Presentation on theme: "WHS AP Psychology Unit 4: Sensation, Perception and States of Consciousness Essential Task 4-7: Describe various states of consciousness and their impact."— Presentation transcript:
WHS AP Psychology Unit 4: Sensation, Perception and States of Consciousness Essential Task 4-7: Describe various states of consciousness and their impact on behavior.
Sensation Vision The Eye Theories Hearing The Ear Theories Other Senses Smell Taste Pain Gestalt Principles Perceptual Constancies Perception Basic Principles Visual Illusions Depth Perception
Altered States of Consciousness Waking Consciousness Sleep Circadian Rhythm Stages/REM Dreams Disorders Drug-Altered Consciousnes s Depressants Hallucinogens Stimulants Hypnosis Hidden Observer Actor Meditation Substance Abuse We are here Daydreaming and Fantasy
Essential Task 4-7: Consciousness –Waking Consciousness Theories of Consciousness –Evolutionary Explanation –Tripartite Theory –Stream of Consciousness –Chord of subconscious brain events –Subconscious Processing –Altered States of Consciousness Meditation Sleep Dreams Hypnosis Daydreaming / Fantasy Outline
Consciousness Waking consciousness –Our awareness of ourselves and our environment –Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and alert –Allows us to reflect and plan Altered States of Consciousness –A mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness
Subconscious processing Well-learned tasks become automatic –Driving –Typing When you meet people you unconsciously react to their gender, age and appearance Subconscious processing –Bird (color, form, movement, distance) Unconscious processing is parallel while conscious is linear but good at novel problems
Forms of Altered-Consciousness Sleep
History of Consciousness 1.Psychology began as a science of consciousness. (Titchner and Structuralism) 2.Behaviorists argued about alienating consciousness from psychology. 3.However, after 1960, mental concepts (consciousness) started reentering psychology.
What is waking consciousness? Picture this: It is a beautiful spring day and you are walking down a country lane, absorbed in thought. Birds are chirping, roses are in bloom and the sun feels warm on your face. Suddenly, you hear a dog bark and you switch your attention to seeing if the animal means to bite. Adapted from How the Brain Might Work: A New Theory of Consciousness By SANDRA BLAKESLEEHow the Brain Might Work: A New Theory of Consciousness By SANDRA BLAKESLEE
How do you – read how does the brain - bind these fragmented sensory signals and perceptions into a single coherent image? I am at the park about to get eaten by Cujo. What is waking consciousness?
Evolutionary Reason for Consciousness Consciousness as an adaptation allowing us to get along with others in our group (humans) Allows us to ‘see’ ourselves and therefore moderate our behavior.
Tripartite Theory - Freud
The Stream of Consciousness –Consciousness results from the activity of the thalamus which analyzes and interprets information in the cerebral cortex. –“sweeping or scanning” total a rate of 40 times per second –Each sweep results in a single image or “moment of consciousness” –Intralaminar nucleus, a kind of doughnut of cells within the thalamus, has nerve cells that send out long axons that reach to every part of the cerebral cortex. Significantly, there are also returning axons that come down from all areas of the cortex back to the intralaminar nucleus.
Consciousness as a Chord of Subconscious brain events. Neuroscientists believe that consciousness emerges from the interaction of individual subconscious brain events much like a chord that is created from different musical notes. Move wrist seconds prior to moving your wrist, you must decide to move the wrist since it takes that long to travel to the wrist. But it isn’t until 0.35 seconds after that your brain waves jump If told to hit a button after a tone you can respond in 1/10 th of a second, but won’t show the jump in brain waves until.35 seconds. You live in the past – but only by a bit
Daydreaming and Fantasy Spontaneous shifts attention away from the here and now into a make- believe world Urge to daydream peaks about every 90 minutes and is highest between 12:00 and 2:00pm Almost half of your waking hours? Daydreams may provide stress relief and encourage creativity