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Consciousness: Body rhythms and mental states chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Consciousness: Body rhythms and mental states chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consciousness: Body rhythms and mental states chapter 5

2 I. What is consciousness? chapter 5

3 Consciousness  Awareness of oneself and the environment  Levels of consciousness:  Controlled processes (alert and focused)  Automatic processes (minimal attention needed)  Daydreaming  Sleep  Dreaming  Altered states of consciousness

4 II. Biological rhythms chapter 5

5 Understanding biological rhythms [p148] Biological rhythms A periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system Circadian rhythms Once about every 24 hours Example: the sleep-wake cycle chapter 5

6 Biological cues Sunrise= Light + increasing temperature Sunrise= Light + increasing temperature Sunset= Dark + decreasing temperature Sunset= Dark + decreasing temperature

7 Social cues Jobs Jobs Clocks Clocks

8 Circadian rhythms [pp ] To study endogenous circadian rhythms, scientists isolate volunteers from time cues. Circadian rhythms are influenced by: *Changes in routine *Airplane flights across time zones *Adjusting to new work shifts *Illness, stress, fatigue, excitement, drugs, and mealtimes mealtimes chapter 5

9 III. Sleep chapter 5

10 Sleep [pp ] A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness How many hours did you sleep last night? chapter 5

11 Recommended sleep time 8-10 hours chapter 5

12 Sleep deprivation Staying up late and not allowing oneself enough sleep Randy Gardner 1964 Tony Wright chapter 5 2/3 of Americans get fewer than recommended 8 hours Sleep deprivation leads to decreases in physical and mental functioning.

13 Sleep cycles and stages [pp ] One sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes Stage 1. Feel self drifting on the edge of consciousness Stage 2. Minor noises won’t disturb you Stage 3. Breathing and pulse have slowed down Stage 4. Deep sleep REM. Increased eye movement, loss of muscle tone, dreaming chapter 5

14 Typical night’s sleep for a young adult chapter 5

15 Sleep disorders [pp ] Insomnia Recurring problems falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea Breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke and gasp and momentarily waken. Night terrors Episodes of high arousal and the appearance of being terrified Narcolepsy Sudden and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or lapses into REM sleep chapter 5

16 IV. Dream interpretation chapter 5

17 Dreaming [pp ] Dream: A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind Dream: A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind

18 Psychoanalytic approach to dreaming [p160] Freud concluded that dreams might provide insight into our unconscious wishes and desires Manifest content includes aspects of the dream we consciously experience. Latent content includes unconscious wishes and thoughts symbolized in the dream. chapter 5

19 Problem-focused approach to dreaming [p160] Dreams may reflect current concerns and ongoing conscious issues such as relationships, work, sex, or health. Some dreams may help us solve problems Example: college students and testing chapter 5

20 Activation synthesis theory [pp162] Dreaming results from the cortical synthesis and interpretation of neural signals triggered by activity in the brainstem  chapter 5

21 V. Hypnosis chapter 5

22 Hypnosis [p164] A procedure in which the practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behavior of the subject chapter 5

23 Features of the hypnotic state 1. Minimized distractions; client relaxes 2. Client is asked to concentrate on a specific stimulus specific stimulus 3. Client is told what to expect 4. Hypnotist suggests certain events/feelings that he/she knows events/feelings that he/she knows will occur will occur chapter 5

24 The nature of hypnosis Hypnotic responsiveness (suggestibility) depends more on the person being hypnotized than on the skill of the hypnotist. Hypnotized people can’t be forced to do things against their will. Feats performed under hypnosis can be performed by motivated people without hypnosis. Hypnosis does not increase the accuracy of memory. chapter 5

25 Theories of hypnosis [pp ] Dissociation theories [p165] Hypnosis is a split in consciousness in which one part of the mind operates independently of consciousness During hypnosis, dissociation occurs between an executive control system (probably in the frontal lobes) and other systems of thinking and acting. “Hidden observer” chapter 5

26 Theories of hypnosis Sociocognitive theories [p166] Effects of hypnosis result from interaction between social influence of the hypnotist and the beliefs and expectations of the subject. chapter 5


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