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The Periodic Table Chapter 4
4 – 1 Introduction to the Periodic Table
Development of the Periodic Table Early man was familiar with a few elements. ◦ G old and Silver were used for coins. ◦ C opper, Tin and Iron were used for weapons.
Dmitri Mendeleev Russian Chemist. Published the first version of the Periodic Table in 1896.
Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass. He noticed that the properties of the elements seemed to repeat in a pattern.
He placed the elements onto a table. He kept the same properties in vertical columns called “Groups”.
He left blanks for elements that had yet to be discovered. He predicted the properties of those elements. This led to their discovery.
Henry Moseley English Physicist Improved upon Mendeleev’s work in 1913. Ordered the Periodic Table by Atomic Number.
Today’s Periodic Table Periodic – Repeating in a pattern.
Groups Groups – the vertical columns in the table. ◦ N umbered 1 – 18.
Periods Periods – The horizontal rows in the table. umbered 1 – 7.
Atomic Number Atomic Number – the number of protons in the nucleus. The largest (font size) whole number in the square on the Periodic Table of Elements.
Chemical Symbol Chemical Symbol – The shorthand way to write the name of an element. The first letter is always capitalized, the following letter(s) is lower case.
Used the first letter if it was available. Used the second letter if the first was already taken. If the first two letters were taken, then a different second letter is taken out of the name.
Some elements were discovered when Latin or Greek was the official language of science. ◦ T hey use the letters from the Latin version. ◦ S odium – Na
Some were named after famous people, or places.
Mass Number Mass Number – the sum of the number of Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. It is found by rounding the Average Atomic Mass to a whole number.
Zones on the Periodic Table Representative Elements – Groups 1, 2, 13 – 18. Transition Elements – Groups 3 – 12. Inner Transition Elements – Lanthanide and Actinide Series.
Metals Most are solids at room temperature. Only one is a liquid at room temperature - Mercury
Most are shiny ( Luster ), good conductors, can be pounded ( Malleable ), and can be drawn into wires ( Ductile ). Found to the left of the “Stair-Step Line”.
Nonmetals Most are gases or brittle solids at room temperature. Most do not conduct heat nor electricity well. Found to the right of the “Stair-Step Line”
Metalloids They have properties of both metals and nonmetals Found along the “Stair-Step Line”
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