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SOUTHWEST ASIA (Middle East) Geographic Understandings.

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Presentation on theme: "SOUTHWEST ASIA (Middle East) Geographic Understandings."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOUTHWEST ASIA (Middle East) Geographic Understandings

2 SS7G5 – The student will locate selected features in Southwestern Asia (Middle East).

3 Rivers are important because much of this region is dry and desert or semi-desert – Euphrates River begins in Turkey and flows through Turkey and Iraq – Tigris River joins Euphrates in southern Iraq to form one waterway known as Shatt al-Arab Then flows along border of Kuwait and Iran and empties into Persian Gulf SS7G5 – a. Locate on a world and regional political map: Euphrates River, Jordan River, Tigris River, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gaza Strip.

4 Persian Gulf – Main way to ship oil from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iran Strait of Hormuz – Connects Persian Gulf to Arabian Sea Arabian Sea – Once through the Strait of Hormuz you enter the Arabian Sea SS7G5 – a. Locate on a world and regional political map: Euphrates River, Jordan River, Tigris River, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gaza Strip.

5 Red Sea – After the Arabian Sea ships can enter the Red Sea and go up to the North to the manmade Suez Canal Suez Canal – Allows ships to get to Mediterranean Sea without having to sail around the continent of Africa Jordan River – Main source of water for Israel, Jordan, parts of Syria, and much of West Bank and Gaza Strip SS7G5 – a. Locate on a world and regional political map: Euphrates River, Jordan River, Tigris River, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gaza Strip.

6 Dead Sea – Where did the name come from? Water that goes here stays here High salt due to desert evaporation leaving only salt behind No animals live in the Dead Sea SS7G5 – a. Locate on a world and regional political map: Euphrates River, Jordan River, Tigris River, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gaza Strip.

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8 SS7G5 – b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the nations of Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. Afghanistan – Located at far eastern edge of Southwest Asia – Landlocked: no seacoast – Very mountainous – Many different ethnic groups or tribes

9 Iran – West of Afghanistan – One of the largest countries in Southwest Asia – Mountainous as well with long seacoasts – Uses Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Strait of Hormuz to ship goods SS7G5 – b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the nations of Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.

10 Iraq – Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow through Iraq – Number of disputes over access to waterway known as Shatt al-Arab SS7G5 – b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the nations of Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.

11 Saudi Arabia – Largest country of Arabian Peninsula Turkey – Shares a border with Iraq, Syria and Iran. – Tigris and Euphrates begin in Turkey Israel – Created by United Nations in 1948 as homeland for Jewish people of the world – Bound by the Gaza Strip and West Bank to the east – Jordan River forms boundary between West Bank and Jordan SS7G5 – b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the nations of Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.

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13 SS7G6 – a. Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impacts irrigation and drinking water. Rivers – Tigris – Euphrates – Jordan What about the rest of the region? How do they get water? IRRIGATION!!!

14 Irrigation – Found in Southwest Asia as farmers bring water to their farms – Underground aquifers: layers of underground rock where water runoff from rains and streams is trapped – Fossil water: water that has been underground for centuries tapped into by farmers through wells. – Drip irrigation: used to measure how much water each plant receives – Desalination: process of removing salt from water SS7G6 – a. Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impacts irrigation and drinking water.

15 Pollution – Growing problem – Need for irrigation has caused overuse of rivers and streams – Chemical fertilizers contaminate water supply – Rush to develop cities without effective sewage and garbage disposal – Poor access to water – Hydroelectric power used to generate electricity reduces amount of water available to other countries located downstream SS7G6 – a. Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impacts irrigation and drinking water.

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17 SS7G7 – a. Explain how the distribution of oil has affected the development of Southwest Asia (Middle East). Middle Eastern Natural Resources – Oil and Natural Gas Discovered in early 1900’s U.S. and Europe controlled most drilling at first Now oil operations are controlled by the countries themselves Over ½ of worlds oil is found in Middle East Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Kuwait have the most

18 OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Developed in 1960’s to have more control over price of oil on the world market SS7G7 – a. Explain how the distribution of oil has affected the development of Southwest Asia (Middle East).

19 SS7G7 – b. Describe how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) have affected the population in terms of where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel. What do the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan Rivers provide? – Boundaries between nations – Drinking water – Irrigation – Transportation for trade routes – Large populated cities found along these bodies of water

20 Deserts of Southwest Asia – Syrian Desert Shared between Syria and Iraq – Rub al-Khali or “empty Quarter” Southern Saudi Arabia – Create natural barriers against invasion – Bedouins: desert nomads, tent camps, sheep and camel herders, trade animals and handmade goods…this way of life is disappearing SS7G7 – b. Describe how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) have affected the population in terms of where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.

21 Southwest Asia generally has hot and dry climate Mountain ranges block rain coming from the nearby bodies of water Coastal areas as well as large rivers support agriculture and towns and cities of significant size SS7G7 – b. Describe how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) have affected the population in terms of where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.

22 Why is Southwest Asia such a good place for trade? – Between 3 major continents: Europe, Africa and Asia – Bodies of water: Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, Red Sea, Suez Canal and Strait of Hormuz SS7G7 – b. Describe how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) have affected the population in terms of where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.

23 SS7G8 – a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group. Ethnic Group – A group of people who share cultural ideas and beliefs that have been a part of their community for generations. – Common characteristics: language, religion, shared history, types of food, set of traditional stories, beliefs, or celebrations What do we share in the United States – Make a Bubble Map

24 Religious group: – Shares a belief system in a god or gods, with a specific set of rituals and literature. – Different ethnic groups may share same religion, even from very different cultures – Christianity, Islam, and Judaism started in this region SS7G8 – a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group.

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26 SS7G8 – b. Explain the diversity of religions within the Arabs, Persians, and Kurds. Shia Muslims – Believed Muhammad’s son-in-law was to be next Caliph after Muhammad’s death (Ali) – 15% of Muslims are Shia Sunni Muslims – Believed Muhammad’s father-in-law was to be next Caliph after Muhammad’s death (Abu Bakr) – 85% of Muslims are Sunni Christians – Many Arabs are Christians

27 Persians – Those who live in modern country of Iran – Descended from different group than Arabs and Jews – Ancestors were Indo-European, from Central Europe and Southern Russia – Persia became known as Iran after World War I – Speak Farsi: uses Arabic alphabet but is different language – Most belong to Shia Muslim group SS7G8 – b. Explain the diversity of religions within the Arabs, Persians, and Kurds.

28 Kurds – Ethnic group that lives in several different countries in Southwest Asia – Mostly found in mountains of Syria, Turkey, Iran and Iraq – Speak their own language (Kurdish) – Hope to have a nation of their own someday Caused much conflict with countries where they live Most are Sunni SS7G8 – b. Explain the diversity of religions within the Arabs, Persians, and Kurds.

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30 SS7G8 – c. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East): Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. IslamJudaismChristianity GOD JESUS HOLY BOOK HOLY SITES PLACE OF WORSHIP IMPORTANT PEOPLE

31 IslamJudaismChristianity GOD One god - Allah One god – God or Lord One god a triune being= God JESUS A prophet but not the son of God A Jewish teacher but not the Messiah Devine Son of God who was virgin born The world’s savior HOLY BOOK Koran or Qur’an Torah - 1 st 5 books of the Old Testament and additional laws and rules for living Bible HOLY SITES Mecca Dome of the Rock Wailing Wall – only part of the original temple Church of the Holy Sepulcher – where the resurrection took place PLACE OF WORSHIP Mosque Synagogue led by a Rabbi Church led by a priest, minister, or pastor IMPORTANT PEOPLE Muhammad Messiah – future political and military deliverer Jesus SS7G8 – c. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East): Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.

32 SS7G8 – d. Explain the origin of the division between Sunni and Shia Muslims. After Muhammad died, there was disagreement about who should lead the Muslim community Battle soon followed and led to death of Muhammad’s grandson transferring power to the Umayyad family and the Sunni supporters Sunni – Thought leadership should go to most able to keep the community together – Abu Bakr Shia – Felt leadership should go to direct descendent of Muhammad – Ali

33 SS7G8 – e. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living. Does the literacy rate affect standard of living? Literacy: ability to read and write – Those who can’t read and write have a hard time finding decent jobs – What is the key to any society? EDUCATION!!! – The higher the literacy rate the higher the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita GDP: the value of all goods and services produced within a nation in a given year – Per capita: per person – gives you the general welfare of a country


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