Presentation on theme: "Oklahoma Department of Corrections DUI Offender Profile Analyzing differences between DUI-specific and general population prison receptions, incarcerates."— Presentation transcript:
Oklahoma Department of Corrections DUI Offender Profile Analyzing differences between DUI-specific and general population prison receptions, incarcerates and prison releases.
Overview Purpose: To profile and discuss statistical differences between DUI-specific and overall population offenders who have been or are currently imprisoned by the Oklahoma Department of Corrections. DUI offenders discussed are those imprisoned for: DUI – Liquor or Drugs /APCV DUI – Liquor or Drugs/APCV (after former conviction of a felony) Personal Injury Accident while DUI Manslaughter, First Degree while DUI Three sections include: Prison Receptions (5 years) Current Incarcerates Prison Releases (5 years)
Prison Receptions Comparisons between DUI-specific and all prison receptions for a five-year period
Receptions - Offense Type DUI Receptions All Receptions
Receptions – General Info Age Average Age 41.8 years34.5 years Race/Ethnicity Asian 0.1%0.3% African American 12%27% Caucasian 62%54% Hispanic 9%8% Native American 17%10% Other 0.2% GenderDUI ReceptionsAll Receptions Male 91%85% Female 9%15% DUI offenders tend to be more male, older in age, with a higher representation among Caucasians and Native Americans and a lower representation among African Americans than all prison receptions.
Receptions – Assessed Security Level DUI Receptions All Receptions DUI receptions are more likely to be assessed to be in need of a minimum security level while incarcerated than the general prison receptions population.
Receptions – Sentence Length DUI Receptions Avg. Sentence Length (yrs.) Minimum Sentence Maximum Sentence Male Days25 Years Female Days20 Years Total Days25 Years Though the average sentence length for DUI offenses is not the same for each year’s reception population, it has remained fairly constant – ranging from 3.7 to 4.3 years – and averages 3.9 years for the five-year time frame. The same trend applies to all receptions. All Receptions Avg. Sentence Length (yrs.) Minimum Sentence Maximum Sentence Male Days999 Years Female Days65 Years Total Days999 Years Note: Life, Life without Parole, and Death sentences were removed.
Receptions – Sentence Length by Race Average Sentence Length Native American DUI receptions received the longest average sentence length, 4.3 years. Regarding all receptions, African Americans received the longest average sentence, 7.0 years. Note: Life, Life without Parole, and Death sentence were removed.
Receptions – Avg. Sent. Length by County DUI Receptions All Receptions Oklahoma County is among the top five counties sending offenders to prison. More interesting is that it also has the highest average sentence for controlling crimes, ranging between one and two years longer. Average Sentence Length Note: Life, Life without Parole, and Death sentences were removed.
Receptions – Prior Offense Types DUI ReceptionsAll Receptions Offender TypeNumberPercentNumberPercent Alcohol-related1,297 54% 3,510 9% Drug-related450 19% 11,569 28% Violent517 21% 7,664 19% Non-violent1,684 70% 21,823 53% DUI offenders tend to have a greater representation in regards to prior alcohol- related offenses for which the offender was ordered to imprisonment by the Oklahoma Department of Corrections.
Receptions – LSI-R Elements Element DUI ReceptionsAll Receptions Crim. History – Three or more prior convictions 78%55% Crim. History – Arrested under age of 16 18%31% Crim. History – Official record of assault/violence 46%57% Financial – Reliance upon social assistance 30%33% Alcohol/Drug – Alcohol problem in lifetime 98%60% Alcohol/Drug – Drug problem in lifetime 88%82% Alcohol/Drug – Marital/Family problems 84%66% Alcohol/Drug – School/Work problems 70%56% Alcohol/Drug – Medical Problems 10%7% The LSI-R is comprised of 10 Subscales (e.g., Criminal History, Financial) which contain varying numbers elements or questions. The assessment helps to determine the risk of reoffending.
Receptions – LSI-R Risk Level DUI Receptions All Receptions Based on responses to LSI-R elements, a risk level is determined (i.e., High, Moderate, Low). DUI offenders are slightly more represented in the Moderate category, whereas all receptions are more evenly split between Moderate and High.
Receptions – Programmatic Needs DUI receptions are more likely to be assessed with a Moderate to High need for substance abuse treatment than the general population, 82% vs. 67%. Percent in Need
Receptions – TABE Scores TABE stands for Test of Adult Basic Education and it assesses the individual’s skill level in various subjects. Average TABE scores are generally the same for both populations, DUI and all receptions, resulting in an average total battery grade level of 6.7. Average Grade Level
Receptions – Mental Health Level DUI Receptions All Receptions Approximately 41% of DUI offenders and 48% of all offenders have been assessed with a MHL of A – D. Of those with a MHL A-D, the majority are assessed B.
Incarcerated Offenders Comparisons between the DUI and general prison population
DUI Incarcerates – Offense Type Approximately 25,600 offenders are currently incarcerated; 23,000 males and 2,600 females. Offenders serving time on a controlling DUI conviction account for 2.5% of the population; males – 2.5% and females – 2.0%. Number of Offenders
Incarcerates – General Info CategoryDUI IncarceratesAll Incarcerates Male 92%90% Female 8%10% Average Age 43.6 years38.4 years Average Sentence Length 5.4 years15.4 years Top County of Conviction TulsaOklahoma Note: Life, Life without Parole, and Death removed when determining average sentence. DUI Offenders are slightly more male and higher in age than the general incarcerated population. They are also, on average, serving considerably shorter sentences for their controlling offense when compared to all incarcerates.
Incarcerates – Race/Ethnicity DUI Incarcerates All Incarcerates Caucasians make up the majority of both DUI and general incarcerates, however there is a greater representation of Native-American offenders and fewer African-American offenders when compared to the entire population.
Incarcerates – Facility Type Many more of the DUI offenders when compared to the general population are housed at Community-level facilities, which are no higher than Minimum security. Percent of Incarcerates
Incarcerates – Active Offenses Offense TypeDUIAll Incarcerates Drug-related 3%37% Violent 7%52% Non-violent 93%48% Split Sentence 24%25% The overall incarcerated population tends to have a greater representation of violent offenders than the DUI-specific population due to higher crime categories and longer sentences, which keep them imprisoned for longer periods of time.
Incarcerates – Earned Credit Level DUI Incarcerates All Incarcerates Offenders earn good time credits based on their behavior and the accumulation of these credits reduce the time the offender is imprisoned. DUI offenders and all incarcerates both have a similar representation in the highest credit level category (Level 4), 43% and 49%, respectively.
Incarcerates – Proj. Days Remaining Days RemainingDUI IncarceratesAll Incarcerates 1-90 Days 15%5% Days 13%6% Days 13%5% Days 13%5% Days 14%10% Days 9%8% 731+ Days 23%61% As the average sentence length of the DUI population is much shorter than all incarcerates, the projected time until release is shorter as well. The majority are projected to release in less than two years.
Prison Releases Comparisons between DUI-specific and general prison releases for a five-year period.
Releases – Offense Type DUI Releases All Releases
Releases – General Info CategoryDUI ReleasesAll Releases Male 91%85% Female 9%15% Average Age 43.0 years36.8 years Average Sentence Length 3.8 years6.4 years DUI prison releases are slightly more male and higher in age than all prison releases. They are also, on average, serving considerably shorter sentences for their controlling offense when compared to all releases.
Releases – Sentence & Time Served Males Females Based on average controlling offense sentence length and average time served, offenders are serving approximately 47% of their sentence. This is true for males and females, DUI-specific and general releases. Average Length
Releases – LSI-R Risk Level DUI Releases All Releases DUI releases tend to represent the Moderate Risk category more so than all prison releases.
Releases – Met Program Needs DUI ReleasesAll Releases Percent Needs Regarding both populations, approximately 25% or fewer specific needs are being met prior to the offender discharging from prison. However, more DUI offenders completed Substance Abuse treatment than all releases.
Releases – Post-prison Supervision Percent of Releases Fewer DUI offenders released from prison to ODOC probation or parole supervision when compared to all prison releases.
Releases – Returns to Prison Recidivism Rate DUIAll Releases NumberPercentNumberPercent Male % 8, % Female % 1, % Recidivism is defined as returning to an ODOC reception center within three years of releasing from prison. Statistics are based on Fiscal Year 2004 through Fiscal Year 2008 prison releases. DUI offenders recidivate less frequently than the overall prison release population. New DUI Sentence DUIAll Releases NumberPercentNumberPercent Male % % Female % %
Conclusions Several concluding remarks can be made regarding offender profile differences: 1.DUI prison receptions and prison releases have remained relatively constant over the past five years. 2.DUI imprisonments when compared to all ODOC imprisoned offenders are generally more moderate-risk and are in need of lower security levels. 3.DUI imprisonments have a higher need for substance abuse treatment than the overall imprisoned population, but this need is only being met, at best, for 25% of the offenders. 4.The recidivism rate for DUI offenders is generally lower than the recidivism rate for all prison releases.
Contact Information Laura J. Pitman, Ph.D. Deputy Director, Female Offender Operations Clint Castleberry Administrator, Programs Unit Renée M. Philipp Statistical Analyst, Evaluation and Analysis Unit