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Abraham Lincoln #1 In office th US Republican President

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1 Abraham Lincoln #1 In office 1861-1865 16th US Republican President
His presidency caused the South to secede and led to the Civil War. Without his opposition to slavery expansion, slavery could have spread to the territories. Led the US in the Civil War Abolished slavery Strengthened the federal government Highly opposed to the spread of slavery Pg in textbook

2 Andrew Johnson #2 17th US Democratic President, Unionist
In office Handled Reconstruction controversies very badly Attempted to reconstruct the Seven Confederate States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North and South Carolina, and Texas). First American president to be impeached Pg in textbook

3 Ulysses S. Grant #3 18th US Republican President In office 1869-1877
Great military commander during the Civil War Won the battles of Shiloh and Fort Henry and Donelson Affiliated with the Radical Republicans Was infamous for the graft and corruption during his presidency Pg. 315 in textbook

4 Rutherford B. Hayes #4 19th US Republican President
In office Managed the end of Reconstruction Ended federal army intervention in the South Incorporated home-rule into Southern society Pg in textbook

5 William McKinley #5 25th US President In office 1897-1901
Led the US to victory in the Spanish-American War Raised protective tariffs to support American industry Last president to serve in American Civil War Pg in textbook

6 Theodore Roosevelt #6 26th US Republican President In office 1901-1909
Led the US to victory in the Spanish-American War Used “modern presidency” during his term Increased the power of the executive branch Founded the Progressive Party Implemented the Square Deal Central cause for reform of America and Redefining federal power Pg. 505 in textbook

7 Woodrow Wilson #7 28th US Democratic President In office 1913-1921
Leader of the Progressive movement Continued Taft and Roosevelt’s antitrust efforts Against “big business” Endorsed “New Freedom” Led the Democratic Party to control the White House and Congress Pg. 514 in textbook

8 Hebert Hoover #8 31st US President In office 1929-1933
In office after the stock market crash of 1929 Encouraged people that the depression was natural and would correct itself Caused a delayed reaction to fix the depression Pg. 655 in textbook

9 Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) #9
32nd US President In office Elected four times as President Lead the US during time of depression and war Built a New Deal that eventually reunited American politics Allied with Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin during WWII Pg in textbook

10 Harry S. Truman #10 33rd US President In office 1945-1953
Took presidency after FDR US successfully ended WWII Key figure in the conflicts with the Soviet Union Doubted by many Americans because he was not well known Pg.767 in textbook

11 Anaconda Plan/Farragut
The Anaconda Plan was a 3 part strategy by which the Union proposed to defeat the Confederacy in the Civil War (pg.314) Their strategy was: 1) the union navy would blockade Southern parts, so they could neither export cotton nor import much-needed manufactured goods. 2) Union riverboats and armies would move down the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in two. 3) Union armies would capture the confederate capitol at Richmond, Virginia (pg.314) David G. Farragut was a commander for the Union. He led a fleet into Louisiana, then on April 24, they successfully ran past two Confederate forts and was able to capture New Orleans, the Confederate’s the largest city and busiest port. The significance of this would be that because of Farragut seizing New Orleans along with Grant progressing down the Mississippi, the union nearly completed its goal of cutting the Confederacy in two. (pg316)

12 Robert E. Lee He was a commander for the confederate army. He was known for being mostly modest and willing to go outside the box when it can to military tactics. He opposed secession and even vouched to free slaves but stayed to fight with the confederates because of his beloved state of Virginia (pg. 316) He was best known for him and General McClellan’s battles called the Seven Days’ Battle which lasted from June 25 to July 1 of After Lee’s victory, he moved his troops towards the enemy’s capitol. On August 29, he won the Second battle of Bull Run. Soon after they crossed into Maryland, McClellan’s army found Lee’s army orders in a the meadows were they had camped so they found opportunity to attack because Stonewall and Lee’s armies were separated at the moment, and this would begin the Battle of Antietam which started on September 17. Even though this battle was a lost, it resulted in the Union firing General McClellan because Lincoln felt he was too passive. Lee would continue to lead in Chancelorsville, Battle of Gettysburg, Vicksburg and many more battle before being for forced to surrender at Appomattox. (pg ) and (pg ) Lee was very important in the victories the Confederates obtained in the war

13 Stonewall Jackson He was known for his aspirations to stay strong.
He was General for the Confederates in the Battle of Bull Run on July 21. Throughout the battle in was not going in the Confederates favor but they stayed strong and held firm because of Jackson. Soon, their reinforcements came and they were able to capture their first victory for the South. He sadly died at the battle of Chancellorsville on May 10, 1863, from pneumonia along with a gun shot wound to the arm. (Pg.329) (pg.314) Gen. Jackson was one of Lee’s most trusted and able generals.

14 Antietam Antietam would be described as the bloodiest single day battle in American history. A few days after General Lee’s men crossed over into Maryland, McClellan and his army were crossing through the meadows were confederated had camped and found General Lee’s army orders which showed that him and Stonewall’s armies were separated at the moment. McClellan saw opportunity so this began the Battle in Antietam on September 17. The battle was a stand-off and many Confederates were wounded and dead but McClellan never went after them he just let them go and retreat. This action led to Lincoln firing McClellan, characterizing him for having, “the slows”. The significance of this battle would have been whether McClellan should had went after the wounded and undermanned Confederate troops and that have possibly won the war for the Union. (pg.317)

15 Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg last from July 1-3 of During this battle position was very important so Lee knew he needed to force the northerners to yield their positions on cemetery ridge, a high ground south of Gettysburg. On the second day, Confederate rebels pushed past union on their way to little Round top and only a union signal corps stood in their way. The rebels decimated the union lines on little Round top but the union put up a fight behind colonel Joshua L. Chamberlain even though they lost due to lack of ammunition. Eventually, he was able to protect Union line even though they lost territory. Day 3 was a three day battle that resulted in many losses. Union losses included 23,000 men killed or wounded and 28,000 for the Confederates. The Union won, and this left a bad taste for the Confederates because they would never recover from this.

16 54th Massachusetts The 54th regiment Massachusetts volunteer Infantry was the first official African American unit in the U.S during the Civil War. They did a lot of service throughout the war, they even recruited freed slaves to join their unit as well. The 54th regiment represented the accomplishments and contributions African Americans made throughout the war.

17 Jefferson Davis He was voted unanimously to become president for the Confederate States of America. This was the Confederates push to become independent from the U.S and dot heir own values and beliefs. (Pg.305) Was an avid leader through the Civil War but also described as being careless for the people too. He also felt that the Emancipation Proclamation was the “most execrable measure recorded in the history of guilty man”. Soon after many battles the Confederacy ended with their surrender at Appomattox

18 Clara Barton She was a dedicated nurse for the Union. She was the first woman to work as a clerk in the U.S Patent Office. She cared for the sick and the wounded on the front lines of battle along with being good at anticipating troop movements so that she could get to the battleground early with bandages and supplies. Her importance was that because her and other nurses work, the union death rate showed improvement over the previous wars. (pg. 328)

19 Sherman’s March to Sea Sherman moved south and occupied Atlanta, the confederate transportation center. In retaliation, the Confederates tried to circle him and cut off his railroad supply lines. Rather than wait for the Confederates to attack, Sherman decides to abandon his supply lines and march through Georgia causing destruction, burning down most of Atlanta in mid November. After that they turned north to help Grant wipe out Lee, they were followed by 25,000 former slaves eager for freedom. They inflicted more damage in South Carolina but when they moved in to north Carolina they stopped and handed out supplies to those who needed it because the new the war was near over. (Pg )

20 Appomattox On April , General Lee and General Grant met to arrange the Confederate surrender. By Lincoln’s terms, Grant sent the Confederate soldiers home with their personal possessions, horses, and 3 days worth of rations. Eventually all Confederate resistance collapsed and this marked the end of the Civil War. The south fought a valiant fight but they were undermanned and beaten down to the point were they could recover. (pg.337)

21 21 Jeb Stuart He was Robert E. Lee’s eyes and ears of the confederate army. He was the general of the Calvary for the south. P 331

22 22 Scalawag 1860’s-1870’s These would be white southerners who thought they should reform the government but also allow African Americans to keeptheir rights. p357

23 23 Carpetbagger 1860’s-1870’s These would be northerners going to the weak unstable south for there own personal gain to take advantage of the destroyed economy. p348

24 24 Sharecropping 1865-1877. Reconstruction time
This was used to employ blacks looking for jobs following freedom. They would give the former slaves a portion of the main land owners land as long as they would farm it and not leave until they paid back the owner in full with a crop goal at the begging of the year. The workers were set up to fail and would almost never reach the goal. p364

25 25 KKK ’s A extreme group of racists that were formed following the freedom of the slaves. They would go to the houses of African Americans at night and burn the houses and beat up the family. They would also fight or kill anyone who would employ or help the blacks. P

26 26 Debt Peonage 1860’s-70’s When a worker comes to you and asks you for money you say yes but make them work for you. Then they have to pay back the debt they owe you and never can and are locked into a system very much like slavery. p477

27 27 Jim Crow Laws This was a set of laws placed to limit and segregate blacks from white following the emancipation. They were very racist and were not equal. The blacks were treated far worse than the whites, and the hope they had felt from emancipation soon vanished with these laws. p474

28 28 Grandfather Clause 1870’s-early 1900’s
This was used in cases where the whites had no money and also were not very smart. Also when Blacks were educated and had money. This was used, it was a clause saying if your grandfather was not free before the emancipation day you could not vote. Which most blacks grandfathers were not free, this would make them unable to vote. p474

29 29 Literacy tests 1890’s-1960’s A prevention for blacks to vote in the South following the emancipation of the slaves. The tests for blacks would be extremely tough while a white mans test would be incredibly easy. Even if the black man would pass they would still be failed just so they could not vote. While the white man if they failed would still be passed so they could vote. p474

30 30 Poll tax 1880’s This was a prevention for black’s to vote. If the white men who were uneducated could not pass the literacy test. And did not have the grandfather who could vote before the date the slaves were emancipated. They could pay to vote while the poor blacks did not have the money too. p474

31 31. Segregation pg. 856 Who: African Americans
What: Segregation is the separation of any group of people from another based on race. When: Where: USA, most apparent in the south Why: After the Emancipation Proclamation was passed in the united states all of the former slaves were freed and entered into society. Because the former slaves were looked down on in society, there were different rules created to separate them from the ‘regular’ citizens. There were different court cases aimed at determining what was allowed and what was too harsh when segregating people. The case Brown vs. The Board of Education determined that it was wrong to separate people and justify it by saying they were ‘separate but equal’.

32 32. Compromise of 1877 pg. 371-373 Who: Congress, Rutherford B. Hayes
What: An agreement that made Rutherford B. Hayes president if the North removed all troops from the South. When: 1877 Where: USA Why: After the war, the south wanted to regain control of their homes. The Democrats made an offer that they would let Rutherford B. Hayes be president if the Republicans enacted certain legislation that would help the southern economy, withdrew all troops from the south, and appointed democrats in different places of power.

33 33. Redemption pg. 350-355 Who: Southern USA
What: The reconstruction of the south after the civil war. When: Where: Southern USA Why: After the civil war the South needed to rebuild as a nation and to set up a new government. The North, having won the war, would help the South reconstruct its cities and government. Lincoln favored a more lenient reconstruction plan rather than a plan that would punish the South for its secession. However, when Lincoln died, Vice President Johnson took over and began to punish the South by making the them abide by several rules. First, they would have to declare their secession illegal, ratify the thirteenth amendment and free slaves, and swear their allegiance to the nation.

34 34. Amnesty Act pg. 368 Who: Congress
What: Returned the right to vote and other political rights to Southerners When: May 1872 Where: USA Why: Because many Southerners complained that their political leaders were being barred from representing them, Congress passed this act. The Amnesty Act weakened the power of the republican party and gave the Southern Democrats more political power.

35 35. Home Rule pg. 372 Who: Democrats
What: The ability of a state government to run itself without the intervention of the Federal Government. When: 1876 Where: USA Why: State governments under home rule are allowed to have different laws, regulations, and taxes than the Federal government has. In 1876, states with home rule would pass laws that restricted freedmen’s rights, destroy social government programs, lower taxes, and disassemble public school systems.

36 36. Homestead Act pg. 382 Who: Congress
What: This act offered 160 acres of free land to anyone who would cultivate it for five years. When: Where: Western USA Why: The Homestead Act was passed to convince people to move to the newly acquired land in the west. People from the Florida to Maine moved west to take advantage of this government program. Exodusters, or African Americans who moved from Southern reconstruction, moved out west to the Great Plains.

37 37. Crédit Mobilier Scandal pg. 419
Who: Union Pacific Railroad What: Created a construction company that signed an overpriced contract with the railroad. When: 1864 Where: Western USA Why: The Crédit Mobilier construction company was created by the Union Pacific Railroad company to give the profits from working for the Union Pacific Railroad back to the owners of the Railroad. Crédit Mobilier signed an overpriced contract with Union Pacific, and then the owners of both Crédit Mobilier and Union Pacific pocketed the profits.

38 38. Union Pacific / Central Pacific R.R pg. 416-418
Who: Major Railroad Companies What: Hired immigrants, mainly Chinese, and paid almost nothing. Also involved in money scandals. When: 1862 Where: Western USA Why: Railroads were a big part of the economy in the 1800s. They provided jobs for US citizens and immigrants. However, they paid almost nothing for a days work which often involved dangerous conditions and sometimes death. The Union Pacific was involved in a scandal that gave the owners of the railroad most of the profit.

39 39. Chinese Exclusion Act pg. 443
Who: Chinese Immigrants What: An Act that banned entry of all Chinese people except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. When: 1882 Where: USA Why: Because so many Chinese people were taking the jobs of US citizens, the US government banned entry of all Chinese people into the USA. This law was not repealed until 1943.

40 40. Ellis and Angel Islands pg. 440-441
Who: Anyone immigrating to the United States What: Islands where people immigrating had to pass tests and inspections to enter the United States. Where: Eastern USA, Western USA. Why: During the 1800s, anyone going to the United States had to pass disease inspections and different tests. These tests and inspections were to make sure that no one would bring diseases to the USA and that anyone immigrating would be able to contribute to American society and get a job.

41 41. Problems of Urbanization
Who: People moving from rural areas to urban areas What: Growth of cities Where: Cities When: Early 1900’s Why: The cities provided more work and opportunities for the poor immigrants. The quick urbanization led to tight housing, transportation problems, unsafe drinking water, and issues with sanitation, fires, and crime Textbook reference pages: Picture URL:

42 42. Laissez Faire Who: Economists used Social Darwinism to justify this What: Absence of regulation in the marketplace Where: The United States of America When: 1800 and 1900’s Why: Laissez Faire is a French term meaning “allow to do” and was a belief of many economists and businessmen of the time. Textbook reference page: 422 Picture URL:

43 43. Holding Company Who: Big Corporations such as US Steel
What: Company made to do nothing but buy out the stock of other companies Where: United States of America When: 1800’s and 1900’s Why: Holding companies were one of the easiest ways to create a monopoly, and this method was used by big business owners such as JP Morgan Textbook reference page: 423 Picture URL:

44 44. Monopoly Who: Rockefeller, Morgan, Carnegie, etc.
What: Complete control over its industry’s production, quality, wages paid, and prices charged Where: United States of America When: 1800 and 1900’s Why: Monopolies resulted in owners of companies becoming extremely wealthy and also resulted in the passing of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890, making monopolies illegal Textbook reference page: 423 Picture URL:

45 45. Trust Who: Big Businesses
What: Participants in a trust turned their stock over to a group of trustees, people who ran the separate companies as one large corporation. In return, the companies received certificates that entitled them to dividends on profits earned by the trust Where: United States of America When: 1800 and 1900’s Why: Trusts were formed to create a monopoly, but were not legal mergers. Trusts were also banned by the Antitrust Act of 1890. Textbook reference page: 423

46 46. Vertical Integration Who: Andrew Carnegie
What: Buying out all supplies and manufacturers Where: United States of America When: 1800 and 1900’s Why: Using vertical integration, businessmen like Carnegie control over raw materials, transportation systems, and the overall manufacturing process of the product. Therefore they eliminate any middle-men and have complete power of the quality/cost of the product. Textbook reference page: 422 Picture URL:

47 47. Horizontal Consolidation
Who: Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, JP Morgan What: The process of merging similar companies or buying out competition Where: United States of America When: 1800’s and 1900’s Why: Using horizontal consolidation, business owners gained control over competition and could have a monopoly over their industry. The use of these methods led to the passing of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 Textbook reference page: 422 Picture URL:

48 48. Social Gospel Movement
Who: Social welfare reformers What: Early reform program for immigrants in cities Where: Cities When: Unknown Why: The Social Gospel Movement peached salvation through service to the poor. This inspired followers to create churches in poor communities and persuaded some business leaders to treat workers more fairly Textbook reference page: 451 Picture URL:

49 49. Social Darwinism Who: Charles Darwin What: A social and economic philosophy based on the biologist Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, holding that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest. Where: United States of America When: 1800 and 1900’s Why: Darwin’s ideas were used to justify laissez faire in business. Economists believed that nobody, including government, was allowed to intervene in business Textbook reference page: 422 Picture URL:

50 50. Gospel of Wealth Who: Andrew Carnegie
What: Book describing the importance of philanthropy Where: United States of America When: 1889 Why: The Gospel of Wealth, written by Andrew Carnegie, Illustrated the importance of the wealthy sharing with those less fortunate and this contrasted the belief that money “stays in the family” via inheritances Textbook reference page: 421 Picture URL:











61 #61 Robert La Follette No page number
Sig.- This man was significant because he was part of the U.S. senate and was a governor and he made many new innovations and shared his ideals throughout the government La Follette was one of the leaders of the Progressive movement, advocating more power to the electorate, spreading democratic ideals Date-1904

62 #62 Ghost Dance Pg. 379,387 Sig- This dance was significant because when the ghost dance spread throughout many tribes during the Battle of Wounded Knee, it scared the military and this dance motivated them to arrest Sitting Bull Date- December 1890

63 #63 Sand Creek Massacre Pg.383
Sig- This massacre was significant because it showed how Native Americans were dealt with when they stepped out of line even in the slightest bit. Also it showed how brutal the military could be towards the Native Americans Date-1864

64 #64 Battle of Wounded Knee
Pg.387 Sig.- This was the brutal battle between the Indians and the American Military brought an end to the conflict between these two peoples. Date- December 1890

65 #65 George C. Custer Pg.385 Sig.- He was important because he discovered some gold in the black hills and he indirectly started the next few Indian battles. Date- 1874

66 #66 Crazy Horse Pg.-no page
Sig.- He was significant because he was the leader of a Native American tribe and led his tribe through the battles alongside Sitting Bull Date- 1877

67 #67 Sitting Bull Pg.384 Sig- This man was important because he never signed the Treaty of 1868 creating many battles and conflicts between the tribes (mainly Sioux) and the American military Date- 1868

68 #68 Buffalo Soldiers Pg. no page
Sig.- These soldiers were significant because they were new African American soldiers and the Army sent them to fight which was key to reconstruction of the U.S. and the previous racist views. Date- 1866

69 #69 Exodusters Pg.382 Sig.- The exodusters were significant because the African Americans changed Kansas and got out of the rough areas in the south Date- Post reconstruction of south era

70 #70 Dawes Act Pg.385 Sig- This act was significant because it broke up reservations and made assimilation throughout the tribes. Also this act sold the Native Americans land making them angry and willing to fight for it back. Date-1887

71 71: Assimilation Assimilation was put into action by the Dawes act of This was towards Native Americans, and it broke up their reservations and attempted to “Americanize” them. This led to many conflicts between Natives and settlers, including the battle of wounded knee. Pg. 385

72 72: Recall Recall took place around the 1920’s. It was the process of removing any public official from office by forcing a re-election. This was a part of the progressive reform of the elections. This still applies today in our government. Pg. 500

73 73: Initiative The initiative was a part of the progressive era during the 1920’s. This was a bill organized by the people, not law makers. This was important because it gave people more power as a part of reform in the elections and government of the progressive era. Pg. 500

74 74: Referendum The referendum was a vote on the initiative. This took action during the progressive era around the 1920’s. This is significant because the vote was cast by citizens, not law makers. This gave the American people much more power and control in the government. Pg. 500

75 75: Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining was used by the American Federation of Labor (AFL) led by Samuel Gompers. Collective bargaining was an agreement between the workers and unions with the businesses. This was very effective during the 1890’s, and wages of workers raised up and the hours worked dropped during this time period. Pg. 429

76 76: Muckrakers Muckrakers were journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of businesses that the public did not see. This took place around the beginning of the 20th century. One example of this was a book by Upton Sinclair “The Jungle”. This showed the side of the meat industry that no one saw. This changed the public’s view of business. This also led to the Meat Inspection Act, and Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 to protect the health of citizens. Pg. 496

77 77: Interstate Commerce Act
This act was established in Its purpose was for the federal government to regulate railroad activities and establish the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Although this did not gain power until 1906 because of the supreme court ruling that the government could not set prices on railroads. This took a part in creating the Panic of 1893, which was the worst depression up to that time. Pg. 420

78 78: Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington was a very well respected African American leader around the end of the 19th century into the 20th century. Washington opened the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. Here he taught other African Americans how to be prosperous in a segregated America. Washington was the most respected African American of his time, and even had dinner with the president. Washington believed that African Americans should work harder to get out of segregation rather than complain or act violently. Pg. 471

79 79: Scientific Management
Scientific management brought scientific concepts into the work place. Most importantly including the assembly line. This was first implemented by Ford in This increased the production of businesses by a large amount, and opened up many unskilled jobs for many people. This was a part of the progressive era in the reform of industries. Pg. 496

80 80: Urbanization Urbanization was the rapid growth of cities. This took place during the early 1900’s. People were attracted to the cities because there were more job opportunities in factories for unskilled workers. This is important because it gave jobs to many people that wouldn’t have one otherwise. Pg. 446











91 #91 San Juan Hill This battle was a crucial battle in the Spanish-American War on July 1st It was the bloodiest battle of the war with 2,700 killed This where the term Buffalo soldier became famous as well with the name Teddy Roosevelt who was the war hero, eventually in 2001 Roosevelt was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions. P.534

92 #92 Philippine Islands The USA gained control of these islands in 1898 by the Treaty of Paris. America fought a war over these islands (Philippine-American War). The islands were then controlled by Japan in WW2. P.541

93 #93 Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo was the 1st President of the Philippines. He was in office from He was the leader of the Philippine forces against the Americans during the Philippine-American War( ). P. 533, 538

94 #94 Open Door Notes John Hay’s Open Door Notes were sent to European Nations in Asia in The notes asked the other countries involved in Asian trade to “open the door” to America because it wanted foreign business and to invest in that part of the world, particularly China P

95 #95 Roosevelt Corollary This is similar to reinstatement of the Monroe Doctrine. This said that the US will intervene in conflicts between foreign countries and Latin America, in the Western Hemisphere. This was part of his mantra of speak softly, and carry a big stick. P

96 #96 Alfred T. Mahan Mahan served from 1859 to He believed in the power of the sea is the greatest strength a country could have. He expressed his view in his book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History. He had a major influence in the gain of strength in the US Navy during after his service. P. 524,

97 #97 Great White Feet In 1907 Teddy Roosevelt launched 16 ships. This showed off the US Naval power to powers around the world. It was served as a showpiece of American power.

98 #98 Panama Canal The USA took over the project from the French in They finished in This shortened the travel time from the Pacific to the Atlantic drastically. This was one of the most significant projects in US history.

99 #99 Howard Taft Taft served as President from Roosevelt was President before him and elected not to run for a 3rd term. He would regret this decision when Taft went into office because he mad Roosevelt furious with many decisions.

100 Selective Service Act I.D. #100
Who: Men ages had to enlist. What: A law that required men to register for military service. When: Enacted in 1917 Where: Took place within the United States. Why: The Selective Service Act was to enlist men into the U.S. army. Each man had a number for which they were accounted for. On draft day, if your number was called then you became part of the army to fight in Europe in WWI. Pg. 562

101 Henry Cabot Lodge #101 Who: A conservative senator
What: A senator who strongly disagreed on the establishment of the League of Nations When: After WWI he scrutinized Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points Where: He lived in the U.S. Why: He was a critical part in how the U.S. didn’t join the League of Nations. He opposed the entry of the U.S. because he thought that the entire idea was evil. Pg. 580

102 NAWSA #102 Who: Founded by Lucy Stone, Carrie Chapman Catt, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton What: An organization that fought for Woman’s suffrage. When: Late 19th century was when NAWSA was founded Where: Founded in the U.S. Why: NAWSA was the driving force in getting women the right to vote. Pg. 503

103 NAACP #103 Who: Founded by W. E. B. DuBois
What: An organization that promoted full racial equality When: Founded in 1909 Where: Founded in the U.S. Why: The founding of NAACP gave many African Americans the force of people striving for full racial equality Pg. 511 and 520

104 Great Migration #104 Who: African Americans in the South
What: the large-scale movement of African Americans from Southern to Northern cities When: Early 20th century Where: From Southern U.S. to Northern U.S. Why: Many African Americans moved to the North to find jobs and make materials for WWI Pg

105 Harlem Hellfighters #105 Who: 369th Infantry Regiment, all African Americans What: An infantry regiment of the U.S. army that saw action in both WWI and WWII When: fought in WWI and WWII Where: An U.S. regiment Why: This regiment of African Americans helped win both WWI and WWII. They helped change American public opinion on African American soldiers fighting in the war Pg. Not Given

106 Lusitania #106 Who: Passengers from many countries sailed on the ship
What: A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat When: Sank May 7, 1915 Where: Off the Southern coast of Ireland Why: The sinking of the ship was a major factor in bringing the U.S. into WWI Pg. 552 and

107 John Pershing #107 Who: U.S. general
What: A general who fought in the Spanish-American War, and WWI. When: Born in 1860 and died in 1948 Where: Born and died in the U.S. Why: Pershing was a huge contributor to the Allies victory in WWI. Pershing lead an African American regiment in WWI and The regiment, as well as Pershing were given the Purple Heart. Pg. 567

108 Plessy v. Ferguoson #108 Who: Homer Adolph Plessy
What: An 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled out that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine. When: 1896 Where: The U.S. Why: This made African Americans believe that although they were segregated from white people, they were all equal. The soon realized that they were cheated out of equality yet again Pg

109 109. Zimmerman Telegram A telegram sent by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico and intercepted by British agents. It was suppose to get Mexico to fight the United States, with possibly Japan’s help. This would keep the U.S. out of Germany’s way January 16, 1917. This can be found on page 561.

110 110. Hundred Days Congress passed more than 15 major pieces of the New Deal legislation. These laws, and others that followed, significantly expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy. RDR wanted relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform. March 9 to June 16, 1933. This can be found on page 665.

111 111. Prohibition The banning of the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages. Moral reform Law enforcement was not enforced, so the black market for booze boomed! 18th Amendment (1919) to the 21st Amendment (1933). It can be found on page 495.

112 112. Isolationism In opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries. The U.S. tried to successfully fulfill this before WWI and WWII but were dragged into both wars eventually. This started in the early 1900’s. You can find this on page 597.

113 113. Espionage and Sedition Acts
Two laws that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in World War I. A person could be fined up to $10,000 and/or sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the draft, obstructing the sale of government bonds, or saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government or the war effort. This was in 1917 and 1918. This can be found on page 573.

114 114. New Weapons WWI Mechanized warfare – or warfare that relies on machines powered by gasoline and diesel engines. Big Bertha – German cannon that could hurl 1,800-pound shells a distance of 75 miles. Zeppelin – a gas-filled airship that enabled Germans to drop bombs on English coastal cities. ( They were eventually not used because they were easy to shoot down) Gas – greenish-yellow fog of chlorine Planes were now used to fight (dogfights). They used to be only used for gathering intelligence. Tanks were first being used by Britain. This started around 1915. You can find this on page 566.

115 115. Speculation The engagement in risky business transactions (in this case, the buying and selling of stocks) on the chance of quick or considerable profit. This fueled the market’s upward spiral. As prices rose, wealth was generated on paper, but it bore little relation to the real worth of companies or the goods that they produced. The price of stocks had little relationship to the dividends the stocks paid. This activity really increased in the late 1920’s. You can find this on page 645.

116 116. Herbert Hoover The 31st president (Republican).
He believed that depressions were a normal, healthy part of business and that it would correct itself. “Rugged Individualism” He also believed that the government should do as little as possible. He was elected president in Lost to FDR following election. This can be found on page 644.

117 117. Reconstruction Finance Corp.
An agency established to provide emergency financing to banks, life-insurance companies, railroads, and other large businesses. Hoover thought that it would pump new life into the economy by fueling business expansion. He thought that the wealth would trickle down. This received a lot of criticism. This was established in 1932 This can be found on page 658.

118 118. Buying on Margin (Pg.645) Who- Many American investors
What- Paying a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest. When-1930’s Where- America Why-Since the stocks declined, there was no way to pay off the loan

119 119. Stock Market Crash (Pg.645)
Who- American businesses and investors What- As stocks declined, everyone tried to sell their stocks. Also, those who bought on margin were in huge debt. Where- America When- October 24, 1929 Why- It put America into a Great Depression and made thousands of people loose their jobs.

120 120. New Deal (Pg.664) Who- Created by FDR
What- The program designed by FDR to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression. It focused on three major things; relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform. Where- America When Why- It helped get America back on it’s feet again, and allowed new job opportunities.

121 121. Huey Long (Pg.670) Who- Senator of Louisiana
What-He was an early supporter for the new deal, but soon turned against it. He started “sharing the wealth” programs When- 1928 Where- Louisiana Why- He had created over 27,000 Share-Our-Wealth clubs

122 122. Eleanor Roosevelt (Pg.671)
Who- The first lady to FDR, and a social reformer What-She had a great effect on FDR’s decisions like appointing women judges. She reminded her husband of the suffering lower-class. When-1935 Where- America Why-She gave a caring face for the New Deal administration

123 123. John Collier (Pg.680) Who- Commissioner of Indian Affairs
What- Appointed this position by FDR, he helped create the Indian Reorganization Act of This helped Native American’s keep their land Where- America When-1933 Why- He gave the Indians more rights

124 124. Direct vs. Indirect Relief (Pg.653)
Who-The American government What- Direct relief was cash payments or food provided by the government to the poor. Indirect relief focused on creating programs to help people fend for themselves Where- America When- During/After the Great Depression Why- It was meant to help American people get back to normal.

125 125. Securities & Exchange Commission (Pg.666)
Who- Enacted by the Federal Government What- It was created to regulate the stock market. It prevented people from making up stock percentages Where- America When- June 1934 Why- It created a more stable and secure stock market

126 126. Glass-Steagall Banking Act
Who- Passed by Congress What- It established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This provided Federal insurance up to 5,000 dollars in bank accounts. Where- America When- 1933 Why- It made American citizens trust the bank more.

127 127. Glass-Steagall Banking Act
This law established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to protect individuals’ bank accounts. Legislation was passed in 1933 Founded by Carter Class and Henry Steagall Pages

128 128. Tennessee Valley Authority
A federal corporation established in 1933 to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region. Founded by FDR and George W. Norris Established in 1933 Page 693

129 129. Civilian Conservation Corps
An agency established as a part of the New Deal, that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion-control and flood control projects. Established April 5, 1933 Founded by FDR Page 667

130 130. Works Progress Administration
An agency, established as a part of the New Deal, that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other fields. Founded by FDR and Henry Hopkins Established April 8, 1933 Page 673

131 131. Social Security Act A law enacted in 1935 to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and dependent mothers and children. Signed by FDR Page 673

132 132. Wagner Act A law enacted in 1935 to protect workers’ rights after the Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. A.K.A National Labors Relations Act Founded by Robert Wagner Page 674

133 133. Federal Securities Act
A law enacted in 1933 that required corporations to provide complete, accurate information on all stock offerings. Signed into law by FDR Page 666

134 134. Court Packing Scandal A legislative initiative proposed by FDR to add more justices to the Supreme Court in order to pass new laws quicker. Occurred in 1937 Page

135 135. National Industrial Recovery Act
A law enacted in 1933 to establish codes of fair practice for industries and to promote industrial growth Created by FDR Page 668

136 Deficit Spending Txt: p Who: United States Government What: Deficit spending is spending money to a point in which you don’t have the money and are in debt. When: 1940’s- present day Where: United States Significance: In doing so America came out of the Great Depression with Deficit spending and strives today off of it but with the consequences of debt and the lower value of the US dollar.

137 Cash-Carry Txt: p. 719 Who: Britain and US What: This was the trading policy prior to the Lend-Lease Act in 1941 and included in the Neutrality Act of 1939 stating that Britain may trade with the Us only if their ships paid up front and were to carry the cargo themselves from US harbors. When: Where: Atlantic ocean Significance: The US passed this because Britain was their main export and the US needed Britain for its economy to strive.

138 Lend-Lease Txt: p Who: FDR and US government What: This was a revision in trade policy made in the Lend-Lease Act in 1941 stating that the US could now lend and lease aid to Britain and the Soviet Union. When: 1941 Where: Atlantic Ocean Significance: It shows the the US slowly leaving their neutral position stated in the Neutrality Acts and becoming sided with Britain giving them aid and supplies.

139 Holocaust Txt: p Who: Executed out by the Nazis and they targeted “non- Aryans”, (Jews, Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses) What: The Holocaust was a campaign for racial purity which caused the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more then half of whom where Jews. When: Where: Nazi Germany, Europe Significance: This showed the true evil of Hitler and how strong Anti-Semitism was in Europe and that Hitler must be stopped and whoever involved would be held responsible in the Nuremburg Trials.

140 Japanese Internment Txt: p. 735 Who: People of Japanese heritage that lived in America. What: all Japanese people who lived in America during the war were striped from there homes and sent to internment camps. When: Where: Mostly on the West but also on the East coast as well. Significance: This was immoral and unjust and shows that the war caused back home Anti-Semitism. This was ordered to rid of any Japanese spies but most people were Japanese Americans and had nothing to do with Japan.

141 Gen. Eisenhower Txt: p Who: He was the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe. What: plan and led Operation Overlord and supervised and planned Operation Torch as well. When: Where: Europe, African front, and the Normandy Front Significance: He led a major role in planning many operations and leading the European Allied forces to victory making him a well known hero who later became president.

142 Atlantic Charter Txt: p. 722 Who: FDR, Churchill, Allied Nations What: This was a document issued by FDR and Churchill addressing the post war goals which was later signed by all the Allies. It was also a basis for the Declaration of the League of Nations. When: August 14, 1941 Where: Newfoundland Significance: It showed that America supported Britain and the Allied powers before they were officially in the war. Secondly it founded the League of Nations to protect the world from harm and injustices which is still in order today.

143 Battle of the Bulge Txt: p. 744 Who: German and American troops led by Gen. Anthony McAuliffe. What: This was the last counter offense for German forces. They broke a bulge in the middle of the Allied forces and were advancing. Ultimately the Germans failed and the lost was too much too replenish causing the fall of Germany. When: Dec Where: France, Europe Significance: This marked the last counter offense of the German forces and the start of the fall of Hitler and his forces in Europe.

144 D-Day/Operation Overlord
Txt: p Who: Organized by, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the U.S. forces in Europe followed by many American, Canadian, French, and British troops. What: the first day of the Normandy invasion, which marks the turn in the tide of the war and the start of the downfall of the German forces. When: June 6, 1944 Where: Normandy, France Significance: it was the major and most important invasion of Europe in which many troops lost their lives for the better of the world. It also marks the first day of the retake of the allied country France.

145 145. Gen. MacArthur Text: p.750 Who: General of the Philippine Army
What: Brilliant military strategist When: WW2 Where: Pacific Islands Significance: Helped win the war by inventing island hopping

146 146. Battle of Midway Text: p.747
Who: Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of U.S. naval forces in the Pacific What: Nimitz learns from an intercepted message that the Japanese were going to attack Midway. Nimitz then attacks the Japanese at Midway with a surprise attack. When: June 4-June 7, 1942 Where: Midway, an island in the Pacific Significance: Although Nimitz was outnumbered 4 to 1, he destroyed the Japanese force. The Japanese had lost 4 aircraft carriers, a cruiser, and 322 planes.

147 147. Island-Hopping Text: p.747-748 Who: Gen. MacArthur
What: MacArthur took over less fortified islands and built airfields on them. Then he would cut off supply lines to enemy troops. When: Where: Pacific islands Significance: By doing this, MacArthur as able to starve the other Japanese islands, and overall shortened the time and cost of the Pacific War. %252F5th%252520Six%252520Week%252520Period%252FWWII%252FWWII%252520presentation%252FWorld%252520War%252520II%252520Presentation%252FMaps%252FIsland%252520Hopping%252520in%252520the%252520Pacific.htm%3B656%3B550

148 148. Manhattan Project/Atomic Bomb
Text: p Who: J. Robert Oppenheimer, was the head scientist in building the bomb. What: The Manhattan Project was the project for the creation of the atomic bomb. When: used on August 6 and August 9, 1945 Where: Hiroshima and Nagasaki Significance: This led to the Japan’s surrender. %252Fhidden-letter-from-ww2-promises-rain-of-atomic-bombs%3B313%3B250

149 149. 13th Amendment Text: p.343 Who: Congress
What: Banned slavery and involuntary servitude in the U.S. When: 1865 Where: U.S Significance: officially ended slavery forever in the U.S.

150 150. 14th Amendment Text: p.353 Who: Congress
What: Made all people whom were born in the U.S. citizens. When: 1866 Where: U.S. Significance: Provided a constitutional basis for the Civil Rights Act

151 151. 15th Amendment Text:p.355 Who: Congress
What: All people could vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. When: 1870 Where: U.S. Significance: Forced all states to allow African Americans to vote.

152 152. 16th Amendment Text:p.162 Who: Congress
What: Allowed congress to tax the people based on income When: 1913 Where: U.S Significance: Provided a steady source of money for federal government )-high_school.htm%3B405%3B405

153 153. 17th Amendment Text: p.500 Who: Congress
What: Gave a direct election of senators When: 1913 Where: U.S. Significance: Forced senators to be more responsive to the public

154 154. The 19th Amendment Who: Passed by congress.
What: An amendment ratified in 1920 that gave women the right to vote. When: Ratified in August of 1920. Where: America. Why: The 19th Amendment prohibited any U.S. citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. This was a huge milestone for women trying to obtain equality. (NAWSA). More on the 18th Amendment on pages 163 and 520.

155 155. The 20th Amendment Who: Passed by Congress.
What: An amendment that moved presidential inaugurations to January instead of March. When: Ratified February of 1933. Where: America. Why: Because this amendment was ratified in February, Americans waited extremely anxiously to see what FDR would do to help the depression. Read more on the 20th Amendment on pages 163 and 665.

156 156. The 21st Amendment Who: Passed by congress.
What: This amendment ended prohibition, and allowed the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. When: 1933. Where: America. Why: The 21st amendment included an alcohol tax designed to raise government revenues. Read more on the 21st Amendment on pages 163 and 666.

157 157. The 22nd Amendment Who: Congress passed this. What: This amendment set a two term limit on being elected president of the U.S. When: Passed in 1947 and ratified in Where: America. Why: This amendment made sure that Presidents such as FDR would not be able to run for more than two terms. Read more on the 22nd Amendment on page 164.

158 158. Charleston, SC Who: Union and Confederate soldiers. What: One of the earliest cities in the south. The battle for Fort Sumter was also fought here. When: founded in Where: Charleston, SC Why: Charles Town(Charleston) was the only major port city in the early South. Read more on Charleston, SC on pages 71,78, and 113.

159 159. Shiloh Who: Union and Confederate soldiers, What: A church in Tennessee. When: Battle of Shiloh was April 6, Where: A church in Tennessee. Why: This is where the Battle of Shiloh took place. It showed how skillful Ulysses S. Grant was in leading the Union soldiers. Read more about Shiloh on pages

160 160. Vicksburg Who: Union and Confederate soldiers. What: A siege at the fort of Vicksburg led by Ulysses S. Grant which eventually resulted in a Union victory. When: The siege was from May 18th-July 4th in Where: Warren County, Mississippi. Why: Taking Vicksburg was another step to successfully cutting the Confederacy in two. Read more on pages 316,330, and

161 161. Richmond Who: People living in Richmond, Virginia. What: A border state which went to the Confederates and became the Confederate Capital. When: City of Richmond founded in Where: Richmond, VA Why: Virginia was a huge loss to the Union went they succeeded. Virginia was the most populated and industrialized city in the South.` Read more about Richmond on pages 314, , 337, and 463.

162 162. Gettysburg Who: Union and Confederate soldiers. What: A town in Pennsylvania where a battle was fought during the Civil War. When: Founded in Where: Gettysburg, PA Why: The win for the Union in Gettysburg was a turning point for the North. Because of this defeat Lee would never be able to invade the North again. Read more about Gettysburg on pages , , 333, 334.

163 Gettysburg July 3rd 1863 A three-day battle, which many historians consider to be the turning point of the Civil war. This battle crippled the South so badly that General Lee would never again invade a Northern State. P. 329 in the textbook

164 Bull Run July 21st 1861 They turned the tide and won their first battle for the south in the civil war. The Union troops panickly retreated to the capital, but the confederates were to exhausted and disorganized to follow up their victory with an attack on Washington. Stonewall Jackson is introduced for the confederates as the reason for victory. P. 314 in the textbook

165 San Francisco 1849 Gold fever traveled eastward, and the 49ers who were the prospectors who flocked to California during this gold rush, were people from Asia, South America, and Europe. The city’s population exploded from 1,000 in 1848 to 35,000 in 1850. P. 277 in the textbook

166 The Dominican Republic
1870 Although the U.S. focused largely domestic problems during Reconstruction, the nation did have on significant dealing with a foreign power. President Grant attempted to annex the Dominican republic, which aroused a storm of controversy. The Senate rejected the Annexation Treaty. P. 369 in the textbook

167 The Black Hills When- Between the civil war and the turn of the century. A precious metal was discovered in scattered sites starting here at the Black Hills. It’s located in western South Dakota and is surrounded by prairie. It is home of Mount Rushmore P. 394 in the textbook

168 The Rio Grande 1846 General Taylor was positioned at the Rio Grande in 1846 for the war with Mexico. Mexico had responded by sending troops across the Rio Grande. Here, Mexican soldiers killed 11 soldiers which immediately made president Polk issue a war message to Congress. P. 274 in the textbook

169 Hawaii Annexed in 1898 Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii realized that her influence had come to an end, but announced that if she was restored to power, she would behead those who had conspired to depose her. More than 160 U.S. sailors and marines were ready to aid the white foreigners who planned to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy. The annexation of Hawaii was one of the successful goals of America’s empire builders. P. 526 in the textbook

170 Columbia 1921 The Senate approved the route through Panama for the canal, and the U.S. began negotiations over Panama with Columbia. When these negotiations broke down, Bunau-Varilla helped organize a Panamanian rebellion against Columbia. Panama then declared independence Congress paid Columbia $25 million for the loss of its territory in 1921. P in the textbook

171 Panama August 15th, 1914 was when the Panama canal opened for business. The United States negotiated a treaty that guaranteed Panama’s independence. More than 1,000 merchant ships used the waterway during its first year of operation. P. 544 in the textbook










181 THE USSR #181 The USSR ,or the Soviet Union, lasted from 1922 until 1991 when it finally collapsed. The USSR was a union formed of Russia, the motherland, and several other European and Asian countries that the Russians colonized. In 1924, after the death of Lenin, Stalin came into power. Stalin used “five year plans” in an attempt to revitalize his countries economy, but ultimately his plans failed. During WWII the USSR fought on the side of the allies along with Britain, France, and eventually America. At the start of the war Stalin signed a non- aggression pact with Hitler in which the both agreed to split Poland and not to attack each other. Unfortunately for our communist friends, Hitler later disregarded this pact and invaded The Motherland. The Russians were able to defeat the Germans at the battle of Stalingrad and end the German advance on the eastern front.

182 Poland #182 Poland was a European country located, as you can see from the map, directly in between Russia and Germany. During the war the USSR and Germany signed a nonaggression pact agreeing not to attack each other and to spilt the nation of Poland. Later, on September First 1939, Hitler changed his mind and invaded the Russian half of Poland. By 6 October 1939 German forces had completed the take over of Poland. Hitler than annexed the country and it remained a part of Germany until the end of the war

183 Japan #185 Japan is an archipelago of numerous small islands that can be found off the coast of China, Russia, and the two Koreas. Japan joined the axis power alongside Germany and Italy. On December 7, 1941 Japan bombed the American naval base of Pearl Harbor and then began to expand into the pacific. The Japanese were extremely difficult to defeat in battle, as they believed that Emperor Hirohito was a living god, and as a result were not afraid to die in his service; opening up all sorts of opportunities for kamikaze warfare. Japan was the last of the axis powers to surrender, but finally on September 2nd 1945 (After the bombing of Nagasaki on August 9) Japan finally surrendered unconditionally to the United States of America.

184 Okinawa #186 The battle for Okinawa was fought on the Japanese island of Okinawa from April 1 until June 22 of The United States successfully taking over the island was critical to war plans due to the fact that to get within enough distance to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima the delivery planes would have to fly over both Okinawa and Iwo Jima.

185 Guadalcanal #187 The battle of Guadalcanal lasted from 7 August 1942 – 9 February The Allied Forces attacked Guadalcanal and the neighboring Solomon Islands in order to ensure that Japanese forces on the islands would not be able to obstruct war supplies and boats passing through the pacific. The campaign to capture the islands marked the first time the Allies switches from a defensive position to an offensive one in the pacific.

186 Iwo Jima #188 The battle of Iwo Jima was the last battle in the pacific during WWII. The battle lasted from 19 February – 26 March 1945 and ended in an American win. Iwo Jima was a particularly brutal battle due to the fact that the heavy rain produced mud, making it impossible to use tanks or similar modes of transport. Additionally, the Japanese had a series of tunnels dug throughout the island…. [continue here]

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