Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biological Positivism Lombroso, Eugenics & Social Darwinism.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Biological Positivism Lombroso, Eugenics & Social Darwinism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological Positivism Lombroso, Eugenics & Social Darwinism

2 BIOLOGICAL positivist Criminology Late1800s Context  Reification of Science ◦ Emergence of experts ◦ Society as a social fact ◦ 1850s heredity studies ◦ 1840s ‘Mug Shots’ (Belgium)Mug Shots  Statistics  Growing underclass  Rise of the Penitentiary  Reification of Science ◦ Emergence of experts ◦ Society as a social fact ◦ 1850s heredity studies ◦ 1840s ‘Mug Shots’ (Belgium)Mug Shots  Statistics  Growing underclass  Rise of the Penitentiary

3 Positivism A method & a paradigm  Focus on actors not acts  Deterministic  Locate difference in people A method & a paradigm  Focus on actors not acts  Deterministic  Locate difference in people

4 Assumptions of Positivist Criminology  Causes of criminal behaviour is different than causes for normal behaviour  Consensus

5 Darwinism.. On the Origin of Species - Principles of Biology (1864)  Some specimens were "better adapted for immediate, local environment”  Influences Herbert Spencer…

6 Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer ( ) ‘Survival of the Fittest’ Hierarchy of social inferiority Fitness becomes synonymous with health AND deserving  ‘naturalness’ Not what Darwin intended…. Herbert Spencer ( ) ‘Survival of the Fittest’ Hierarchy of social inferiority Fitness becomes synonymous with health AND deserving  ‘naturalness’ Not what Darwin intended….

7 Social Darwinism Ethnocentric Progress/Civilization Scientific justification for inequality Tautology: ‘We’ are in power because we are more evolved How do you know that you are more evolved? Because ‘we’ are in power... Image: Duncan Walker

8 Birth of Criminology: The Italian School The foundations of biological explanations Assumed people in prison = criminals Cesare Lombroso Enrico Ferri Raffael Garofalo The foundations of biological explanations Assumed people in prison = criminals Cesare Lombroso Enrico Ferri Raffael Garofalo

9 Canada

10 Phrenology Founded on Aristotle... “brain as the organ of the mind” ◦ Exterior skull/interior brain ◦ Mind – faculties & function  Requires ‘exercise’ ◦ Behavior – bumps in skull ◦ 1830s scientifically accepted  Criminal determined by trained phrenologists

11 Cecare Lombroso (1835 – 1909)  Medically trained  Psychiatry  Professor of legal medicine  Testified at trials  The Criminal Man (1876)  w/ Gina Lombroso-Ferrero  Medically trained  Psychiatry  Professor of legal medicine  Testified at trials  The Criminal Man (1876)  w/ Gina Lombroso-Ferrero

12 Criminal Classification  Atavistic Man  Primitive  Less evolved/developed  1/3 of offenders Born Criminals

13 Lombroso Military observations: well-disciplined and aggressive or criminal soldiers Deviations common to particular races/cultures Autopsies  criminals & non  animals  ‘inferior races’ – physically/intellectually Military observations: well-disciplined and aggressive or criminal soldiers Deviations common to particular races/cultures Autopsies  criminals & non  animals  ‘inferior races’ – physically/intellectually

14 Criminal Woman Smaller variations Less Less evolved than men? Naturally vengeful, weak and dumb ~ balanced by ‘feminine’ Criminal women: masculine (negative quality) Smaller variations Less Less evolved than men? Naturally vengeful, weak and dumb ~ balanced by ‘feminine’ Criminal women: masculine (negative quality)

15 Sir Fancis Galton ( ) Coined the term Eugenics  Positive  Encourage ‘good birth’  Negative  Exclusion of ‘inferior’ populations Recognized eugenics would have to have spiritual framework to work in his “vision”

16 Feeble-mindedness not curable Burdensome populations $ Fear of ‘inferior’ peoples Emily Murphy “The Black Candle” (1922) Calls to limit immigration How is this connected to Rousseau’s ‘Ideal Society’? Feeble-mindedness not curable Burdensome populations $ Fear of ‘inferior’ peoples Emily Murphy “The Black Candle” (1922) Calls to limit immigration How is this connected to Rousseau’s ‘Ideal Society’? Mental Hygiene Movement

17 Experts needed to determine defectives Long term custody of ‘untreatable’ kids Sterilization (gendered)  Domestics  1928 Sterilization Act in Alberta  Repealed in 1972  why? In the movie… Experts needed to determine defectives Long term custody of ‘untreatable’ kids Sterilization (gendered)  Domestics  1928 Sterilization Act in Alberta  Repealed in 1972  why? In the movie… Implications

18

19 The Jukes Robert Dugdale (1875) “The Jukes: A Study in Crime, Pauperism, Disease, and Hereditary”  Impoverished family  Many assumptions  “Inept methodology”  Cost to taxpayers  Used to support negative Eugenics  Defining mental illness?

20 The Kallikaks Henry H. Goddard Focused on IQ as manifestation of degeneracy “Inept methodology” Martin Kallikak ‘Feeble-minded barmaid’ Respectable Quaker woman

21 Positivist Criminology “ Ye Olde History”?  Focus on the actor  Treatment of the individual “ Ye Olde History”?  Focus on the actor  Treatment of the individual

22 Critiques of Positivist Criminology  Cure for crime? ◦ If no cure.....  Marked by poor methodology ◦ despite scientific foundation  Repressive responses (not cure)  Pathologizing deviance ◦ Illness of non-conformity ◦ Discourse of non-responsibility ◦ Industry of experts

23 Rehabilitation  Treatment programs  Problem of delivery  Non-voluntary  Treatment as punishment  E.g. substance use, parenting...  Guard or Counselor?  Punitive environment  Critique from right  Can access programs ‘honest’ citizens can’t  Similar to issues of ‘training’ in Kingston


Download ppt "Biological Positivism Lombroso, Eugenics & Social Darwinism."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google