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Biological Determinism: The Search for Criminal Traits Physiognomy: The study of facial features and their relation to human behaviour. Giambattisti della Porta suggested that a thief had large lips and sharp vision. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. By 19 th century, these sciences introduced specific biological factors into the study of crime causation LO3
Phrenology Posited that bumps on the head were indications of psychological propensities. Franz Joseph Gall & Johann Kaspar Spurzheim. A criminological examination according to an 1890 caricature. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. LO3
The Italian School Lombroso Replaced the concept of free will with that of determinism. Replaced the concept of free will with that of determinism. The ‘born criminal’ and atavistic stigmata – physical features of criminals at an earlier stage of development before they became fully human. The ‘born criminal’ and atavistic stigmata – physical features of criminals at an earlier stage of development before they became fully human. Added two categories to the born criminal: Insane criminals and criminoloids. Added two categories to the born criminal: Insane criminals and criminoloids. Insane are not criminal from birth; become criminal from a change in their brains. Insane are not criminal from birth; become criminal from a change in their brains. Criminoloids make up a groups that includes habitual criminals, criminals by passion and other diverse types. Criminoloids make up a groups that includes habitual criminals, criminals by passion and other diverse types. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.LO3
Ferri Agreed with biological bases of criminal behaviour. Agreed with biological bases of criminal behaviour. Also recognized importance of social, economic, and political determinants. Also recognized importance of social, economic, and political determinants. Key: adherence to preventive measures based on scientific methods. Key: adherence to preventive measures based on scientific methods. Garofalo Study of crime through scientific methods. Study of crime through scientific methods. Look to psychological or ‘moral anomalies’ for roots of criminal behaviour. Look to psychological or ‘moral anomalies’ for roots of criminal behaviour. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. The Italian School LO3
Challenges to Lombrosian Theory Charles Goring: Offered the major challenge to Lombrosian theory. Studied 3,000 convicts and compared them to Oxford and Cambridge University students, hospital patients, and soldiers. His research assistant was Karl Pearson, a famous statistician. Successfully disputed Lombroso’s claim of a born criminal with the data that he collected. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.LO3
Return to Biological Determinism Somatotype school: related body build to behaviour. Kretschmer’s three physiques: asthenic, athletic & pyknic Kretschmer’s three physiques: asthenic, athletic & pyknic Sheldon’s three physiques: endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph Sheldon’s three physiques: endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph MESOMORPHS said to be more likely to be involved in criminal behaviour (physically powerful, aggressive, athletic physiques)MESOMORPHS said to be more likely to be involved in criminal behaviour (physically powerful, aggressive, athletic physiques) Glueck & Glueck: conducted studies on delinquents based on Sheldon’s somatotypes Glueck & Glueck: conducted studies on delinquents based on Sheldon’s somatotypes Eugenics – the science of controlled reproduction to improve hereditary qualities. Eugenics – the science of controlled reproduction to improve hereditary qualities. Inherited Criminality Richard Dugdale studied the Jukes family. Richard Dugdale studied the Jukes family. Long list of criminals in Jukes family led theorists like Dugdale to research a ‘degenerate trait’ Long list of criminals in Jukes family led theorists like Dugdale to research a ‘degenerate trait’ ©2012 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.LO3
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