Presentation on theme: "Strategies for building a global knowledge commons Leslie Chan Bioline International University of Toronto at Scarborough Institutional Repository and."— Presentation transcript:
Strategies for building a global knowledge commons Leslie Chan Bioline International University of Toronto at Scarborough Institutional Repository and Beyond IDRC, Ottawa Oct. 17, 2005
“African countries need to have in place appropriate mechanisms and infrastructure for training and exploitation of knowledge. This will enable them to make meaningful evidence-based policy, in order adequately to address local needs and participate in the international community on science and technology issues.” Network of the African Science Academies and the science academies from the G8 countries (2005) http://www.scidev.net/pdffiles/jointstatement.pdf Challenges ?
The countries that move early to build a 21st century Research Communications System – harnessing the full power of “open access” – will be the leaders in building tomorrow’s knowledge economies and innovative societies Arthur J. Carty National Science Advisor to the Prime Minister International Association of Technological University Librarie, Quebec 31 May 2005 Opportunities ?
Assumptions Access to data and information critical to development of an innovative knowledge society Open Access is transforming the way the research communities create, share, and disseminate their intellectual output OA is even more crucial for science and research in the developing world
Open Access ? Benefits Strategies for archiving OA –OA Publishing –OA Repository Is OA a truly global movement? Case studies –Bioline International –TSpace University of Toronto Institutional Repository Policy Issues
Paradoxes of R&D and Scholarly Communications Emphasis on generation of research - lack of attention to its dissemination, even less attention on preservation and stewardship Publicly funded research results privately owned Eagerness to translate university research into marketable products Growing “enclosure” of the knowledge commons Global science and “lost” science
Challenges Data, information, knowledge highly fragmented High cost of research Divergence of information systems Lost of digital information Indigenous knowledge systems poorly represented
Benefits of OA Increase citation impact and hence return on investment Raise institutional prestige New usage of research results Promote collaboration and broaden participation Enable new service and business models Enhance public subsidies
International Initiatives Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002) Berlin Declaration on Open Access (2003) OECD Ministerial Declaration on Access to Research Data (2004) IFLA Statement on Open Access (2004) Funding agencies moving towards open access policies – Wellcome Trust (UK) – RCUK – NIH (US) Open Access Publishing gaining supporters – U.K.: Biomed Central – U.S.: PLoS Salvador Declaration on Open Access: the developing world perspective (2005) http://www.icml9.org/channel.php?lang=en&channel=91&content=439
Recent OA Meetings Open Access for Developing Countries, 9th International Congress on Medical Librarianship, 20-23 September 2005, Salvador, Brazil –http://www.icml9.org/meetings/openaccess/public/document s/declaration.htmhttp://www.icml9.org/meetings/openaccess/public/document s/declaration.htm International Conference on Strategies and Policies on Open Access to Scientific Information, Beijing, China (2005) Workshops on Open Access Repositories, MS Swamanathan Research Foundation, Chennai, India, 2003 OSI organized workshops in S. Africa (2003), Ukraine (2005), Lithuania (2005)
Canadian Context Arthur J. Carty National Science Advisor to the Prime Minister International Association of Technological University Librarie, Quebec 31 May 2005
Some key Canadian Initiatives Open Knowledge Project - John Willinsky UBC SSHRC and Canada Foundation for Innovation – supporting development of the Synergies Project SSHRC - OA consultation (Should SSHRC mandate OA?) Federal eLibrary (FSeL) – The Strategic Alliance of Federal Science and Technology Libraries is proposing the creation of a virtual library for use by all Government of Canada scientists, S&T researchers & policy analysts Canadian Association of Research Library (CARL) - –developing a network of IRs and a central harvester –Funded the Knowledge Dissemination Study Canadian Research Knowledge Network - developing statement on OA National Data Infrastructure – the National Consultation on Access to Scientific Research Data (NCASRD) has recommended the creation of a national data infrastructure to ensure open and secure access to key databases of scientific & historical importance to Canada
TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED KNOWLEDGE ECOSYSTEM: A CANADIAN RESEARCH STRATEGYA Report Submitted to the Canadian Association of Research Libraries / L'Association des bibliothèques de recherche du Canada (CARL/ABRC) Jan 2005 http://www.kdstudy.ca/results.html
Academic publishing in Canada Little commercial interest Highly subsidized by government funding Most journals have low overseas subscription Most academic authors published outside of Canada
Increased use In a year, 4,177 hits Prof Kenned’s online CV: 1681 ave. chapter visits 229 The library’s 6 copies circulated once in past year (since online) grand total of 57 times since 1992.
Most journals allow authors to openly post their work
Operational aspects NEW ISSUE PUBLISHED ARTICLE CONVERSION IMAGE CONVERSION FILES GATHERED / CREATED FINAL TOUCHES & CHECKING FOR ACCURACY UPLOAD & CHECK EPrints & ARCHIVING
PDF HTML XML sp2000 DSMZ HTML Full Paper Repository HTML Full Paper Repository XML Config Files XML Config Files Abstracts Repository (XML) Abstracts Repository (XML) OAI PMH OAI PMH OAI PMH OAI PMH PDF Full Paper Repository PDF Full Paper Repository Aux Files (XML/HTML) Aux Files (XML/HTML) Controler Database Controler Database Species Names Database Species Names Database Abstracts Database Abstracts Database OAI Harvester OAI Harvester OAI Harvester OAI Harvester OAI Harvester HTML abstract journals homepage fullpaper HTML PDF fullpaper UT Document tagging and formatting UT Document tagging and formatting OAI PMH OAI PMH
XML HTML PDF sp2000 DSMZ HTML Full Paper Repository HTML Full Paper Repository XML Config Files XML Config Files Abstracts Repository (XML) Abstracts Repository (XML) PDF Full Paper Repository PDF Full Paper Repository Controler Database Controler Database Species Names Database Species Names Database Abstracts Database Abstracts Database OAI Harvester OAI Harvester OAI Harvester OAI Harvester OAI Harvester abstract journals homepage fullpaper PDF fullpaper UT Document tagging and formatting UT Document tagging and formatting XML Aux Files (XML/HTML) Aux Files (XML/HTML) HTML
34 Antifungal activity from Ocimum gratissimum L. towards Cryptococcus neoformans Janine de Aquino Lemos, Xisto Sena Passos, Orionalda de Fátima Lisboa Fernandes, José Realino de Paula, Pedro Henrique Ferri, Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza, Aline de Aquino Lemos, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva Ocimum gratissimum, essential oil, eugenol, Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcal infection had an increased incidence in last years due to the explosion of acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic and by using new and effective immunosuppressive agents. The currently antifungal therapies used such as amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole have certain limitations due to side effects and emergence of resistant strains. So, a permanent search to find new drugs for cryptococcosis treatment is essential. Ocimum gratissimum, plant known as alfavaca (Labiatae family), has been reported earlier with in vitro activity against some bacteria and dermatophytes. In our work, we study the in vitro activity of the ethanolic crude extract, ethyl acetate, hexane, and chloroformic fractions, essential oil, and eugenol of O. gratissimum using an agar dilution susceptibility method towards 25 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. All the extracts of O. gratissimum studied showed activity in vitro towards C. neoformans. Based on the minimal inhibitory concentration values the most significant results were obtained with chloroformic fraction and eugenol. It was observed that chloroformic fraction inhibited 23 isolates (92%) of C. neoformans at a concentration of 62.5 μg/ml and eugenol inhibited 4 isolates (16%) at a concentration of 0.9 μg/ml. This screening may be the basis for the study of O. gratissimum as a possible antifungal agent. Copyright 2005 - Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Fiocruz.
Results of OA so far - conventional Featured in various articles: e.g. "Open Archives Initiative Data Providers. Part II: Science and Technology," Library Hi Tech News 21, no. 5 (June 2004): 22-30. 22-30. http://www.public.iastate.edu/~gerrymck/OAI-DP-II.pdf Contacted by Bowker.com to provide information about the Bioline databases for Ulrich’s Serials Directory Bioline journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) – http://www.doaj.orghttp://www.doaj.org Project recommended to journals by officials at the WHO Bioline E-Prints server included in ISI Current Web Contents - http://www.isinet.com/products/cap/ccc/cwc/ http://www.isinet.com/products/cap/ccc/cwc/ Bioline journals included in numerous library e-journal & e- resource lists
OA results Referral –1st: Google (51892) –2nd: Yahoo (16969) –16th: DOAJ (3295) –22nd: Eprints server (2168) Country domains –55% (1,631,169) with IP from N. America –Europe (9.98%), South America (6.11%), Asia (4.13%), Oceania (1.14%) and Africa (<1%)
Number of articles submitted, JPGM Data from D.K. Sahu
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine Data from D.K. Sahu
International submissions Data from D.K. Sahu Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Countries UK Data from D.K. Sahu Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Effect on citations Data from D.K. Sahu ISI Impact Factor Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Increasing Citation Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Policy Issues The sure route to OA? Only 15-25% of scholarly material OA RCUK, Wellcome Trust SSHRC? –OA repository –OA journals –What about SSHRC subsidized journals? Should OA be mandated?
Policy Issues Who pays for what Rights management Long term preservation