# World Geography Unit One Review

## Presentation on theme: "World Geography Unit One Review"— Presentation transcript:

World Geography Unit One Review
5 Themes of Geography

5 Themes of Geography Location-Where is it? Place-What is it like?
Region-How are places similar or different? Human-Environment Interaction-How do people relate to the physical world? Movement-How do people, goods, and ideas move from one location to another?

Location Where is it? What is absolute location?
is the exact place on earth where a geographic feature, such as a city, is found. Examples: Wal-Mart, Grand Canyon, physical address, latitude and longitude. What is relative location? describes a place in comparison to other places around it. Examples: next to McDonalds, around the corner, behind Sonic, next to MCHS.

Absolute location

Latitude and Longitude
Latitude- are imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator. Longitude-are imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles How can lat and long be used to find an absolute location? Lines of latitude and longitude help locate places as it is like a grid covering all of the earth. Every place on earth has it own point of intersection of latitude and longitude, so by specifying a location in the form of latitude and longitude one is able to trace the place on the planet

What are coordinates used for?
They are used to find the absolute location of a place. What 2 planes on a map are they used in conjunction with? Latitude and Longitude Geographic Coordinates simply refers to the system of latitude and longitude. This coordinate system is formed by creating a grid using the equator as 0 degrees and forming parallels of latitude to the north and south and meridians of longitude east and west of the "Prime Meridian"

Maps What can you use on a map to find your 4 basic directions of North, South, East, and West? Compose rose Where is a compose rose found? On any map. Normally found in a corner on the map at the bottom but not always. You have to look for it but it will always point North. It tells you which direction you will be traveling. How could you use coordinates to find Tompkinsville, KY? Use a map to find the coordinates of Tompkinsville, put it in your GPS, or use Google Maps or any online map and type in the coordinates to locate it.

Maps continued Physical maps-help you see the types of landforms and bodies of water found in a specific area. On a physical map color, shading, or contour lines are used to indicate elevation or altitude. Political maps-show features on the earth’s surface that humans created. Cities, states, territories, or countries are examples of a political map. Topography maps-shows the landforms with their vertical dimensions and their relationship to other landforms.

Physical Map-top left Political Map- top right Topography Map- bottom right

Cardinal Directions The cardinal directions are your basic North, South, East, and West. The intermediate directions are the directions in between the cardinal directions. They are Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, and Northwest. Going clockwise on a compass rose starting with North, they go in this order: North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, and, finally, Northwest.

Region How are places similar or different? Region is an area of the earth’s surface with similar characteristics. These may include physical, political, economic, or cultural characteristics Examples are the United States and Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, city and its suburbs, movement back and forth: trains, subways, bus lines, mountains, wetlands, hills, and much more.

Climate What does the Earth spin on? Axis What is climate?
Climate is defined as an area's long-term weather patterns. The simplest way to describe climate is to look at average temperature and precipitation over time. Other useful elements for describing climate include the type and the timing of precipitation, amount of sunshine, average wind speeds and directions, number of days above freezing, weather extremes, and local geography

List 2 terms associated with the 5 themes and explain why.
Absolute location, relative location, latitude and longitude, place, movement, region, human- environment interaction, location, landforms, types of water, anything we have talked about having to do with the 5 themes. Be sure and explain how or why.

Key Terms What is the difference between a waterway and a body of water? Waterway-A navigable body of water, such as a river, channel, or canal that ships can travel. A waterway allows ships to travel from one body of water to another. Connects the two bodies of water. Body of water-the part of the earth's surface covered with water (such as a river or lake or ocean). Does not connect two bodies of water.

Difference in: What is the difference in a strait and a cape?
Strait-a narrow waterway flowing in a channel, smaller than a river. Cape-a piece of land jutting (extending out)into a large body of water Therefore, a strait is a narrow waterway and a cape is a piece of land going into the water.

Cape Cod Massachusetts
Strait

Difference in: What is the difference in a sea and a Great Lake?
Sea-great body of salt water Great Lake-A group of five freshwater lakes of central North America between the United States and Canada, including Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, Ontario, and Michigan. Therefore, a sea is salt water and a Great Lake is freshwater.

Difference in: What is the difference in a bay and a gulf?
Bay-an arm of the sea or ocean extending into land, not of any definite form but smaller than a gulf. Gulf-a portion of an ocean or sea partly enclosed by land, larger than a bay. Therefore, a bay extends into land and a gulf is partly enclosed by land and a gulf is larger than a bay.

Difference in: What is the difference in a bay and a sea?
Bay-an arm of the sea or ocean extending into land, not of any definite form but smaller than a gulf. Sea-great body of salt water. Therefore, a bay is smaller than a sea and extends into land.

Difference in: What is the difference in a lagoon and a reservoir?
Lagoon-an area of shallow water separated from the sea by low sandy dunes. Reservoir-a place where water is collected or stored for future use. Examples: ponds, lakes, any small body of water that can be used at a later use. Therefore, the difference between lagoon and a reservoir is that a lagoon is saltwater, shallow, and surrounded by low sandy dunes and a reservoir is where fresh water is stored.

Difference in: What is the difference in an isthmus and a peninsula?
Isthmus-a narrow piece of land that connects two landmasses Peninsula-Peninsula-a narrow strip of land projecting into a sea or lake from the mainland Therefore, the difference in isthmus and a peninsula is an isthmus connects two landmasses and a peninsula goes out into a lake or the sea from the mainland.

Difference in: What is the difference in a Delta and a wetland?
Delta-the flat area at the mouth of some rivers where the mainstream splits up into several distributaries ex. Mississippi Delta. The landform in a Delta Waterway is created by sediment such as sand, dirt and rocks carried in a river and deposited where the river, which is moving, meets another body of water, such as an ocean or lake, that is still. This causes it break down into smaller streams. Wetland-A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem. The water found in wetlands can be saltwater freshwater, or brackish. Main wetland types include swamps, marshes, bogs and fens.

Difference in: What is the difference in a savanna and a desert?
Savanna-a plain characterized by coarse grasses and scattered tree growth, especially on the margins of the tropics where the rainfall is seasonal, as in eastern Africa. Desert-any area where few forms of life can exist because of lack of rainfall and only sparse and widely spaced vegetation or none at all, permanent frost, or absence of soil. The Sahara is a vast sandy desert. Therefore, difference is a savanna has grass and can support life and a desert has little grass if any and only a few forms of life can live there.

Difference in: What is the difference in a canal and all other waterways we have discussed? A canal is an artificial waterway used for travel, shipping or irrigation and most other waterways are naturally made . Some other waterways are also man made like a pond and some lakes but most of them are not used for travel or shipping.

What do the Amazon, the Nile, and the Mississippi have in common?
They are all rivers and the worlds greatest rivers! Known for their incredibly long, meandering paths, the Amazon, Nile, and Mississippi rivers make it to the list of the longest rivers not only in their own regions but the rest of the world as well. The Amazon is the second longest river system in the whole world next to the Nile. The Mississippi, meanwhile, is the longest river in North America. The Amazon, Nile, and the Mississippi all cut through several states, making these rivers very important navigational routes.

Nile River t-top left Mississippi River-top right Amazon River- bottom right

What do a plateau and a steppe have in common?
Steppe- an extensive grassy plain usually without trees Plateau-a large flatland with one steep side and little relief Therefore, they both are flat. What other term means almost the same as plateau? Mesa

Where would you likely find an Icecap?
Ice caps exist all over the world. Ice caps in high-latitude regions are often called polar ice caps. Polar ice caps are made of different materials on different planets. Earth’s polar ice caps are mostly water-based ice. The North Pole, Greenland, and the Arctic Ocean are all examples of where ice caps are located.

What is a Tundra? Tundra is the flat, treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean. The climate sub region is also called tundra. It is almost exclusively located in the Northern Hemisphere. Very little precipitation falls here, usually less than 15 inches per year. it is also one of the worlds Biomes. Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes. It is noted for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons. Characteristics of tundra include: Extremely cold climate Low biotic(living) diversity Simple vegetation structure Limitation of drainage Short season of growth and reproduction Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material

What is a taiga? The taiga is the biome of the needle leaf forest. Living in the taiga is cold and lonely. Coldness and food shortages make things very difficult, mostly in the winter. Some of the animals in the taiga hibernate in the winter, some fly south if they can, while some just cooperate with the environment, which is very difficult. The taiga is located near the top of the world, just below the tundra biome. The winters in the taiga are very cold with only snowfall. The summers are warm, rainy, and humid. A lot of coniferous trees grow in the taiga. The taiga is also known as the boreal forest.

Other terms to know What is a tributary? What does distribution mean?
It is a stream or river feeding a larger stream or a lake. It does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. What does distribution mean? Moving items , supplies, or goods from one place to another. What does dialect mean? Versions of a language which reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes. For example in the Untied States, dialects might include a Southern drawl, a Boston accent, or even street slang.