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Profiles of Female and Serious Juvenile Offenders in Hawaii Lisa Pasko Juvenile Justice Research Analyst, Crime Prevention and Justice Assistance Division,

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Presentation on theme: "Profiles of Female and Serious Juvenile Offenders in Hawaii Lisa Pasko Juvenile Justice Research Analyst, Crime Prevention and Justice Assistance Division,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Profiles of Female and Serious Juvenile Offenders in Hawaii Lisa Pasko Juvenile Justice Research Analyst, Crime Prevention and Justice Assistance Division, Department of the Attorney General

2 Pathways to Delinquency Low school achievement/alienation from schoolLow school achievement/alienation from school Poor parental supervisionPoor parental supervision Child physical and sexual abuse, neglectChild physical and sexual abuse, neglect Depression, suicidal ideation, self injury, and other mental health disordersDepression, suicidal ideation, self injury, and other mental health disorders Exposure to domestic violenceExposure to domestic violence Parental substance abuse and criminal historyParental substance abuse and criminal history PovertyPoverty Susceptibility to peer pressureSusceptibility to peer pressure Substance useSubstance use High-delinquency-rate schoolsHigh-delinquency-rate schools High crime neighborhoodsHigh crime neighborhoods

3 Study Objectives Identify gender-specific risk factors of the female juvenile offenderIdentify gender-specific risk factors of the female juvenile offender Discuss variables that girl and boy offenders have in commonDiscuss variables that girl and boy offenders have in common Identify risk factors that are predictive of serious juvenile offendingIdentify risk factors that are predictive of serious juvenile offending Examine predictive factors for detention and commitment to the Hawaii Youth Correctional Facility (HYCF)Examine predictive factors for detention and commitment to the Hawaii Youth Correctional Facility (HYCF)

4 Methods Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS) offense data and Family Court records were used. 271 Family Court case files were analyzed. The studies included low-level probationers (one or two offenses), more chronic offenders (three or more offenses, history of detainment) and juveniles at the most serious end of the spectrum (those committed to the HYCF). The samples were weighted according to Circuit Court and gender (probation). The studies examined academic, psychological, family, peer group, and drug use characteristics.

5 National and State Comparisons Boys and girls in Hawaii have lower than national average proportions of arrests for assault, disorderly conduct, curfew, larceny-theft, and drug violations.Boys and girls in Hawaii have lower than national average proportions of arrests for assault, disorderly conduct, curfew, larceny-theft, and drug violations. Boys and girls in Hawaii have much higher than national average proportions of arrests for runaway (43% versus 18% of all juvenile arrests).Boys and girls in Hawaii have much higher than national average proportions of arrests for runaway (43% versus 18% of all juvenile arrests). Girls have conspicuously lower rates than the national average for the proportion of larceny-theft arrests (21% versus 10% of arrests)Girls have conspicuously lower rates than the national average for the proportion of larceny-theft arrests (21% versus 10% of arrests)

6 Top 10 JJIS Arrest Charges, CY 2004: Boys (10,693 total offenses) Girls (6,647 total offenses) Runaway (1,906) Runaway (1,906) Truancy (760) Truancy (760) Assault 3 (751) Assault 3 (751) Theft 4 (720) Theft 4 (720) Detrimental Drug 3 (526) Detrimental Drug 3 (526) Criminal Property Damage 2 (495) Criminal Property Damage 2 (495) Harassment (441) Harassment (441) Curfew Violation (393) Curfew Violation (393) Disorderly Conduct (339) Disorderly Conduct (339) Terroristic Threatening 2 (229) Terroristic Threatening 2 (229) Runaway (2,808) Runaway (2,808) Truancy (485) Truancy (485) Theft 4 (441) Theft 4 (441) Assault 3 (363) Assault 3 (363) Beyond Parental Control (298) Beyond Parental Control (298) Curfew (238) Curfew (238) Harassment (172) Harassment (172) Detrimental Drug 3 (154) Detrimental Drug 3 (154) Theft 3 (118) Theft 3 (118) Disorderly Conduct (115) Disorderly Conduct (115)

7 When controlling for all offense and offender demographic characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, county), what factors predict adjudication?

8 When controlling for offense and offender specific variables, the strongest predictors of adjudication include (in order): Arrest for robberyArrest for robbery Arrest for sex assault (first or second degree)Arrest for sex assault (first or second degree) Arrest for felony theftArrest for felony theft Arrest for UCPVArrest for UCPV Arrest for family abuseArrest for family abuse Arrest for dangerous drugArrest for dangerous drug

9 Predictors that decrease a juvenile’s chance of being adjudicated include: County residence (from Maui) Gender (female) Arrests for truancy or curfew

10 In Hawaii in 2005, girls were: * 41% of police referrals to Family Court * 37% of non-police referrals (DOE, DAG, etc.) * 32% of youth found responsible (adjudicated) * 30% of juveniles placed on probation * 50% of juveniles placed on protective supervision due to status offenses

11 Offender-Specific Frequencies, by Gender Variables Boys (n=159) Girls (n=112) AgeRangeMeanMedian years old Age at first arrest RangeMeanMedian Age Age Number of offenses per juvenile RangeMeanMedian 1-85 offenses offenses

12 Offense-Specific Frequencies, by Gender Boys (n=159) Girls (n=112) Number of runaway arrests RangeMeanMedian 0-50 offenses offenses Number of status offenses RangeMeanMedian 0-57 offenses offenses Number of property offenses RangeMeanMedian 0-14 offenses offenses Number of person offensesRangeMeanMedian 0-14 offenses offenses Number of drug offenses RangeMeanMedian 0-9 offenses offenses

13 Race and Ethnic Composition of the Case File Data: Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (43%), Caucasians (16%), Filipinos/as (14%), and Samoans (7%) comprise the majority of the sample.Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (43%), Caucasians (16%), Filipinos/as (14%), and Samoans (7%) comprise the majority of the sample. 64% are from Oahu, 19% from the Big Island, and roughly 9% each from Kauai and Maui.64% are from Oahu, 19% from the Big Island, and roughly 9% each from Kauai and Maui. 42% of the sample are girls.

14 Gender and Abuse and Sexuality Variables 50% of girls and 41% of boys had histories of physical abuse. 58% of girls and 42% of boys were witness to domestic violence. 38% of girls’ files and 8% of boys’ files contained records of sexual abuse. 38% of the girls’ files reported some form of risky sexual behavior. 21% of the boys’ files reported aggressive sexual behavior.

15 Gender and Mental Health Variables 70% of both boys and girls have an Axis I psychological diagnosis. Nearly 35% of girls (compared to 12% of boys) have at least one prior suicide attempt recorded in their case file. 28% of girls’ files have records of self- injury (5% boys).

16 Gender and Psychological Diagnoses 28% of girls’ and 14% of boys’ case files contained records of depression.28% of girls’ and 14% of boys’ case files contained records of depression. 23% of boys’ and 7% of girls’ case files had records of ADHD.23% of boys’ and 7% of girls’ case files had records of ADHD. 19% of boys’ and 13% of girls’ case files had records of Conduct Disorder.19% of boys’ and 13% of girls’ case files had records of Conduct Disorder.

17 Peer Group and School Variables 63% of the entire sample are certified as special education (67% boys and 59% girls).63% of the entire sample are certified as special education (67% boys and 59% girls). 77% have failed academically.77% have failed academically. 83% have negative peer groups83% have negative peer groups 13% claim gang affiliation.13% claim gang affiliation. 81% are chronic truants.81% are chronic truants. Almost 40% of the girls’ files report “associations” with men at least five years their senior.Almost 40% of the girls’ files report “associations” with men at least five years their senior.

18 Drug Use, by Gender 40% of the total sample are frequent drug users (36% girls vs. 43% boys). 75% report some form of drug use, and 78% report alcohol use in their lifetimes.

19 Gender and Drug Use (cont.) 45% of girls, compared to 28% of boys, have tried ice. 23% of the girls, compared to 17% of the boys, are frequent ice users. 76% of the boys and 73% of the girls have tried marijuana. 37% of the boys and 21% of the girls are frequent marijuana users.

20 Family Variables 1 in 10 experienced death of at least one parent.1 in 10 experienced death of at least one parent. 1 in 2 has had a parent involved in the criminal justice system.1 in 2 has had a parent involved in the criminal justice system. 1 in 4 has been placed in a foster care home (not hanai or extended family).1 in 4 has been placed in a foster care home (not hanai or extended family). 41% have no contact with their father; 19% have no contact with their mother.41% have no contact with their father; 19% have no contact with their mother. Almost 1 in 3 has a family history of suicide/mental illness.Almost 1 in 3 has a family history of suicide/mental illness.

21 The strongest predictors of runaway arrests include: Gender (female)Gender (female) Oahu residenceOahu residence Multiple property arrestsMultiple property arrests Frequent drug useFrequent drug use Suicidal ideationSuicidal ideation

22 When comparing HYCF girls to non- HYCF girls, the likelihood of these factors increases: History of neglect and/or sexual abuseHistory of neglect and/or sexual abuse History of foster care placements (not hanai or extended family)History of foster care placements (not hanai or extended family) Relationships with older menRelationships with older men Self-injurySelf-injury

23 When comparing HYCF girls to non- HYCF girls, the likelihood of these factors increases: Frequent ice useFrequent ice use Risky sexual behavior, including prostitutionRisky sexual behavior, including prostitution Negative peer groupNegative peer group Academic failure (all of the HYCF girls in the sample had failed academically)Academic failure (all of the HYCF girls in the sample had failed academically)

24 Boys: More likely to be arrested for assault or harassmentMore likely to be arrested for assault or harassment More likely to engage in sexually aggressive and physically assaultive behaviorsMore likely to engage in sexually aggressive and physically assaultive behaviors More likely to have ADHD or conduct disorders (rather than depression)More likely to have ADHD or conduct disorders (rather than depression) More likely to be certified as special educationMore likely to be certified as special education More likely to be a frequent marijuana userMore likely to be a frequent marijuana user

25 Both boys and girls: Equally likely to have failed academically or to be chronic truantsEqually likely to have failed academically or to be chronic truants Experienced death of at least one parentExperienced death of at least one parent Have parents who abuse drugs or alcoholHave parents who abuse drugs or alcohol Have used marijuana and alcoholHave used marijuana and alcohol

26 Profile of the Female Juvenile Offender More likely to be arrested for status offenses, most particularly running awayMore likely to be arrested for status offenses, most particularly running away More likely to have tried iceMore likely to have tried ice More likely to have histories of traumaMore likely to have histories of trauma More likely to have suicidal ideation and previous suicide attemptsMore likely to have suicidal ideation and previous suicide attempts More likely to experience depression/PTSD and engage in self-injuryMore likely to experience depression/PTSD and engage in self-injury

27 Profile of the Serious Juvenile Offender Continuum used: Probation>>>Detention>>>HYCF

28 Statistically Significant Predictors of Detention Independent VariablesOdds for Detention City & County of Honolulu residence9.44 to 1 Number of felony offenses1.71 to 1 Number of property offenses1.54 to 1 Number of status offenses1.19 to 1 Age of first arrest1.56 to 1 Frequent drug user 2.49 to 1 Frequent ice user16.58 to 1 Current or prior suicidal ideation2.85 to 1 Academic failure4.74 to 1

29 Predicting Detention: Juvenile resides on OahuJuvenile resides on Oahu Number of felony offensesNumber of felony offenses Number of property offensesNumber of property offenses Number of status offensesNumber of status offenses Age of first arrestAge of first arrest Frequent drug user, especially frequent ice useFrequent drug user, especially frequent ice use Current or prior suicidal ideationCurrent or prior suicidal ideation Academic FailureAcademic Failure

30 HYCF Commitment, by Selected Risk Factors Variables HYCF (n=93) Non-HYCF (n=178) Total Abuse and NeglectNo Yes 46 (50%) 47 (50%) 106 (60%) 72 (40%) 152 (56%) 119(44%) Witness to Domestic Violence No Yes 32 (44%) 41 (56%) 53 (47%) 60 (53%) 94 (51%) 92 (49%) Frequent ice user**No Yes 56 (60%) 37 (40%) 162 (91%) 16 (9%) 218 (80%) 53 (20%) Frequent marijuana user** No Yes 52 (56%) 41 (44%) 136 (76%) 42 (24%) 188 (69%) 83 (30%) Suicidal ideationNo Yes 52 (58%) 37 (42%) 109 (66%) 55 (34%) 161 (64%) 92 (36%) ** p<.01

31 HYCF Commitment, by Selected Risk Factors Variables HYCF (n=93) Non-HYCF (n=178) Total Academic Failure**No Yes 6 (7%) 84 (93%) 55 (31%) 120 (69%) 61 (23%) 204 (77%) Special EducationNo Yes 28 (30%) 65 (70%) 71 (40%) 107 (60%) 99 (36%) 172 (64%) Negative Peer GroupNo Yes 10 (12%) 74 (88%) 28 (21%) 107 (79%) 38 (17%) 181 (83%) Gang InvolvementNo Yes 72 (83%) 15 (17%) 135 (86%) 18 (14%) 207 (86%) 33 (14%) ** p<.01

32 HYCF Commitment, by Selected Risk Factors Variables HYCF (n=93) Non-HYCF (n=178) Total Parental Involvement*No Yes 23 (25%) 70 (75%) 24 (13%) 154 (87%) 47 (17%) 224 (83%) Mother Active*No Yes 30 (32%) 63 (68%) 37 (21%) 141 (79%) 67 (25%) 204 (75%) Death of a significant other (not parent)* No Yes 72 (80%) 18 (20%) 158 (90%) 18 (10%) 230 (86%) 36 (14%) * p<.05

33 Predicting HYCF Commitment Number of felony offensesNumber of felony offenses Number of status offensesNumber of status offenses Total number of offensesTotal number of offenses Frequent drug userFrequent drug user Frequent Ice userFrequent Ice user Academic FailureAcademic Failure Risky sexual behaviorRisky sexual behavior Parental involvementParental involvement GenderGender

34 HYCF versus Detention: Number of felony arrests, number of status arrests, and frequent drug use predict both.Number of felony arrests, number of status arrests, and frequent drug use predict both. Gender, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior predict HYCF commitment.Gender, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior predict HYCF commitment. Current or prior suicidal ideation predicts Detention.Current or prior suicidal ideation predicts Detention.

35 The serious juvenile offender: Is usually maleIs usually male Has more overall arrestsHas more overall arrests Has more felony arrests and a higher number of status and property arrestsHas more felony arrests and a higher number of status and property arrests Has more frequent marijuana and ice useHas more frequent marijuana and ice use More likely to have experienced the death of a significant otherMore likely to have experienced the death of a significant other More likely to have an absent motherMore likely to have an absent mother More likely to have a history of neglectMore likely to have a history of neglect More likely to have failed academicallyMore likely to have failed academically More likely to have a conduct disorder diagnosisMore likely to have a conduct disorder diagnosis

36 Serious versus “Not As Serious” Juvenile Offenders Equally likely to be certified special educationEqually likely to be certified special education Equally likely to have diagnoses of ADHD or DepressionEqually likely to have diagnoses of ADHD or Depression Equally likely to have witnessed domestic violence and experienced physical abuseEqually likely to have witnessed domestic violence and experienced physical abuse Equally likely to have parents with criminal histories and/or who use drugs and/or alcohol, or to have other family members in the justice systemEqually likely to have parents with criminal histories and/or who use drugs and/or alcohol, or to have other family members in the justice system

37 C onclusion Academic failure is a salient risk factor for both female juvenile offenders and serious juvenile offenders.Academic failure is a salient risk factor for both female juvenile offenders and serious juvenile offenders. Frequent ice use significantly increases the odds for Detention and HYCF commitment.Frequent ice use significantly increases the odds for Detention and HYCF commitment. Previous or current suicidal ideation and risky sexual behavior are also risk factors for Detention/HYCF commitment, particularly for girls.Previous or current suicidal ideation and risky sexual behavior are also risk factors for Detention/HYCF commitment, particularly for girls.

38 For more information: The Female Juvenile Offender in Hawaii and The Serious Juvenile Offender in Hawaii Reports can be found at hawaii.gov/ag/cpja


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