Presentation on theme: "Abraham Lincoln #1 In office th US Republican President"— Presentation transcript:
1Abraham Lincoln #1 In office 1861-1865 16th US Republican President His presidency caused the South to secedeand led to the Civil War. Without his opposition to slavery expansion, slavery could have spread to the territories.Led the US in the Civil WarAbolished slaveryStrengthened the federal governmentHighly opposed to the spread of slaveryPg in textbook
2Andrew Johnson #2 17th US Democratic President, Unionist In officeHandled Reconstruction controversies very badlyAttempted to reconstruct the Seven Confederate States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North and South Carolina, and Texas).First American president to be impeachedPg in textbook
3Ulysses S. Grant #3 18th US Republican President In office 1869-1877 Great military commander during the Civil WarWon the battles of Shiloh and Fort Henry and DonelsonAffiliated with the Radical RepublicansWas infamous for the graft and corruption during his presidencyPg. 315 in textbook
4Rutherford B. Hayes #4 19th US Republican President In officeManaged the end of ReconstructionEnded federal army intervention in the SouthIncorporated home-rule into Southern societyPg in textbook
5William McKinley #5 25th US President In office 1897-1901 Led the US to victory in the Spanish-American WarRaised protective tariffs to support American industryLast president to serve in American Civil WarPg in textbook
6Theodore Roosevelt #6 26th US Republican President In office 1901-1909 Led the US to victory in the Spanish-American WarUsed “modern presidency” during his termIncreased the power of the executive branchFounded the Progressive PartyImplemented the Square DealCentral cause for reform of America andRedefining federal powerPg. 505 in textbook
7Woodrow Wilson #7 28th US Democratic President In office 1913-1921 Leader of the Progressive movementContinued Taft and Roosevelt’s antitrust effortsAgainst “big business”Endorsed “New Freedom”Led the Democratic Party to control the WhiteHouse and CongressPg. 514 in textbook
8Hebert Hoover #8 31st US President In office 1929-1933 In office after the stock market crash of 1929Encouraged people that the depression was natural and would correct itselfCaused a delayed reaction to fix thedepressionPg. 655 in textbook
9Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) #9 32nd US PresidentIn officeElected four times as PresidentLead the US during time of depression and warBuilt a New Deal that eventually reunited American politicsAllied with Winston Churchill andJoseph Stalin during WWIIPg in textbook
10Harry S. Truman #10 33rd US President In office 1945-1953 Took presidency after FDRUS successfully ended WWIIKey figure in the conflicts with the Soviet UnionDoubted by many Americans because he wasnot well knownPg.767 in textbook
11Anaconda Plan/Farragut The Anaconda Plan was a 3 part strategy by which the Union proposed to defeat the Confederacy in the Civil War (pg.314)Their strategy was: 1) the union navy would blockade Southern parts, so they could neither export cotton nor import much-needed manufactured goods. 2) Union riverboats and armies would move down the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in two. 3) Union armies would capture the confederate capitol at Richmond, Virginia (pg.314)David G. Farragut was a commander for the Union. He led a fleet into Louisiana, then on April 24, they successfully ran past two Confederate forts and was able to capture New Orleans, the Confederate’s the largest city and busiest port. The significance of this would be that because of Farragut seizing New Orleans along with Grant progressing down the Mississippi, the union nearly completed its goal of cutting the Confederacy in two. (pg316)
12Robert E. LeeHe was a commander for the confederate army. He was known for being mostly modest and willing to go outside the box when it can to military tactics. He opposed secession and even vouched to free slaves but stayed to fight with the confederates because of his beloved state of Virginia (pg. 316)He was best known for him and General McClellan’s battles called the Seven Days’ Battle which lasted from June 25 to July 1 of After Lee’s victory, he moved his troops towards the enemy’s capitol. On August 29, he won the Second battle of Bull Run. Soon after they crossed into Maryland, McClellan’s army found Lee’s army orders in a the meadows were they had camped so they found opportunity to attack because Stonewall and Lee’s armies were separated at the moment, and this would begin the Battle of Antietam which started on September 17. Even though this battle was a lost, it resulted in the Union firing General McClellan because Lincoln felt he was too passive. Lee would continue to lead in Chancelorsville, Battle of Gettysburg, Vicksburg and many more battle before being for forced to surrender at Appomattox. (pg ) and (pg )Lee was very important in the victories the Confederates obtained in the war
13Stonewall Jackson He was known for his aspirations to stay strong. He was General for the Confederates in the Battle of Bull Run on July 21. Throughout the battle in was not going in the Confederates favor but they stayed strong and held firm because of Jackson.Soon, their reinforcements came and they were able to capture their first victory for the South. He sadly died at the battle of Chancellorsville on May 10, 1863, from pneumonia along with a gun shot wound to the arm. (Pg.329) (pg.314)Gen. Jackson was one of Lee’s most trusted and able generals.
14AntietamAntietam would be described as the bloodiest single day battle in American history.A few days after General Lee’s men crossed over into Maryland, McClellan and his army were crossing through the meadows were confederated had camped and found General Lee’s army orders which showed that him and Stonewall’s armies were separated at the moment. McClellan saw opportunity so this began the Battle in Antietam on September 17. The battle was a stand-off and many Confederates were wounded and dead but McClellan never went after them he just let them go and retreat.This action led to Lincoln firing McClellan, characterizing him for having, “the slows”. The significance of this battle would have been whether McClellan should had went after the wounded and undermanned Confederate troops and that have possibly won the war for the Union. (pg.317)
15GettysburgThe Battle of Gettysburg last from July 1-3 of During this battle position was very important so Lee knew he needed to force the northerners to yield their positions on cemetery ridge, a high ground south of Gettysburg. On the second day, Confederate rebels pushed past union on their way to little Round top and only a union signal corps stood in their way.The rebels decimated the union lines on little Round top but the union put up a fight behind colonel Joshua L. Chamberlain even though they lost due to lack of ammunition. Eventually, he was able to protect Union line even though they lost territory. Day 3 was a three day battle that resulted in many losses. Union losses included 23,000 men killed or wounded and 28,000 for the Confederates. The Union won, and this left a bad taste for the Confederates because they would never recover from this.
1654th MassachusettsThe 54th regiment Massachusetts volunteer Infantry was the first official African American unit in the U.S during the Civil War. They did a lot of service throughout the war, they even recruited freed slaves to join their unit as well.The 54th regiment represented the accomplishments and contributions African Americans made throughout the war.
17Jefferson DavisHe was voted unanimously to become president for the Confederate States of America. This was the Confederates push to become independent from the U.S and dot heir own values and beliefs. (Pg.305)Was an avid leader through the Civil War but also described as being careless for the people too.He also felt that the Emancipation Proclamation was the “most execrable measure recorded in the history of guilty man”. Soon after many battles the Confederacy ended with their surrender at Appomattox
18Clara BartonShe was a dedicated nurse for the Union. She was the first woman to work as a clerk in the U.S Patent Office. She cared for the sick and the wounded on the front lines of battle along with being good at anticipating troop movements so that she could get to the battleground early with bandages and supplies.Her importance was that because her and other nurses work, the union death rate showed improvement over the previous wars. (pg. 328)
19Sherman’s March to SeaSherman moved south and occupied Atlanta, the confederate transportation center. In retaliation, the Confederates tried to circle him and cut off his railroad supply lines. Rather than wait for the Confederates to attack, Sherman decides to abandon his supply lines and march through Georgia causing destruction, burning down most of Atlanta in mid November.After that they turned north to help Grant wipe out Lee, they were followed by 25,000 former slaves eager for freedom. They inflicted more damage in South Carolina but when they moved in to north Carolina they stopped and handed out supplies to those who needed it because the new the war was near over. (Pg )
20AppomattoxOn April , General Lee and General Grant met to arrange the Confederate surrender. By Lincoln’s terms, Grant sent the Confederate soldiers home with their personal possessions, horses, and 3 days worth of rations.Eventually all Confederate resistance collapsed and this marked the end of the Civil War. The south fought a valiant fight but they were undermanned and beaten down to the point were they could recover. (pg.337)
2121 Jeb StuartHe was Robert E. Lee’s eyes and ears of the confederate army. He was the general of the Calvary for the south.P 331
2222 Scalawag1860’s-1870’sThese would be white southerners who thought they should reform the government but also allow African Americans to keeptheir rights.p357
2323 Carpetbagger1860’s-1870’sThese would be northerners going to the weak unstable south for there own personal gain to take advantage of the destroyed economy.p348
2424 Sharecropping 1865-1877. Reconstruction time This was used to employ blacks looking for jobs following freedom. They would give the former slaves a portion of the main land owners land as long as they would farm it and not leave until they paid back the owner in full with a crop goal at the begging of the year. The workers were set up to fail and would almost never reach the goal.p364
2525 KKK’sA extreme group of racists that were formed following the freedom of the slaves. They would go to the houses of African Americans at night and burn the houses and beat up the family. They would also fight or kill anyone who would employ or help the blacks.P
2626 Debt Peonage1860’s-70’sWhen a worker comes to you and asks you for money you say yes but make them work for you. Then they have to pay back the debt they owe you and never can and are locked into a system very much like slavery.p477
2727 Jim Crow LawsThis was a set of laws placed to limit and segregate blacks from white following the emancipation. They were very racist and were not equal. The blacks were treated far worse than the whites, and the hope they had felt from emancipation soon vanished with these laws.p474
2828 Grandfather Clause 1870’s-early 1900’s This was used in cases where the whites had no money and also were not very smart. Also when Blacks were educated and had money. This was used, it was a clause saying if your grandfather was not free before the emancipation day you could not vote. Which most blacks grandfathers were not free, this would make them unable to vote.p474
2929 Literacy tests1890’s-1960’sA prevention for blacks to vote in the South following the emancipation of the slaves. The tests for blacks would be extremely tough while a white mans test would be incredibly easy. Even if the black man would pass they would still be failed just so they could not vote. While the white man if they failed would still be passed so they could vote.p474
3030 Poll tax1880’sThis was a prevention for black’s to vote. If the white men who were uneducated could not pass the literacy test. And did not have the grandfather who could vote before the date the slaves were emancipated. They could pay to vote while the poor blacks did not have the money too.p474
3131. Segregation pg. 856 Who: African Americans What: Segregation is the separation of any group of people from another based on race.When:Where: USA, most apparent in the southWhy: After the Emancipation Proclamation was passed in the united states all of the former slaves were freed and entered into society. Because the former slaves were looked down on in society, there were different rules created to separate them from the ‘regular’ citizens. There were different court cases aimed at determining what was allowed and what was too harsh when segregating people. The case Brown vs. The Board of Education determined that it was wrong to separate people and justify it by saying they were ‘separate but equal’.
3232. Compromise of 1877 pg. 371-373 Who: Congress, Rutherford B. Hayes What: An agreement that made Rutherford B. Hayes president if the North removed all troops from the South.When: 1877Where: USAWhy: After the war, the south wanted to regain control of their homes. The Democrats made an offer that they would let Rutherford B. Hayes be president if the Republicans enacted certain legislation that would help the southern economy, withdrew all troops from the south, and appointed democrats in different places of power.
3333. Redemption pg. 350-355 Who: Southern USA What: The reconstruction of the south after the civil war.When:Where: Southern USAWhy: After the civil war the South needed to rebuild as a nation and to set up a new government. The North, having won the war, would help the South reconstruct its cities and government. Lincoln favored a more lenient reconstruction plan rather than a plan that would punish the South for its secession. However, when Lincoln died, Vice President Johnson took over and began to punish the South by making the them abide by several rules. First, they would have to declare their secession illegal, ratify the thirteenth amendment and free slaves, and swear their allegiance to the nation.
3434. Amnesty Act pg. 368 Who: Congress What: Returned the right to vote and other political rights to SouthernersWhen: May 1872Where: USAWhy: Because many Southerners complained that their political leaders were being barred from representing them, Congress passed this act. The Amnesty Act weakened the power of the republican party and gave the Southern Democrats more political power.
3535. Home Rule pg. 372 Who: Democrats What: The ability of a state government to run itself without the intervention of the Federal Government.When: 1876Where: USAWhy: State governments under home rule are allowed to have different laws, regulations, and taxes than the Federal government has. In 1876, states with home rule would pass laws that restricted freedmen’s rights, destroy social government programs, lower taxes, and disassemble public school systems.
3636. Homestead Act pg. 382 Who: Congress What: This act offered 160 acres of free land to anyone who would cultivate it for five years.When:Where: Western USAWhy: The Homestead Act was passed to convince people to move to the newly acquired land in the west. People from the Florida to Maine moved west to take advantage of this government program. Exodusters, or African Americans who moved from Southern reconstruction, moved out west to the Great Plains.
3737. Crédit Mobilier Scandal pg. 419 Who: Union Pacific RailroadWhat: Created a construction company that signed an overpriced contract with the railroad.When: 1864Where: Western USAWhy: The Crédit Mobilier construction company was created by the Union Pacific Railroad company to give the profits from working for the Union Pacific Railroad back to the owners of the Railroad. Crédit Mobilier signed an overpriced contract with Union Pacific, and then the owners of both Crédit Mobilier and Union Pacific pocketed the profits.
3838. Union Pacific / Central Pacific R.R pg. 416-418 Who: Major Railroad CompaniesWhat: Hired immigrants, mainly Chinese, and paid almost nothing. Also involved in money scandals.When: 1862Where: Western USAWhy: Railroads were a big part of the economy in the 1800s. They provided jobs for US citizens and immigrants. However, they paid almost nothing for a days work which often involved dangerous conditions and sometimes death. The Union Pacific was involved in a scandal that gave the owners of the railroad most of the profit.
3939. Chinese Exclusion Act pg. 443 Who: Chinese ImmigrantsWhat: An Act that banned entry of all Chinese people except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials.When: 1882Where: USAWhy: Because so many Chinese people were taking the jobs of US citizens, the US government banned entry of all Chinese people into the USA. This law was not repealed until 1943.
4040. Ellis and Angel Islands pg. 440-441 Who: Anyone immigrating to the United StatesWhat: Islands where people immigrating had to pass tests and inspections to enter the United States.Where: Eastern USA, Western USA.Why: During the 1800s, anyone going to the United States had to pass disease inspections and different tests. These tests and inspections were to make sure that no one would bring diseases to the USA and that anyone immigrating would be able to contribute to American society and get a job.
4141. Problems of Urbanization Who: People moving from rural areas tourban areasWhat: Growth of citiesWhere: CitiesWhen: Early 1900’sWhy: The cities provided more work and opportunities for the poor immigrants. The quick urbanization led to tight housing, transportation problems, unsafe drinking water, and issues with sanitation, fires, and crimeTextbook reference pages:Picture URL:
4242. Laissez FaireWho: Economists used Social Darwinism to justify thisWhat: Absence of regulation in the marketplaceWhere: The United States of AmericaWhen: 1800 and 1900’sWhy: Laissez Faire is a French term meaning “allow to do” and was a belief of many economists and businessmen of the time.Textbook reference page: 422Picture URL:
4343. Holding Company Who: Big Corporations such as US Steel What: Company made to do nothing but buy out the stock of other companiesWhere: United States of AmericaWhen: 1800’s and 1900’sWhy: Holding companies were one of the easiest ways to create a monopoly, and this method was used by big business owners such as JP MorganTextbook reference page: 423Picture URL:
4444. Monopoly Who: Rockefeller, Morgan, Carnegie, etc. What: Complete control over its industry’s production, quality, wages paid, and prices chargedWhere: United States of AmericaWhen: 1800 and 1900’sWhy: Monopolies resulted in owners of companies becoming extremely wealthy and also resulted in the passing of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890, making monopolies illegalTextbook reference page: 423Picture URL:
4545. Trust Who: Big Businesses What: Participants in a trust turned their stock over to a group of trustees, people who ran the separate companies as one large corporation. In return, the companies received certificates that entitled them to dividends on profits earned by the trustWhere: United States of AmericaWhen: 1800 and 1900’sWhy: Trusts were formed to create a monopoly, but were not legal mergers. Trusts were also banned by the Antitrust Act of 1890.Textbook reference page: 423
4646. Vertical Integration Who: Andrew Carnegie What: Buying out all supplies and manufacturersWhere: United States of AmericaWhen: 1800 and 1900’sWhy: Using vertical integration, businessmen like Carnegie control over raw materials, transportation systems, and the overall manufacturing process of the product. Therefore they eliminate any middle-men and have complete power of the quality/cost of the product.Textbook reference page: 422Picture URL:
4747. Horizontal Consolidation Who: Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, JP MorganWhat: The process of merging similar companies or buying out competitionWhere: United States of AmericaWhen: 1800’s and 1900’sWhy: Using horizontal consolidation, business owners gained control over competition and could have a monopoly over their industry. The use of these methods led to the passing of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890Textbook reference page: 422Picture URL:
4848. Social Gospel Movement Who: Social welfare reformersWhat: Early reform program for immigrants in citiesWhere: CitiesWhen: UnknownWhy: The Social Gospel Movement peached salvation through service to the poor. This inspired followers to create churches in poor communities and persuaded some business leaders to treat workers more fairlyTextbook reference page: 451Picture URL:
4949. Social DarwinismWho: Charles DarwinWhat: A social and economic philosophy based on the biologist Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, holding that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest.Where: United States of AmericaWhen: 1800 and 1900’sWhy: Darwin’s ideas were used to justify laissez faire in business. Economists believed that nobody, including government, was allowed to intervene in businessTextbook reference page: 422Picture URL:
5050. Gospel of Wealth Who: Andrew Carnegie What: Book describing the importance of philanthropyWhere: United States of AmericaWhen: 1889Why: The Gospel of Wealth, written by Andrew Carnegie,Illustrated the importance of the wealthy sharing withthose less fortunate and this contrasted the beliefthat money “stays in the family” via inheritancesTextbook reference page: 421Picture URL:
61#61 Robert La Follette No page number Sig.- This man was significant because he was part of the U.S. senate and was a governor and he made many new innovations and shared his ideals throughout the governmentLa Follette was one of the leaders of the Progressive movement, advocating more power to the electorate, spreading democratic idealsDate-1904
62#62 Ghost DancePg. 379,387Sig- This dance was significant because when the ghost dance spread throughout many tribes during the Battle of Wounded Knee, it scared the military and this dance motivated them to arrest Sitting BullDate- December 1890
63#63 Sand Creek Massacre Pg.383 Sig- This massacre was significant because it showed how Native Americans were dealt with when they stepped out of line even in the slightest bit. Also it showed how brutal the military could be towards the Native AmericansDate-1864
64#64 Battle of Wounded Knee Pg.387Sig.- This was the brutal battle between the Indians and the American Military brought an end to the conflict between these two peoples.Date- December 1890
65#65 George C. CusterPg.385Sig.- He was important because he discovered some gold in the black hills and he indirectly started the next few Indian battles.Date- 1874
66#66 Crazy Horse Pg.-no page Sig.- He was significant because he was the leader of a Native American tribe and led his tribe through the battles alongside Sitting BullDate- 1877
67#67 Sitting BullPg.384Sig- This man was important because he never signed the Treaty of 1868 creating many battles and conflicts between the tribes (mainly Sioux) and the American militaryDate- 1868
68#68 Buffalo Soldiers Pg. no page Sig.- These soldiers were significant because they were new African American soldiers and the Army sent them to fight which was key to reconstruction of the U.S. and the previous racist views.Date- 1866
69#69 ExodustersPg.382Sig.- The exodusters were significant because the African Americans changed Kansas and got out of the rough areas in the southDate- Post reconstruction of south era
70#70 Dawes ActPg.385Sig- This act was significant because it broke up reservations and made assimilation throughout the tribes. Also this act sold the Native Americans land making them angry and willing to fight for it back.Date-1887
7171: AssimilationAssimilation was put into action by the Dawes act of This was towards Native Americans, and it broke up their reservations and attempted to “Americanize” them. This led to many conflicts between Natives and settlers, including the battle of wounded knee.Pg. 385
7272: RecallRecall took place around the 1920’s. It was the process of removing any public official from office by forcing a re-election. This was a part of the progressive reform of the elections. This still applies today in our government.Pg. 500
7373: InitiativeThe initiative was a part of the progressive era during the 1920’s. This was a bill organized by the people, not law makers. This was important because it gave people more power as a part of reform in the elections and government of the progressive era.Pg. 500
7474: ReferendumThe referendum was a vote on the initiative. This took action during the progressive era around the 1920’s. This is significant because the vote was cast by citizens, not law makers. This gave the American people much more power and control in the government.Pg. 500
7575: Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining was used by the American Federation of Labor (AFL) led by Samuel Gompers. Collective bargaining was an agreement between the workers and unions with the businesses. This was very effective during the 1890’s, and wages of workers raised up and the hours worked dropped during this time period.Pg. 429
7676: MuckrakersMuckrakers were journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of businesses that the public did not see. This took place around the beginning of the 20th century. One example of this was a book by Upton Sinclair “The Jungle”. This showed the side of the meat industry that no one saw. This changed the public’s view of business. This also led to the Meat Inspection Act, and Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 to protect the health of citizens.Pg. 496
7777: Interstate Commerce Act This act was established in Its purpose was for the federal government to regulate railroad activities and establish the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Although this did not gain power until 1906 because of the supreme court ruling that the government could not set prices on railroads. This took a part in creating the Panic of 1893, which was the worst depression up to that time.Pg. 420
7878: Booker T. WashingtonBooker T. Washington was a very well respected African American leader around the end of the 19th century into the 20th century. Washington opened the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. Here he taught other African Americans how to be prosperous in a segregated America. Washington was the most respected African American of his time, and even had dinner with the president. Washington believed that African Americans should work harder to get out of segregation rather than complain or act violently.Pg. 471
7979: Scientific Management Scientific management brought scientific concepts into the work place. Most importantly including the assembly line. This was first implemented by Ford in This increased the production of businesses by a large amount, and opened up many unskilled jobs for many people. This was a part of the progressive era in the reform of industries.Pg. 496
8080: UrbanizationUrbanization was the rapid growth of cities. This took place during the early 1900’s. People were attracted to the cities because there were more job opportunities in factories for unskilled workers. This is important because it gave jobs to many people that wouldn’t have one otherwise.Pg. 446
91#91 San Juan HillThis battle was a crucial battle in the Spanish-American War on July 1st It was the bloodiest battle of the war with 2,700 killed This where the term Buffalo soldier became famous as well with the name Teddy Roosevelt who was the war hero, eventually in 2001 Roosevelt was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.P.534
92#92 Philippine IslandsThe USA gained control of these islands in 1898 by the Treaty of Paris. America fought a war over these islands (Philippine-American War). The islands were then controlled by Japan in WW2.P.541
93#93 Emilio AguinaldoEmilio Aguinaldo was the 1st President of the Philippines. He was in office from He was the leader of the Philippine forces against the Americans during the Philippine-American War( ).P. 533, 538
94#94 Open Door NotesJohn Hay’s Open Door Notes were sent to European Nations in Asia in The notes asked the other countries involved in Asian trade to “open the door” to America because it wanted foreign business and to invest in that part of the world, particularly ChinaP
95#95 Roosevelt CorollaryThis is similar to reinstatement of the Monroe Doctrine. This said that the US will intervene in conflicts between foreign countries and Latin America, in the Western Hemisphere. This was part of his mantra of speak softly, and carry a big stick.P
96#96 Alfred T. MahanMahan served from 1859 to He believed in the power of the sea is the greatest strength a country could have. He expressed his view in his book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History. He had a major influence in the gain of strength in the US Navy during after his service.P. 524,
97#97 Great White FeetIn 1907 Teddy Roosevelt launched 16 ships. This showed off the US Naval power to powers around the world. It was served as a showpiece of American power.
98#98 Panama CanalThe USA took over the project from the French in They finished in This shortened the travel time from the Pacific to the Atlantic drastically. This was one of the most significant projects in US history.
99#99 Howard TaftTaft served as President from Roosevelt was President before him and elected not to run for a 3rd term. He would regret this decision when Taft went into office because he mad Roosevelt furious with many decisions.
100Selective Service Act I.D. #100 Who: Men ages had to enlist.What: A law that required men to register for military service.When: Enacted in 1917Where: Took place within the United States.Why: The Selective Service Act was to enlist men into the U.S. army. Each man had a number for which they were accounted for. On draft day, if your number was called then you became part of the army to fight in Europe in WWI.Pg. 562
101Henry Cabot Lodge #101 Who: A conservative senator What: A senator who strongly disagreed on the establishment of the League of NationsWhen: After WWI he scrutinized Woodrow Wilson’s 14 PointsWhere: He lived in the U.S.Why: He was a critical part in how the U.S. didn’t join the League of Nations. He opposed the entry of the U.S. because he thought that the entire idea was evil.Pg. 580
102NAWSA #102Who: Founded by Lucy Stone, Carrie Chapman Catt, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady StantonWhat: An organization that fought for Woman’s suffrage.When: Late 19th century was when NAWSA was foundedWhere: Founded in the U.S.Why: NAWSA was the driving force in getting women the right to vote.Pg. 503
103NAACP #103 Who: Founded by W. E. B. DuBois What: An organization that promoted full racial equalityWhen: Founded in 1909Where: Founded in the U.S.Why: The founding of NAACP gave many African Americans the force of people striving for full racial equalityPg. 511 and 520
104Great Migration #104 Who: African Americans in the South What: the large-scale movement of African Americans from Southern to Northern citiesWhen: Early 20th centuryWhere: From Southern U.S. to Northern U.S.Why: Many African Americans moved to the North to find jobs and make materials for WWIPg
105Harlem Hellfighters #105Who: 369th Infantry Regiment, all African AmericansWhat: An infantry regiment of the U.S. army that saw action in both WWI and WWIIWhen: fought in WWI and WWIIWhere: An U.S. regimentWhy: This regiment of African Americans helped win both WWI and WWII. They helped change American public opinion on African American soldiers fighting in the warPg. Not Given
106Lusitania #106 Who: Passengers from many countries sailed on the ship What: A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boatWhen: Sank May 7, 1915Where: Off the Southern coast of IrelandWhy: The sinking of the ship was a major factor in bringing the U.S. into WWIPg. 552 and
107John Pershing #107 Who: U.S. general What: A general who fought in the Spanish-American War, and WWI.When: Born in 1860 and died in 1948Where: Born and died in the U.S.Why: Pershing was a huge contributor to the Allies victory in WWI. Pershing lead an African American regiment in WWI and The regiment, as well as Pershing were given the Purple Heart.Pg. 567
108Plessy v. Ferguoson #108 Who: Homer Adolph Plessy What: An 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled out that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine.When: 1896Where: The U.S.Why: This made African Americans believe that although they were segregated from white people, they were all equal. The soon realized that they were cheated out of equality yet againPg
109109. Zimmerman TelegramA telegram sent by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico and intercepted by British agents.It was suppose to get Mexico to fight the United States, with possibly Japan’s help. This would keep the U.S. out of Germany’s wayJanuary 16, 1917.This can be found on page 561.
110110. Hundred DaysCongress passed more than 15 major pieces of the New Deal legislation. These laws, and others that followed, significantly expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy.RDR wanted relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform.March 9 to June 16, 1933.This can be found on page 665.
111111. ProhibitionThe banning of the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages.Moral reformLaw enforcement was not enforced, so the black market for booze boomed!18th Amendment (1919) to the 21st Amendment (1933).It can be found on page 495.
112112. IsolationismIn opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries.The U.S. tried to successfully fulfill this before WWI and WWII but were dragged into both wars eventually.This started in the early 1900’s.You can find this on page 597.
113113. Espionage and Sedition Acts Two laws that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in World War I.A person could be fined up to $10,000 and/or sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the draft, obstructing the sale of government bonds, or saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government or the war effort.This was in 1917 and 1918.This can be found on page 573.
114114. New Weapons WWIMechanized warfare – or warfare that relies on machines powered by gasoline and diesel engines.Big Bertha – German cannon that could hurl 1,800-pound shells a distance of 75 miles.Zeppelin – a gas-filled airship that enabled Germans to drop bombs on English coastal cities. ( They were eventually not used because they were easy to shoot down)Gas – greenish-yellow fog of chlorinePlanes were now used to fight (dogfights). They used to be only used for gathering intelligence.Tanks were first being used by Britain.This started around 1915.You can find this on page 566.
115115. SpeculationThe engagement in risky business transactions (in this case, the buying and selling of stocks) on the chance of quick or considerable profit.This fueled the market’s upward spiral.As prices rose, wealth was generated on paper, but it bore little relation to the real worth of companies or the goods that they produced. The price of stocks had little relationship to the dividends the stocks paid.This activity really increased in the late 1920’s.You can find this on page 645.
116116. Herbert Hoover The 31st president (Republican). He believed that depressions were a normal, healthy part of business and that it would correct itself.“Rugged Individualism”He also believed that the government should do as little as possible.He was elected president in Lost to FDR following election.This can be found on page 644.
117117. Reconstruction Finance Corp. An agency established to provide emergency financing to banks, life-insurance companies, railroads, and other large businesses.Hoover thought that it would pump new life into the economy by fueling business expansion. He thought that the wealth would trickle down.This received a lot of criticism.This was established in 1932This can be found on page 658.
118118. Buying on Margin (Pg.645) Who- Many American investors What- Paying a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest.When-1930’sWhere- AmericaWhy-Since the stocks declined, there was no way to pay off the loan
119119. Stock Market Crash (Pg.645) Who- American businesses and investorsWhat- As stocks declined, everyone tried to sell their stocks. Also, those who bought on margin were in huge debt.Where- AmericaWhen- October 24, 1929Why- It put America into a Great Depression and made thousands of people loose their jobs.
120120. New Deal (Pg.664) Who- Created by FDR What- The program designed by FDR to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression. It focused on three major things; relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform.Where- AmericaWhenWhy- It helped get America back on it’s feet again, and allowed new job opportunities.
121121. Huey Long (Pg.670) Who- Senator of Louisiana What-He was an early supporter for the new deal, but soon turned against it. He started “sharing the wealth” programsWhen- 1928Where- LouisianaWhy- He had created over 27,000 Share-Our-Wealth clubs
122122. Eleanor Roosevelt (Pg.671) Who- The first lady to FDR, and a social reformerWhat-She had a great effect on FDR’s decisions like appointing women judges. She reminded her husband of the suffering lower-class.When-1935Where- AmericaWhy-She gave a caring face for the New Deal administration
123123. John Collier (Pg.680) Who- Commissioner of Indian Affairs What- Appointed this position by FDR, he helped create the Indian Reorganization Act of This helped Native American’s keep their landWhere- AmericaWhen-1933Why- He gave the Indians more rights
124124. Direct vs. Indirect Relief (Pg.653) Who-The American governmentWhat- Direct relief was cash payments or food provided by the government to the poor. Indirect relief focused on creating programs to help people fend for themselvesWhere- AmericaWhen- During/After the Great DepressionWhy- It was meant to help American people get back to normal.
125125. Securities & Exchange Commission (Pg.666) Who- Enacted by the Federal GovernmentWhat- It was created to regulate the stock market. It prevented people from making up stock percentagesWhere- AmericaWhen- June 1934Why- It created a more stable and secure stock market
126126. Glass-Steagall Banking Act Who- Passed by CongressWhat- It established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This provided Federal insurance up to 5,000 dollars in bank accounts.Where- AmericaWhen- 1933Why- It made American citizens trust the bank more.
127127. Glass-Steagall Banking Act This law established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to protect individuals’ bank accounts.Legislation was passed in 1933Founded by Carter Class and Henry SteagallPages
128128. Tennessee Valley Authority A federal corporation established in 1933 to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region.Founded by FDR and George W. NorrisEstablished in 1933Page 693
129129. Civilian Conservation Corps An agency established as a part of the New Deal, that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion-control and flood control projects.Established April 5, 1933Founded by FDRPage 667
130130. Works Progress Administration An agency, established as a part of the New Deal, that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other fields.Founded by FDR andHenry HopkinsEstablished April 8, 1933Page 673
131131. Social Security ActA law enacted in 1935 to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and dependent mothers and children.Signed by FDRPage 673
132132. Wagner ActA law enacted in 1935 to protect workers’ rights after the Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional.A.K.A National Labors Relations ActFounded by Robert WagnerPage 674
133133. Federal Securities Act A law enacted in 1933 that required corporations to provide complete, accurate information on all stock offerings.Signed into law by FDRPage 666
134134. Court Packing ScandalA legislative initiative proposed by FDR to add more justices to the Supreme Court in order to pass new laws quicker.Occurred in 1937Page
135135. National Industrial Recovery Act A law enacted in 1933 to establish codes of fair practice for industries and to promote industrial growthCreated by FDRPage 668
136Deficit SpendingTxt: p Who: United States Government What: Deficit spending is spending money to a point in which you don’t have the money and are in debt. When: 1940’s- present day Where: United States Significance: In doing so America came out of the Great Depression with Deficit spending and strives today off of it but with the consequences of debt and the lower value of the US dollar.
137Cash-CarryTxt: p. 719 Who: Britain and US What: This was the trading policy prior to the Lend-Lease Act in 1941 and included in the Neutrality Act of 1939 stating that Britain may trade with the Us only if their ships paid up front and were to carry the cargo themselves from US harbors. When: Where: Atlantic ocean Significance: The US passed this because Britain was their main export and the US needed Britain for its economy to strive.
138Lend-LeaseTxt: p Who: FDR and US government What: This was a revision in trade policy made in the Lend-Lease Act in 1941 stating that the US could now lend and lease aid to Britain and the Soviet Union. When: 1941 Where: Atlantic Ocean Significance: It shows the the US slowly leaving their neutral position stated in the Neutrality Acts and becoming sided with Britain giving them aid and supplies.
139HolocaustTxt: p Who: Executed out by the Nazis and they targeted “non- Aryans”, (Jews, Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses) What: The Holocaust was a campaign for racial purity which caused the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more then half of whom where Jews. When: Where: Nazi Germany, Europe Significance: This showed the true evil of Hitler and how strong Anti-Semitism was in Europe and that Hitler must be stopped and whoever involved would be held responsible in the Nuremburg Trials.
140Japanese InternmentTxt: p. 735 Who: People of Japanese heritage that lived in America. What: all Japanese people who lived in America during the war were striped from there homes and sent to internment camps. When: Where: Mostly on the West but also on the East coast as well. Significance: This was immoral and unjust and shows that the war caused back home Anti-Semitism. This was ordered to rid of any Japanese spies but most people were Japanese Americans and had nothing to do with Japan.
141Gen. EisenhowerTxt: p Who: He was the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe. What: plan and led Operation Overlord and supervised and planned Operation Torch as well. When: Where: Europe, African front, and the Normandy Front Significance: He led a major role in planning many operations and leading the European Allied forces to victory making him a well known hero who later became president.
142Atlantic CharterTxt: p. 722 Who: FDR, Churchill, Allied Nations What: This was a document issued by FDR and Churchill addressing the post war goals which was later signed by all the Allies. It was also a basis for the Declaration of the League of Nations. When: August 14, 1941 Where: Newfoundland Significance: It showed that America supported Britain and the Allied powers before they were officially in the war. Secondly it founded the League of Nations to protect the world from harm and injustices which is still in order today.
143Battle of the BulgeTxt: p. 744 Who: German and American troops led by Gen. Anthony McAuliffe. What: This was the last counter offense for German forces. They broke a bulge in the middle of the Allied forces and were advancing. Ultimately the Germans failed and the lost was too much too replenish causing the fall of Germany. When: Dec Where: France, Europe Significance: This marked the last counter offense of the German forces and the start of the fall of Hitler and his forces in Europe.
144D-Day/Operation Overlord Txt: p Who: Organized by, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the U.S. forces in Europe followed by many American, Canadian, French, and British troops. What: the first day of the Normandy invasion, which marks the turn in the tide of the war and the start of the downfall of the German forces. When: June 6, 1944 Where: Normandy, France Significance: it was the major and most important invasion of Europe in which many troops lost their lives for the better of the world. It also marks the first day of the retake of the allied country France.
145145. Gen. MacArthur Text: p.750 Who: General of the Philippine Army What: Brilliant military strategistWhen: WW2Where: Pacific IslandsSignificance: Helped win the war by inventing island hoppinghttps://www.google.com/search?q=general+macarthur&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=HzJ-U5HeIInfsASg6IKgBg&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1034&bih=608#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=4qLzEnYhFnhw6M%253A%3BkpANpSztvT0P5M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fcdn.frontpagemag.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2011%252F04%252Fmacarthur.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.frontpagemag.com%252F2011%252Falan-w-dowd%252Fwhat-macarthurs-farewell-teaches-us-today%252F%3B364%3B370
146146. Battle of Midway Text: p.747 Who: Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of U.S. naval forces in the PacificWhat: Nimitz learns from an intercepted message that the Japanese were going to attack Midway. Nimitz then attacks the Japanese at Midway with a surprise attack.When: June 4-June 7, 1942Where: Midway, an island in the PacificSignificance: Although Nimitz was outnumbered 4 to 1, he destroyed the Japanese force. The Japanese had lost 4 aircraft carriers, a cruiser, and 322 planes.https://www.google.com/search?q=general+macarthur&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=HzJ-U5HeIInfsASg6IKgBg&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1034&bih=608#q=battle+of+midway&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=3AyWKv4wR6LytM%253A%3BE4gTd8JixuEFfM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fsuperhypeblog.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2012%252F05%252Fmidway.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fsuperhypeblog.com%252Fmarketing%252Fsmart-data-business-lessons-from-the-battle-of-midway%3B500%3B380
147147. Island-Hopping Text: p.747-748 Who: Gen. MacArthur What: MacArthur took over less fortified islands and built airfields on them. Then he would cut off supply lines to enemy troops.When:Where: Pacific islandsSignificance: By doing this, MacArthur as able to starve the other Japanese islands, and overall shortened the time and cost of the Pacific War.https://www.google.com/search?q=general+macarthur&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=HzJ-U5HeIInfsASg6IKgBg&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1034&bih=608#q=island+hopping+ww2&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=sfWinFmpeYcyRM%253A%3BJR5z9dADqN4vNM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.lrwieland.com%252Fmsboothe_2002_2003%252FUS%252520History% %252F5th%252520Six%252520Week%252520Period%252FWWII%252FWWII%252520presentation%252FWorld%252520War%252520II%252520Presentation%252FMaps%252FIsland%252520Hopping%252520in%252520the%252520Pacific%252520Map%252520pic.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.lrwieland.com%252Fmsboothe_2002_2003%252FUS%252520History% %252F5th%252520Six%252520Week%252520Period%252FWWII%252FWWII%252520presentation%252FWorld%252520War%252520II%252520Presentation%252FMaps%252FIsland%252520Hopping%252520in%252520the%252520Pacific.htm%3B656%3B550
148148. Manhattan Project/Atomic Bomb Text: pWho: J. Robert Oppenheimer, was the head scientist in building the bomb.What: The Manhattan Project was the project for the creation of the atomic bomb.When: used on August 6 and August 9, 1945Where: Hiroshima and NagasakiSignificance: This led to the Japan’s surrender.https://www.google.com/search?q=atomic+bomb+ww2&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=GXx_U9zwDaipsATL_oGQBQ&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1040&bih=626&dpr=1#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=qOseDD09xU1PlM%253A%3B9toqgmgJlJwhzM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fi.kinja-img.com%252Fgawker-media%252Fimage%252Fupload%252Fs--04LVACAW--%252F18lvyjjyujn73jpg.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fio9.com%252F %252Fhidden-letter-from-ww2-promises-rain-of-atomic-bombs%3B313%3B250
149149. 13th Amendment Text: p.343 Who: Congress What: Banned slavery and involuntary servitude in the U.S.When: 1865Where: U.SSignificance: officially ended slavery forever in the U.S.https://www.google.com/search?q=atomic+bomb+ww2&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=GXx_U9zwDaipsATL_oGQBQ&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1040&bih=626&dpr=1#q=13th+amendment&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=DMQ9zswPrCJQJM%253A%3BurIoaMnjhBHeKM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwhitmer.wikis.birmingham.k12.mi.us%252Ffile%252Fview%252F13thammendmentpic2.jpg%252F %252F13thammendmentpic2.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwhitmer.wikis.birmingham.k12.mi.us%252F13th%252BAmendment%3B420%3B250
150150. 14th Amendment Text: p.353 Who: Congress What: Made all people whom were born in the U.S. citizens.When: 1866Where: U.S.Significance: Provided a constitutional basis for the Civil Rights Acthttps://www.google.com/search?q=atomic+bomb+ww2&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=GXx_U9zwDaipsATL_oGQBQ&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1040&bih=626&dpr=1#q=14th+amendment&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=4C9DN2uI774mLM%253A%3B7qZTWmfXuLVjnM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252F2.bp.blogspot.com%252F-xxHrkqtyUbM%252FUHl0Sfn5rhI%252FAAAAAAAACqM%252FokrxrLchfDo%252Fs1600%252FCRBill.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Frandomthoughtsonhistory.blogspot.com%252F2012%252F10%252Freconstruction-kentucky-judge-ignored.html%3B781%3B490
151151. 15th Amendment Text:p.355 Who: Congress What: All people could vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.When: 1870Where: U.S.Significance: Forced all states to allow African Americans to vote.https://www.google.com/search?q=atomic+bomb+ww2&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=GXx_U9zwDaipsATL_oGQBQ&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1040&bih=626&dpr=1#q=15th+amendment&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=ke7tgpDO3_oyWM%253A%3BLDoBMYt5MoGV8M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fbodyandbeing.lmc.gatech.edu%252Fbab_wiki%252Fimages%252Fthumb%252F4%252F48%252F15thamend.jpg%252F180px-15thamend.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fbodyandbeing.lmc.gatech.edu%252Fbab_wiki%252Findex.php%252F15th_Amendment%3B180%3B212
152152. 16th Amendment Text:p.162 Who: Congress What: Allowed congress to tax the people based on incomeWhen: 1913Where: U.SSignificance: Provided a steady source of money for federal governmenthttps://www.google.com/search?q=atomic+bomb+ww2&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=GXx_U9zwDaipsATL_oGQBQ&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1040&bih=626&dpr=1#q=16th%20amendment&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=46dqnWKYJ3LN0M%253A%3B3H0C4E8Uf5_vFM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.linkstolearning.com%252FImages%252FT631357A.JPG%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.linkstolearning.com%252Flinks%252Fthe_emergence_of_modern_america_( )-high_school.htm%3B405%3B405
153153. 17th Amendment Text: p.500 Who: Congress What: Gave a direct election of senatorsWhen: 1913Where: U.S.Significance: Forced senators to be more responsive to the publichttps://www.google.com/search?q=17th+amendment&es_sm=122&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=0VaDU92ODcmnsQSD6oDoDg&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=705#q=voting+for+senators&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=o269H_fwpLNMMM%253A%3B9SLChhRsB1clnM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.mintpress.net%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2012%252F10%252FFlorida-Early-Voting_Webf-690x388.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.mintpressnews.com%252Fsenators-taking-look-at-november-voting-problems%252F43505%252F%3B690%3B388
154154. The 19th Amendment Who: Passed by congress. What: An amendment ratified in 1920 that gave women the right to vote.When: Ratified in August of 1920.Where: America.Why: The 19th Amendment prohibited any U.S. citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. This was a huge milestone for women trying to obtain equality. (NAWSA).More on the 18th Amendment on pages 163 and 520.
155155. The 20th Amendment Who: Passed by Congress. What: An amendment that moved presidential inaugurations to January instead of March.When: Ratified February of 1933.Where: America.Why: Because this amendment was ratified in February, Americans waited extremely anxiously to see what FDR would do to help the depression.Read more on the 20th Amendment on pages 163 and 665.
156156. The 21st Amendment Who: Passed by congress. What: This amendment ended prohibition, and allowed the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol.When: 1933.Where: America.Why: The 21st amendment included an alcohol tax designed to raise government revenues.Read more on the 21st Amendment on pages 163 and 666.
157157. The 22nd AmendmentWho: Congress passed this. What: This amendment set a two term limit on being elected president of the U.S. When: Passed in 1947 and ratified in Where: America. Why: This amendment made sure that Presidents such as FDR would not be able to run for more than two terms. Read more on the 22nd Amendment on page 164.
158158. Charleston, SCWho: Union and Confederate soldiers. What: One of the earliest cities in the south. The battle for Fort Sumter was also fought here. When: founded in Where: Charleston, SC Why: Charles Town(Charleston) was the only major port city in the early South. Read more on Charleston, SC on pages 71,78, and 113.
159159. ShilohWho: Union and Confederate soldiers, What: A church in Tennessee. When: Battle of Shiloh was April 6, Where: A church in Tennessee. Why: This is where the Battle of Shiloh took place. It showed how skillful Ulysses S. Grant was in leading the Union soldiers. Read more about Shiloh on pages
160160. VicksburgWho: Union and Confederate soldiers. What: A siege at the fort of Vicksburg led by Ulysses S. Grant which eventually resulted in a Union victory. When: The siege was from May 18th-July 4th in Where: Warren County, Mississippi. Why: Taking Vicksburg was another step to successfully cutting the Confederacy in two. Read more on pages 316,330, and
161161. RichmondWho: People living in Richmond, Virginia. What: A border state which went to the Confederates and became the Confederate Capital. When: City of Richmond founded in Where: Richmond, VA Why: Virginia was a huge loss to the Union went they succeeded. Virginia was the most populated and industrialized city in the South.` Read more about Richmond on pages 314, , 337, and 463.
162162. GettysburgWho: Union and Confederate soldiers. What: A town in Pennsylvania where a battle was fought during the Civil War. When: Founded in Where: Gettysburg, PA Why: The win for the Union in Gettysburg was a turning point for the North. Because of this defeat Lee would never be able to invade the North again. Read more about Gettysburg on pages , , 333, 334.
163GettysburgJuly 3rd 1863A three-day battle, which many historians consider to be the turning point of the Civil war.This battle crippled the South so badly that General Lee would never again invade a Northern State.P. 329 in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=battle+of+gettysburg&hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=lnms&sa=X&ei=tX1_U-yNErTQsQT39IGQBQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAg&biw=1366&bih=649#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=g8lddA3KukdoMM%253A%3Bl6vSWd7gVSjPOM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fcapitolbadgers.files.wordpress.com%252F2010%252F07%252Fgettysburg.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fcapitolbadgers.wordpress.com%252F2010%252F07%252F01%252Fgettysburg-what-happens-if-the-south-wins%252F%3B600%3B320
164Bull RunJuly 21st 1861They turned the tide and won their first battle for the south in the civil war.The Union troops panickly retreated to the capital, but the confederates were to exhausted and disorganized to follow up their victory with an attack on Washington.Stonewall Jackson is introduced for the confederates as the reason for victory.P. 314 in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=battle+of+gettysburg&hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=lnms&sa=X&ei=tX1_U-yNErTQsQT39IGQBQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAg&biw=1366&bih=649#hl=en&q=bull+run+civil+war&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=QkmSnVq1ednyuM%253A%3B7FxGSM10nP36nM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fupload.wikimedia.org%252Fwikipedia%252Fcommons%252F4%252F48%252FFirst_Battle_of_Bull_Run_Kurz_%252526_Allison.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fen.wikipedia.org%252Fwiki%252FFirst_Battle_of_Bull_Run%3B868%3B633
165San Francisco1849Gold fever traveled eastward, and the 49ers who were the prospectors who flocked to California during this gold rush, were people from Asia, South America, and Europe.The city’s population exploded from 1,000 in 1848 to 35,000 in 1850.P. 277 in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=san+francisco+gold+rush&hl=en&site=imghp&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=gYJ_U_4T6bKxBOXRgPgO&sqi=2&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAg&biw=1366&bih=649#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=y087p2joK32yfM%253A%3BMis5WmHL9OefXM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.lbl.gov%252FScience-Articles%252FArchive%252Fsabl%252F2005%252FNovember%252Fgold_rush.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fnewscenter.lbl.gov%252Ffeature-stories%252F2005%252F11%252F29%252Fgold-rush-still-haunts-san-francisco-bay%252F%3B600%3B422
166The Dominican Republic 1870Although the U.S. focused largely domestic problems during Reconstruction, the nation did have on significant dealing with a foreign power.President Grant attempted to annex the Dominican republic, which aroused a storm of controversy.The Senate rejected the Annexation Treaty.P. 369 in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=the+dominican+republic&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=rROCU_6pN-igsQTbpYC4DA&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1684&bih=767&dpr=0.95#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=nTf9K7CTa5m6FM%253A%3BAYabMu_vJRNRSM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.hispaniola.com%252Fdominican_republic%252Fxmaps%252Fhispaniola_in_america.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.hispaniola.com%252F%3B468%3B250
167The Black HillsWhen- Between the civil war and the turn of the century.A precious metal was discovered in scattered sites starting here at the Black Hills.It’s located in western South Dakota and is surrounded by prairie.It is home of Mount RushmoreP. 394 in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=the+dominican+republic&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=rROCU_6pN-igsQTbpYC4DA&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1684&bih=767&dpr=0.95#q=the+black+hills+of+south+dakota&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=yaIKqHouYpravM%253A%3BYAB5rvlJF2X2gM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Famin210.wikispaces.com%252Ffile%252Fview%252FBlack_Hills_View.jpg%252F %252F500x332%252FBlack_Hills_View.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Famin210.wikispaces.com%252FBlack%252BHills%3B500%3B334
168The Rio Grande1846General Taylor was positioned at the Rio Grande in 1846 for the war with Mexico.Mexico had responded by sending troops across the Rio Grande.Here, Mexican soldiers killed 11 soldiers which immediately made president Polk issue a war message to Congress.P. 274 in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=the+dominican+republic&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=rROCU_6pN-igsQTbpYC4DA&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1684&bih=767&dpr=0.95#q=the+rio+grande&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=Ch5MEHXfp8iVGM%253A%3BNxh7VXBj11rqdM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fplacesbook.org%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2012%252F12%252FRio-Grande.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fplacesbook.org%252Frio-grande%3B273%3B302
169HawaiiAnnexed in 1898Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii realized that her influence had come to an end, but announced that if she was restored to power, she would behead those who had conspired to depose her.More than 160 U.S. sailors and marines were ready to aid the white foreigners who planned to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy.The annexation of Hawaii was one of the successful goals of America’s empire builders.P. 526 in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=the+dominican+republic&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=rROCU_6pN-igsQTbpYC4DA&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1684&bih=767&dpr=0.95#q=hawaii&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=YennNA0OfpT0RM%253A%3BsNswRVhAc7uqZM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fi.infoplease.com%252Fimages%252Fmhawaii.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.infoplease.com%252Fatlas%252Fstate%252Fhawaii.html%3B512%3B311
170Columbia1921The Senate approved the route through Panama for the canal, and the U.S. began negotiations over Panama with Columbia.When these negotiations broke down, Bunau-Varilla helped organize a Panamanian rebellion against Columbia.Panama then declared independenceCongress paid Columbia $25 million for the loss of its territory in 1921.P in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=the+dominican+republic&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=rROCU_6pN-igsQTbpYC4DA&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1684&bih=767&dpr=0.95#q=columbia&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=8gU85nssHKSoaM%253A%3B7IvYXgkvB3k7gM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.unicef.org%252Finfobycountry%252Fimages%252Fibc_map_columbia_en.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.unicef.org%252Finfobycountry%252Fcolombia_2660.html%3B192%3B213
171PanamaAugust 15th, 1914 was when the Panama canal opened for business.The United States negotiated a treaty that guaranteed Panama’s independence.More than 1,000 merchant ships used the waterway during its first year of operation.P. 544 in the textbookhttps://www.google.com/search?q=the+dominican+republic&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=rROCU_6pN-igsQTbpYC4DA&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1684&bih=767&dpr=0.95#q=panama+canal&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=rkUlICf1hakoOM%253A%3BjY0ZW0H_8xsnMM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252F2.bp.blogspot.com%252F-OmyJa0TzWrc%252FUd1eEszxU4I%252FAAAAAAAAPck%252FefLe0igVaho%252Fs1600%252Fcanal-map.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ftravelswithmoose.blogspot.com%252F2013%252F07%252Fthrough-panama-canal.html%3B1412%3B780
181THE USSR #181The USSR ,or the Soviet Union, lasted from 1922 until 1991 when it finally collapsed. The USSR was a union formed of Russia, the motherland, and several other European and Asian countries that the Russians colonized. In 1924, after the death of Lenin, Stalin came into power. Stalin used “five year plans” in an attempt to revitalize his countries economy, but ultimately his plans failed. During WWII the USSR fought on the side of the allies along with Britain, France, and eventually America. At the start of the war Stalin signed a non- aggression pact with Hitler in which the both agreed to split Poland and not to attack each other. Unfortunately for our communist friends, Hitler later disregarded this pact and invaded The Motherland. The Russians were able to defeat the Germans at the battle of Stalingrad and end the German advance on the eastern front.
182Poland #182Poland was a European country located, as you can see from the map, directly in between Russia and Germany. During the war the USSR and Germany signed a nonaggression pact agreeing not to attack each other and to spilt the nation of Poland. Later, on September First 1939, Hitler changed his mind and invaded the Russian half of Poland. By 6 October 1939 German forces had completed the take over of Poland. Hitler than annexed the country and it remained a part of Germany until the end of the war
183Japan #185Japan is an archipelago of numerous small islands that can be found off the coast of China, Russia, and the two Koreas. Japan joined the axis power alongside Germany and Italy. On December 7, 1941 Japan bombed the American naval base of Pearl Harbor and then began to expand into the pacific. The Japanese were extremely difficult to defeat in battle, as they believed that Emperor Hirohito was a living god, and as a result were not afraid to die in his service; opening up all sorts of opportunities for kamikaze warfare. Japan was the last of the axis powers to surrender, but finally on September 2nd 1945 (After the bombing of Nagasaki on August 9) Japan finally surrendered unconditionally to the United States of America.
184Okinawa #186The battle for Okinawa was fought on the Japanese island of Okinawa from April 1 until June 22 of The United States successfully taking over the island was critical to war plans due to the fact that to get within enough distance to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima the delivery planes would have to fly over both Okinawa and Iwo Jima.
185Guadalcanal #187The battle of Guadalcanal lasted from 7 August 1942 – 9 February The Allied Forces attacked Guadalcanal and the neighboring Solomon Islands in order to ensure that Japanese forces on the islands would not be able to obstruct war supplies and boats passing through the pacific. The campaign to capture the islands marked the first time the Allies switches from a defensive position to an offensive one in the pacific.
186Iwo Jima #188The battle of Iwo Jima was the last battle in the pacific during WWII. The battle lasted from 19 February – 26 March 1945 and ended in an American win. Iwo Jima was a particularly brutal battle due to the fact that the heavy rain produced mud, making it impossible to use tanks or similar modes of transport. Additionally, the Japanese had a series of tunnels dug throughout the island…. [continue here]