the United States. Washington took the oath on April 30, 1789.


4 Setting Up the Courts The Constitution created the Supreme Court and left it up to the Congress to determine how many justices there would be. The Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 was passed to help set up the court system. The first court had six members, the Chief Justice, John Jay, and five associate justices.

5 Today’s Supreme Court How many justices are there? 9
Who is the Chief Justice? John Roberts Who was the first female justice? Sandra Day O’Connor Who was the first African American justice? Thurgood Marshall

6 The Cabinet In the Constitution it was determined that the President would have departments to help him rule the nation. The head of each department would make up the Cabinet. The First Cabinet: Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Secretary of War Henry Knox Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton Attorney General Edmund Randolph


8 Who are the Current Cabinet Members?
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Secretary of War/Defense Leon Panetta Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner Attorney General Eric Holder Who is the Secretary of Homeland Security? Janet Napolitano

9 Alexander Hamilton After the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1789, President George Washington appointed Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury. With his early background in international trade and his extensive knowledge of economic theory, Hamilton was an excellent choice for that position. Hamilton’s financial plan was designed to boost the economy of the United States. He wanted to: Pay off all war debts. Raise government revenues. Create a national bank. The problem he has is how to pay for all of this.

10 The Whiskey Tax In 1791 an excise tax on whiskey was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to centralize and fund the national debt. The whiskey excise was unpopular among small farmers on the western frontier who could get their corn to market only by distilling it into whiskey, which was easy to ship by water. They used violence and intimidation to stop federal officials from collecting the tax. Resistance came to a climax in July 1794.

11 Whiskey Rebellion • Western Pennsylvania Farmers would tar and feather tax collectors and terrorize court officials. President Washington, confronted with what appeared to be an armed insurrection in western Pennsylvania, proceeded cautiously. Although determined to maintain government authority, he did not want to alienate public opinion. • Washington calls out 15,000 militia

12 The insurrection collapsed as the army marched into western Pennsylvania in October 1794.
Some of the most prominent leaders of the insurrection, like David Bradford, fled westward to safety. After an investigation, government officials arrested about twenty people and brought them back to Philadelphia for trial. All but two were eventually released or acquitted. The two men convicted of treason, Philip Vigol (or Wigle) and John Mitchell, were sentenced to death by hanging. Vigol had beaten up a tax collector and burned his house; Mitchell was a simpleton who had been convinced by David Bradford to rob the U.S. mail. Both were pardoned by President Washington.


14 John Adams Served as the second president of the U.S. from 1797-1801.
Participated in the First Continental Congress. Was a Commissioner to France, Minister to Great Britain.

15 John Adams He was elected by slim margin in 1796
• Runner-up: Jefferson • Adams = Federalist- strong federal government. • Jefferson = Anti-Federalist/Republican- strong state governments, limited federal government.

16 Problems Under Adams France declared war on Britain on 1 February 1793, and the conflict lasted 22 years. Britain was the one consistent partner in the many coalitions of European powers that formed against France, and an implacable foe of Napoleon. The wars came in two phases: French Revolutionary Wars Napoleonic Wars

17 Neutrality The United States ended up in the middle of the conflict. France and Great Britain each wanted the U.S. to side with them. The U.S. decided to remain neutral. Debate of this neutral status will rage as time passes. Both Washington and Adams wanted to remain neutral in the wars between Great Britain and France

18 The Jay’s Treaty Washington decided it was in the best interest of the nation to side with Britain. In return for the support Great Britain will leave the Northwest Territory. The issue of protection of U.S. shipping was not handled at this time. France became angry with the United States for remaining neutral and began seizing U.S. cargo ships. Adams sent three diplomats to France to make peace. .

19 The XYZ Affair The XYZ Affair was a diplomatic event that strained relations between France and the United States, and led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War. It took place from March of 1798 to 1800. Quasi-War: an undeclared war.

20 The XYZ Affair Once in Paris the officials were met by secret agents sent by the French foreign minister. The agents were later identified only X, Y, and Z. The French demanded a bribe of $250,000 and a loan to France for $10 million before the Americans. Refusing to pay the bribe, the diplomats quickly returned home.

21 Alien and Sedition Acts
Americans grew suspicious about the French and other foreigners. Alien Act: the President gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S. Sedition Act: persons who wrote, published, or said anything of a “false, scandalous, or malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be jailed.

22 Election of 1800 The two parties contesting the 1800 election were:
The Federalists Democratic Republicans The Democratic-Republicans felt they were saving the country from a monarchy and oppression. The Federalists thought the nation was going to be ruined by radicals.

23 Democratic-Republicans
Two Party System Federalist • Strong Fed. Gov’t • Commerce and business • Britain during F.R. • Broad Constructionist • Wealthy • The North • Madison, Hamilton, John Jay, Franklin, John Adams, John Marshall • Federalist Papers Democratic-Republicans • Limited gov’t • Agriculture • France during French Revolution • Strict Constructionists • Common people • South, Mid. Atlantic, West • Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Sam Adams, Elbridge Gerry

24 Political Platforms The Democratic-Republicans thought they were saving the nation from monarchy and oppression. The Federalists thought that the nation was about to be ruined by radicals. Radical: person who takes an extreme position on a topic.

25 The Election of 1800 The fourth presidential election marked a philosophical change from the rule of the first two presidents, Washington and Adams, who were Federalists. The 1800 election was the first time candidates campaigned, though the campaigning was very subdued by modern standards. The contest became a bitter struggle between two men forever linked in history, Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr.

26 John Adams Adams became increasingly unpopular during his four years as president, especially for the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts. As the Election of 1800 approached, Adams was determined to run for a second term, though his chances were not promising.

27 Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson had served as Washington's secretary of state, and ran a close second to John Adams in the election of 1796. As a critic of the Adams presidency, Jefferson was an obvious candidate on the Democratic-Republican ticket that would oppose the Federalist

28 Aaron Burr Aaron Burr, a prominent New York political figure, was opposed to the Federalists continuing their rule, and hoped to see Adams denied a second term. A constant rival to Hamilton, Burr had built a political machine opposed to Hamilton's Federalist organization. For the 1800 election, Burr threw his allegiance to Thomas Jefferson. Burr ran with Jefferson on the same ticket as the vice-presidential candidate.

29 Election of 1800

30 The Election When election day came the Democratic-Republicans won the presidency. Jefferson received 73 votes from the electoral college and John Adams received 65.

31 The Tie With Jefferson receiving 73 votes he easily beat Adams. The problem was Aaron Burr also received 73 votes. Burr technically was running for Vice President but because there was no distinction on the ballot for these two categories he could contest the election.

32 Breaking the Tie According to the Constitution the House of Representatives had to choose between Jefferson and Burr. The Democratic-Republicans had intended for Jefferson to be president and Burr to be vice president. The Federalists had control of the House.

33 A House Divided The Federalists were divided on the issue.
Some feared that Jefferson so much they decided to back Burr. Others felt Burr was so unreliable for the job that they backed Jefferson.

34 Alexander Hamilton Thirty-six ballots were cast over five days to reach a decision. Once again Hamilton played a pivotal role, throwing his support to Jefferson, whom he disliked, rather than Burr, whom he truly hated. Alexander Hamilton who felt Burr was incompetent for the role as president urged congressmen to vote for Jefferson. Jefferson won on the 36th vote.

35 The 12th Amendment The 12th Amendment allowed for separate electoral college votes for president and vice president. The 12th Amendment also strongly suggests that the President and Vice President not be from the same state. If the Electoral College fails to elect a president the House of Representatives chooses between the top three candidates. Lastly the 12th Amendment extends the qualifications of President to the Vice President 000


37 Thomas Jefferson Writer of the Declaration of Independence
Governor of Virginia Member of the Confederation Congress Ambassador to France Secretary of State Vice President Elected President in 1800.

38 Presidency During Jefferson's presidency many federal taxes were repealed, and he sought to rely mainly on customs revenue. He pardoned people who had been imprisoned under the Alien and Sedition Acts, passed in John Adams' term, which Jefferson believed to be unconstitutional. He repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 and removed many of Adams' "midnight judges" from office, which led to the Supreme Court deciding the important case of Marbury v. Madison.

39 Marshall and the Judiciary
John Adams had appointed as many Federalist judges as he could between the election of 1800 and Jefferson’s inauguration. Placing as many judges with your political views on the bench is referred to as court packing. These last minute appointments would make dealing with the courts frustrating for Jefferson.

40 Marbury v. Madison Marbury was a last minute appointment by John Adams to be the justice of the peace in the District of Columbia. James Madison was the Secretary of State. Madison refused to install Marbury as a justice. When Madison refused, Marbury sued him. The case travelled all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court.

41 The Ruling The ruling in the Marbury v. Madison case will be that the plaintiffs could not force Madison to deliver the commissions because the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. This ruling set a precedent that the U.S. Supreme Court will be used to determine constitutionality of law. Laws can be declared unenforceable if they violate the Constitution.

42 The West in 1800 In the 1800’s when Americans talked about the West they were referring to the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. Thousands moved into this area which was inhabited by Native Americans. Ohio was established in 1803. The Mississippi River was the Western border of the U.S.

43 Louisiana Purchase Spain and France had been passing control of the Louisiana territory back and forth. A war nearly resulted with Spain, France and the U.S. over the issue. To avoid hostilities, Thomas Jefferson offered to buy the land from France. In a surprising offer Napoleon agreed. The Louisiana Territory was larger than the U.S. at the time.

44 Why would Napoleon sell?
He was alarmed at the prospect of war with the United States. There had been a recent revolt in another French controlled colony. France was involved in a costly war with Great Britain and he needed the money.

45 Cost of the Land Jefferson purchased the territory for $15 million. This amounts to 3 cents per acre. The purchase would double the size of the U.S.

46 Louisiana Purchase

47 Domestic Opposition The American purchase of the Louisiana territory was not accomplished without domestic opposition. Many people believed he was being hypocritical by doing something he surely would have argued against with Alexander Hamilton. The Federalists strongly opposed the purchase, favoring close relations with Britain over closer ties to Napoleon, believing the purchase to be unconstitutional, and concerned that the U.S. had paid a large sum of money just to declare war on Spain.

48 Lewis and Clark The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was the first overland expedition undertaken by the United States to the Pacific coast and back. The expedition's goal was to gain an accurate sense of the resources being exchanged in the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition laid much of the groundwork for the Westward Expansion of the United States. Another achievement of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was that it established friendly relations with some of the Native Americans. Sacagawea was a Shoshone woman. Her language skills and knowledge of the land would be a great asset on the journey.

49 A Slave Named York When they set out in the summer of 1803, they were accompanied by a slave named York. .Most significantly, at a time in which slaves were forbidden to carry weapons, York not only carried a firearm but also frequently shot game such as buffalo. York’s hunting skills won him admiration among Native Americans

50 Painting of Their Journey

51 The Pike’s Expedition Lewis and Clark explored the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory, Zebulon Pike explored the Southern route. Pike’s party of two dozen men headed west across the central plains. When they saw the Rocky Mountains from the Arkansas River they saw the peak that would later be named for Pike. It was named Pike’s Peak although he failed to climb it.

52 Effects of Exploration
Accurate Maps: the first good maps were produced of the Louisiana Territory. Many travelers will use these as they move west. 2. Growth of the Fur Trade: exploration boosted interest in the fur trade. Hunters and trappers would add to the knowledge of the West. 3. Mistaken View of the Plains: Pike inaccurately described the treeless Great Plains as desert. This made many believe it was useless for farming.

53 Jefferson’s Foreign Policy
When Jefferson took office in 1801, he expected to concentrate on domestic concerns. Domestic: at home Abroad: in another country, overseas Jefferson advised that the United States seek friendship with all nations.

54 Preserving Neutrality
In May 1803, the renewal of the Napoleonic Wars between Great Britain and France once again put the U.S. in the middle. For two years the U.S. benefited by becoming the chief neutral supplier to Europe. American merchants also gained control of most of the West Indies for trade.

55 Problems with France and England
By 1805, the British began to clamp down on U.S. shipping. They did not want the U.S. to provide their enemies with food or supplies. (munitions) The British decided to set up a partial blockade to France. Conflicting laws between the British and the French put the American merchants in a bad situation. They weren’t sure which rules to follow.

56 Election of 1804 In his campaign in 1804, Jefferson claimed credit for western expansion. He believed the opening of the West with the Louisiana Purchase was his greatest accomplishment. Jefferson easily won with 72% of the vote. This is still to this date the largest margin of victory in a multiple party election in the U.S. for president. Jefferson and Clinton

57 Jefferson and Hemmings
Journalists and others alleged during and after Jefferson's presidency that he had fathered several children with one of his slaves, Sally Hemmings, after his wife's death.

58 Sally Hemmings Jefferson is alleged to have had a long-term, intimate relationship with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings. She was said to have been a half-sister to Jefferson's late wife, and to have been three fourths white. Sally Hemings had six children, four of whom survived to adulthood and were freed or allowed to escape by Jefferson. They were presumably seven-eighths white by ancestry.

59 DNA testing conducted in 1998 indicated that a male in Jefferson's line was the father of at least one of Sally Hemmings's children


61 Using Trade as a Weapon Between 1803 and 1812 the British forcibly drafted sailors. In 1807, a battle took place between American sailors and the British. Three Americans were killed. Most believe that if Congress were in session at the time, war would have been declared. Jefferson decided against war. Impressment: the kidnapping of American sailors. The British would kidnap American soldiers and force them to work on British ships.

62 Napoleon’s Role The biggest challenge facing Napoleon was protecting his supply chain on the high seas, where Great Britain held a major advantage. Much of France’s imports came from the United States, a fact which had not escaped the notice of the British Parliament.

63 The Chesapeake Affair

64 The Chesapeake Affair In 1806, the Senate denounced the British and enacted the Non-Importation Act which prohibited the importation of cloth and metal items from Britain. The U.S.S. Chesapeake left from the U.S. to protect American merchant ships in the Mediterranean because of British backlash to the law. Just 10 miles off of the coast in American waters, the ship met up with a British gun boat. The Chesapeake refused to be searched for British deserters. The gunboat emptied its guns broadside to the Chesapeake.

65 U.S. Response Jefferson’s Response:
Forbade British ships to dock in American ports. Ordered state governors to call up as much as 100,000 militiamen.

66 The Non-Intercourse Act
Embargo Act The Non-Intercourse Act Embargo Act: this act will prohibit American ships from doing foreign trade and British ships from sailing to American ports. This policy is a disaster to the United States, Britain, and France. The policy became a major issue in the 1808 election and Jefferson will lose to James Madison. The Embargo Act eventually collapsed under the pressure of domestic opposition. The Non-Intercourse Act was enacted to forbid trade with France and Great Britain only.


68 James Madison James Madison was the fourth president.
He is known as the “Father of the Constitution”. He planned the system of checks and balances which regulate the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. He will lead the U.S. through the War of 1812.

69 The War of 1812

70 Causes of the War American merchants resent British barriers to trade with France. Americans angered over impressment. Americans believe the British are pushing Native Americans to fight with settlers. Western members of the House of Representatives want to expand into Canada.

71 Tecumseh and Native American Unity
Many Americans were certain that the British were trying to stir up Native American resistance on the frontier. Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chief, vowed to stop the loss of Native American land. He believed that they were more vulnerable to lose their land because they were separated. He argued that Native Americans had to do what the white settlers had done during the revolution: unite.

72 Tecumseh Meets with the British
A treaty signed in the Indiana territory that handed over 3 million acres of land to Governor William Henry Harrison was declared meaningless by Tecumseh.

73 War Hawks The relationship between Tecumseh and the British increased the anti-British feelings among Americans. People on the Western frontier began to demand war. These people were called “war hawks”. The main goal of the war hawks was to stop aid being given to Native Americans by the British.

74 “Don’t Give Up the Ship!”
Phase I Battle of Lake Erie The first phase of the War of 1812 involved the U.S. Navy. The most important naval victory took place on Lake Erie in the winter of Experienced officer, Oliver Hazard Perry, took control of the fleet being built on the lake. The first phase of the War of 1812 involved the U.S. Navy. The most important naval victory took place on Lake Erie in the winter of Experienced officer, Oliver Hazard Perry, took control of the fleet being built on the lake. "WE HAVE MET THE ENEMY AND THEY ARE OURS.” “Don’t Give Up the Ship!”


76 Battle of Tippecanoe Battle of the Thames
On October 5, 1813, at the Battle of Thames, American forces cross into Canada across Lake Erie. The American forces catch up with the British and decisively defeat them. Tecumseh, the Indian chief, is killed in the battle. Tecumseh organized a confederacy of Indian tribes to fight for their homelands. Tecumseh’s brother fought against Harrison and was defeated at Tippecanoe. This made Harrison a national hero!

77 Execution of John Woods
Andrew Jackson General Jackson leads a forces to attack various Native American tribes. His involvement in the war adds to his dislike of the Native American people. Execution of John Woods John Woods was a young enlisted man who was serving under Andrew Jackson. Woods tried to desert the army during the war. Andrew Jackson proclaimed if he ever found a deserter he would have them executed. Woods was caught and executed by Jackson.

78 Second Phase of the War In April 1814, Britain turned its full attention to fighting the U.S. British forces burned the Capitol building and the President’s Mansion in August. Dolly Madison is credited with saving the official presidential portrait of George Washington.

79 Fort McHenry At Fort McHenry, the commander ordered that a flag be placed on the fort that was so large that the British would not be able to help seeing it. A Washington lawyer who was detained on a British ship watched the battle at Fort McHenry all night long.

80 Oh Say Can You See By the Dawn’s Early Light… -- Francis Scott Key

81 Francis Scott Key As Key watched the battle throughout the night he noticed in the morning that the flag was still flying. He expressed pride in what he saw. The words he originally wrote as a poem became our National Anthem.

82 Battle of New Orleans The British began to move South towards New Orleans. The British met with Andrew Jackson’s army. This battle made Jackson a hero. Jackson’s men suffered 71 casualties to the British who lost 2,000. What is the irony in this battle?

83 Treaty of Ghent The treaty that ended the war was signed two weeks before the Battle of New Orleans. The slow mail service delayed the arrival of the mail so the military was unaware that the war was over. There was no clear winner of the war.

84 Effects of the War Jackson and Perry are made heroes.
Native Americans are weakened by the war. Loss of international trade during the war increased manufacturing in the U.S. and leads to the Industrial Revolution. U.S. proves it can defend itself. Americans gain confidence in their ability to protect themselves and prosper.

85 Hartford Convention A meeting was held in Hartford, Connecticut to consider the problems of New England in the War of 1812. Prior to the war, New England Federalists had opposed the Embargo Act of 1807 and other government measures. Many of them continued to oppose the government after fighting had begun. In the winter of , Federalists delegates met to discuss secession from the United States. The timing of the Battle of New Orleans and the signing of the Treaty of Ghent made the convention seem treasonous.

86 Election of 1816 After the election of 1816 it was considered “The Era of Good Feelings”. James Monroe was president and people began to shift their loyalties away from state governments and towards the federal government.

87 The American System This plan was promoted by Henry Clay it had three components: Establish a protective tariff, a tax on imported goods that protects the nation’s businesses. Establish a national bank that would promote a single currency. Most regional banks issued their own money. Improve the country’s transportation system.

88 James Monroe Monroe is known mostly for two historic reasons:
He was in office when the decision was made to create the U.S. border with Canada at the 49th parallel. His policy the Monroe Doctrine was created.

89 Monroe Doctrine In Latin America, several countries had fought for their independence. Some European countries planned to help Spain and Portugal reclaim those territories. Monroe issued a statement in an address to Congress: -The Americas were closed to European colonization. Monroe warned Europeans that their efforts to reestablish colonies would be considered a danger to peace. In the document the U.S. promised to keep out of European affairs.

90 Panic of 1819 The Panic of 1819 was a delayed reaction to the end of the War of 1812. As British merchant ships resumed trade on routes they abandoned during the wars the American economic boom ended. Urban workers suffered from a decline in international trade and from manufacturing failures from British competition. The upset farmers, urban workers, and southern planters will become big supporters in the upcoming Jacksonian Era.

91 Sectionalism After the War of 1812 there was a heightened sense of nationalism bringing the country together. At the same time sectionalism was driving the country apart. Sectionalism: loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country.

92 The North was loyal to the ideas of the economy based on manufacturing and trade.
The South was loyal to their reliance on the cotton industry and the use of slave labor.

93 Missouri Applies for Statehood
Sectionalism becomes a major issue when Missouri applies for statehood. The people of Missouri wanted to be a slave state. When Missouri applied their were 11 free states and 11 slave states.

94 Tallmadge Amendment For months the states argued over admitting Missouri. James Tallmadge of New York proposed in Congress that slavery be banned in Missouri. Angered Southerners argued that the Constitution did not give Congress the right to ban slavery.

95 Missouri Compromise Both sides feared the other side would gain the majority in Congress. The Compromise: Henry Clay who was Speaker of the House suggested that Maine and Missouri be entered into the Union together. This compromise maintained the balance of power in Congress. Slavery will not be permitted North of the Southern border of Missouri. The Missouri Compromise is a temporary fix.

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