2Tail escape is a structure constructed at the end of a waterway to evacuate the water to a water body.Tail escape consists of a well where its crest level at the high water level. It is also equipped with an orifice at its bottom to evacuate all the water in 24 hrs if necessary.A pipe evacuates the water to the water body under the road.
4Hydraulic DesignHydraulic design of the tail escape consists of three parts:1. Automatic evacuation (Weir)2. Controlled evacuation (Orifice)3. Discharging to Sea (Pipe)
5Automatic Evacuation: The excess water is evacuated over the weir's crest.The maximum acceptable rise in water level is 25 cm.the discharge of water over the weir can be calculated as follows:Qw = Ts . h . Vs
6Where:Qw is the weir’s discharge in m3/sec,Ts is the top width of the watersurface in m,h is the rise in water level =0.25 m,Vs is the surface water velocity inm/sec.Vs = 1.17 vw
7Where vw is the mean water velocity of the water way. Ts25 cmH.W.L.
8To design the size of the well, the weir equation is used, WhereCd is the discharge coefficient = 0.55,B is the crest length, and
92. Controlled Evacuation: Orifice is designed to evacuate the waterway in 24 hrs. The following equation is used to determine the size of the orifice,Where:T is the time to empty the waterway= sec
10L is the waterway length in m, be is the waterway average width in m, y is the depth of the waterway,Cd is the discharge coefficient = 0.6TsH.W.L.beyb
11a is the area of the orifice in m2 and, Notice: The orifice is equipped with a gate so the water in the waterway can be used for any purpose. The gate is open to evacuate the water if needed.
123. Pipe:The pipe is designed to the maximum discharge for emergency as:Where:Qp is the pipe discharge,Qo is the orifice discharge
13Where:And,Where Vp is the pipe velocity (2.0 m/sec) and D is the pipe diameter.
14Q = 4.6 m3/sec, Waterway length = 3000 m, Vc=0.45 m/sec Example:A tail escape is required to be constructed at the end of a waterway according to the following data;Q = 4.6 m3/sec, Waterway length = 3000 m, Vc=0.45 m/sec7.6 m1.8 m5.8 m4 m