Presentation on theme: "Biological Positivism"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biological Positivism Lombroso , Eugenics & Social Darwinism
2 BIOLOGICAL positivist Criminology Late1800s Context Reification of ScienceEmergence of expertsSociety as a social fact1850s heredity studies1840s ‘Mug Shots’ (Belgium)StatisticsGrowing underclassRise of the Penitentiary
3 PositivismA method & a paradigmFocus on actors not actsDeterministicLocate difference in people
4 Assumptions of Positivist Criminology Causes of criminal behaviour is different than causes for normal behaviourConsensus
5 Darwinism.. On the Origin of Species - Principles of Biology (1864) Some specimens were "better adapted for immediate, local environment”Influences Herbert Spencer…
6 Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer (1820 -1903) ‘Survival of the Fittest’Hierarchy of social inferiorityFitness becomes synonymous with health AND deserving‘naturalness’Not what Darwin intended….
7 Ethnocentric Social Darwinism Progress/CivilizationScientific justification for inequalityTautology:‘We’ are in power because we are more evolvedHow do you know that you are more evolved?Because ‘we’ are in power...Image: Duncan Walker
8 Birth of Criminology: The Italian School The foundations of biological explanationsAssumed people in prison = criminalsCesare LombrosoEnrico FerriRaffael Garofalo
10 Phrenology Founded on Aristotle ... “brain as the organ of the mind” Exterior skull/interior brainMind – faculties & functionRequires ‘exercise’Behavior – bumps in skull1830s scientifically acceptedCriminal determined by trained phrenologists
11 Cecare Lombroso (1835 – 1909) Medically trained Psychiatry Professor of legal medicineTestified at trialsThe Criminal Man (1876)w/ Gina Lombroso-Ferrero
12 Criminal Classification Born CriminalsAtavistic ManPrimitiveLess evolved/developed1/3 of offenders
13 Lombroso Military observations: well-disciplined and aggressive or criminal soldiersDeviations common to particular races/culturesAutopsiescriminals & nonanimals‘inferior races’ – physically/intellectually
14 Criminal WomanSmaller variations Less evolved than men? Naturally vengeful, weak and dumb ~ balanced by ‘feminine’ Criminal women: masculine (negative quality)
15 Sir Fancis Galton (1822-1911) Coined the term Eugenics Positive Encourage ‘good birth’NegativeExclusion of ‘inferior’ populationsRecognized eugenics would have to have spiritual framework to work in his “vision”
16 Mental Hygiene Movement Feeble-mindedness not curableBurdensome populations $Fear of ‘inferior’ peoplesEmily Murphy “The Black Candle” (1922)Calls to limit immigrationHow is this connected to Rousseau’s ‘Ideal Society’?
17 Implications Experts needed to determine defectives Long term custody of ‘untreatable’ kidsSterilization (gendered)Domestics1928 Sterilization Act in AlbertaRepealed in 1972why? In the movie…
19 The JukesRobert Dugdale (1875) “The Jukes: A Study in Crime, Pauperism, Disease, and Hereditary”Impoverished familyMany assumptions“Inept methodology”Cost to taxpayersUsed to support negative EugenicsDefining mental illness?
20 The Kallikaks Henry H. Goddard Focused on IQ as manifestation of degeneracy“Inept methodology”Martin Kallikak‘Feeble-minded barmaid’Respectable Quaker woman
21 Positivist Criminology “ Ye Olde History”?Focus on the actorTreatment of the individual
22 Critiques of Positivist Criminology Cure for crime?If no cure.....Marked by poor methodologydespite scientific foundationRepressive responses (not cure)Pathologizing devianceIllness of non-conformityDiscourse of non-responsibilityIndustry of experts
23 Rehabilitation Treatment programs Treatment as punishment Problem of deliveryNon-voluntaryTreatment as punishmentE.g. substance use, parenting...Guard or Counselor?Punitive environmentCritique from rightCan access programs ‘honest’ citizens can’tSimilar to issues of ‘training’ in Kingston