Presentation on theme: "Primary Headwater Habitats (PHWH). The Basics - What is a Primary Headwater Stream? Characteristics: A Watercourse 1 with: A Watercourse 1 with: A defined."— Presentation transcript:
The Basics - What is a Primary Headwater Stream? Characteristics: A Watercourse 1 with: A Watercourse 1 with: A defined BED 2 and BANK 3 Either continuous 4 or periodic 5 FLOWING water A drainage 6 generally less than one square mile Deepest pools 7 < 40cm Widely divergent 8 communities based upon in- stream Biology
Why Classify PHWH Streams? To provide standardized information for making decisions affecting water quality in primary headwater streams To help maintain the quality of water and biological communities in larger streams, lakes and wetlands The turbid PHWH stream at the top flows into the clear PHWH stream below degrading downstream waters to the left
A traditional stream classification system: Classification by the Stream Continuum Concept
Ohio EPA’s Classes of PHWH Streams Class I – EPHEMERAL 1 stream, normally dry channel with little to no aquatic life; native fauna when flowing Class II – INTERSTITIAL 2 to PERENNIAL 3 moderately diverse aquatic life with native fauna 4 adapted to warm water Class III –diverse aquatic life adapted to cool/cold PERENNIAL flowing water
Stream Flow Types Ephemeral flow = Channel dry phase present annually, flow during rain or snow melt, permanent pools absent dry phase present annually, flow during rain or snow melt, permanent pools absent
Class I PHWH Streams Characteristics Flow - ephemeral Flow - ephemeral Channel 1 - dry phase present annually, flow during rain or snow melt Channel 1 - dry phase present annually, flow during rain or snow melt Permanent pools - absent Permanent pools - absent Aquatic life - absent or present seasonally Aquatic life - absent or present seasonally Aquatic life - diversity low Aquatic life - diversity low
Class I PHWH Stream - Example Natural channel, Geauga Co More Examples of Class IMore Examples of Class I (click).
Class II PHWH Streams Characteristics Flow – intermittent Flow – intermittent Channel – no continuous channel - only shallow groundwater connection between pools Channel – no continuous channel - only shallow groundwater connection between pools Permanent pools - present most years Permanent pools - present most years Aquatic life - abundance high Aquatic life - abundance high Aquatic life diversity - moderate and warm water adapted Aquatic life diversity - moderate and warm water adapted
Class II PHWH Stream - Example Natural channel, Geauga Co. More Examples of Class IIMore Examples of Class II (click)
Class III PHWH Streams Characteristics Flow - perennial, deep groundwater Flow - perennial, deep groundwater Channel - present Channel - present Permanent pools - present Permanent pools - present Aquatic life diversity 1 & abundance - Aquatic life diversity 1 & abundance - Presence of one or more of the following at all times: Obligate 2 aquatic salamanders Obligate 2 aquatic salamanders Cold water or pioneering fish species Cold water or pioneering fish species Cool water adapted benthic 3 macro-invertebrates Cool water adapted benthic 3 macro-invertebrates
Class III PHWH Stream - Example Delaware Co. More Examples of Class IIIMore Examples of Class III (click)
Quick Quiz What class PHWH stream is this? What characteristics did you use to classify the stream?
Quiz Question 2 What PHWH Stream Class is shown here? How do you know you have chosen the correct class of PHWH stream?
Glossary Terms as used for PHWH streams Bank- The lateral confines of a stream. Bed- The bottom of the stream. The physical boundary of normal water flow. Benthic- Organisms that live on the bed (bottom) of the stream. Channel- The course of the bed of a stream, river, or waterway. Continuous- Uninterrupted flow. Continuum-. Divergent-. Diverse- Different kinds, characters, or forms. Drainage- Water flowing off and from an area. Ephemeral- Usually flowing for only a short amount of time, dry at some time annually. Fauna- Animals of a given area. Intermittent- Flow that stops or ceases for a period of time. Interstitial- Flow interrupted by dry channel (sub-surface between pools). Obligate- Able to exist or survive only in a particular environment. Perennial- Flowing year round. Periodic- Happening over regular intervals. Pioneering - Pools- A relatively deep, slow flowing or still place in a stream. Watercourse- Channel. Watershed- Region or area that drains into a given stream, river, or water body.