Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Limits of Religious Freedom Laws in Democratic Spain & Portugal in Light of Contemporary Immigration Jared D. Larson Membro integrado, Centro de Estudos.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Limits of Religious Freedom Laws in Democratic Spain & Portugal in Light of Contemporary Immigration Jared D. Larson Membro integrado, Centro de Estudos."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Limits of Religious Freedom Laws in Democratic Spain & Portugal in Light of Contemporary Immigration Jared D. Larson Membro integrado, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Universidade de Lisboa Ph.D. Candidate, University of Delaware, Political Science & Int’l Relations Investigador Asociado, Instituto Galego de Análise e Documentación Int’l 16 th International Metropolis Conference Ponta Delgada, Açores, Sept. 2011

2 Introductory Outline Situating the Paper Political Science & Migration Studies Democratic Transition & Religious Liberty Case Studies: Practical Gaps in Iberia Concluding Thoughts

3 I. Situating the Paper: Contemporary Migration to Spain and Portugal Why are public opinions in Spain & Portugal the least negative in Europe toward immigration? DV: Public Opinion IVs: Visibility, Perception of Threat, Elite Signals Contextual Variables: Democratic & Migration transitions Presently: examine connections between religious liberty & immigration policy via poli sci theory Neither likely without democracy, both overlooked

4 II. Political Science & Migration Studies: Gap & Convergence Theories Migration: Ignored by Political Scientists Multidisciplinarity: Political Dimension Ignored Descriptive, A-Theoretical Work, “Seat of the Pants” Interpretations Poli Sci Should Contribute Research Agenda, Move Past Fascination with Radical Right Freeman (2005), “Political Science and Comparative Immigration Politics”

5 II. Political Science & Migration Studies: Gap & Convergence Theories (Cont.) International Political Economy (Interests) Conflict (or not): Concentration of Costs & Benefits Ex: Modernization without Major Industrial Age Embedded Liberalism & Individual Rights Political Modernization Ex: Escaping Authoritarian Past Institutionalism Internal & External Pressures on Policy Making Ex: Military, Civil Society, Parties, European Union

6 II. Political Science & Migration Studies: Gap & Convergence Theories (Cont.) Gap Hypothesis (Cornelius & Tsuda 2004) Imperfect Policy leads to Unintended Consequences Migration Flows uncontrolled Inadequate Implementation & Enforcement Do not work: Guestworkers, Border Enforcement, Int’l Aid/“Economic Step” (Moré 2004) Poorly Addressed: Labor Shortage (Absolute & Relative) and Demand (Corkill 2001), Labor Laws Violations Ignored, Intentions Ambiguous

7 II. Political Science & Migration Studies: Gap & Convergence Theories (Cont.) Convergence Hypothesis (Cornelius & Tsuda) Migration Policies Resemble Each Other No Deviant Cases Consistent with Modernization Theory Parallel Development Regional Integration Global Events & Geopolitics Politicians Take Advantage, Shape Debate

8 III. Democratic Transition & Religious Liberty (Context) Typology of Church-State Relations Religious monopoly (Saudi Arabia) Religious corporatism (UK) Separation with Cooperation (Spain) Separation without Cooperation (USA) Non-existent (France) De la Hera (2007) & Klausen (2009)

9 III. Democratic Transition & Religious Liberty (Context, cont.) Parallels to migration policy? Historical & social pressures matter Zolberg (1989); de la Hera (2007: 69) Similarities throughout Europe regarding religious freedom; social & religious organization Gould (2009: 58) Despite variations, religious pluralism drives policy; outcomes not always predictable Klausen (2009: 294)

10 III. Democratic Transition & Religious Liberty (Portugal) Liberalism at Work: 25 April 1974 need for new legal framework regarding religion Earlier laws discriminated, perpetuated inequality Non-Catholics Distrusted (colonial wars) Constitution & 2001 Law of Religious Liberty, Products of Institutional Influence (UN Dec of HR) Religious Freedom for Individuals & Communities de Sousa e Brito (2007), “A Lei da Liberdade Religiosa: necessidade, características e consequências”

11 III. Democratic Transition & Religious Liberty (Spain) Liberalism Again: Constitution of 1978 Earlier constitutions of varying stripes (1812, 1931) 20 th Cent. Concordats Favored Catholic Church 1978 Constitution: positive, non-Hierarchical view of religion; liberty, equality, non-descrimination Art. 16.1: Freedom of ideology, religion and worship Art. 16.3: “No religion shall have state character, but the public authorities shall take into account the religious beliefs of Spanish society and shall consequently maintain appropriate cooperative relations with the Catholic Church and other confessions.”

12 III. Democratic Transition & Religious Liberty (Spain) “Separation with Cooperation”/Institutionalism 1980 Organic Law of Religious Liberty Develop & foster other faiths Strengthen religious pluralism Establish framework for institutional cooperation Pacts with most religious groups Survived changes of Government

13 IV. Case Study (I): Religion and a Practical Gap in Portugal Slow march to religious equality (‘71,‘75,’76,’01) Preference for Catholic Church? Concordat 2004 Comunidade Islâmica de Lisboa, 1968 Fall of Regime brings Muslims from Colonies Centro Islâmico de Portugal, 1976 Central Mosque of Lisbon: 1966, 1978, 1985

14 IV. Case Study (II): Religion and a Practical Gap in Spain Muslims, Increasingly Influential Group 1,000,000+ People Mostly in Madrid and Barcelona 800,000 of Moroccan Origin 25,000-50,000 muladíes, Spanish Converts 450 Recognized Mosques 100’s Waiting Recognition 200 “illegal” Mosques and Prayer Rooms 100’s Operating out of Garages, Flats, Store Fronts

15 IV. Case Study (II): Religion and a Practical Gap in Spain Problems with Institutionalization Single interlocutor necessary for Spanish State (Registro de Entidades Religiosas) Interference for Many Muslims Led to Rupture within Muslim Community, hardly monolithic to begin with Comisión Islámica de España (Feb. 1992) forms from Fragments of Other Groups (FERRI, UCIDE)

16 IV. Case Study (II): Religion and a Practical Gap in Spain Comisión Islámica de España Signs Agreement with Spanish Government in April 1992 Framework to address needs of those electorally underrepresented Legitimacy Immediately Questioned Did not Represent Local Concerns, intensified Disunity within CIE is major obstacle Many Call for New Agreement, a dead letter?

17 IV. Case Study (II): Religion and a Practical Gap in Spain CIE, Agreement, Problems, cont. State Treated Agreement as the End of Integration Poor “religious infrastructure” Most Muslims have arrived since 1992 Agreement favors converts & most-integrated Government bureaucracy, fosters inertia FERRI/UCIDE appeal to liberal democratic tenets Laurance 2009; Arigita 2006; Zapata-Barrero 2006; Chaib 2005; Escobar Stemmann 2008

18 IV. Case Study (II): Religion and a Practical Gap in Spain Possible remedies? Clearer, more realistic objectives Pro-active debate & dialogue More State-sponsored socialization projects Move past FERRI vs UCIDE split A geographical base, individual mosques adhere? Amérigo 2007; López García & Planet 2002; Mantecón Sánchez 2001

19 V. Conclusions: Gap & Convergence in Religion & Migration in Southern Europe Contemporary Immigration tests religion laws Migration unforeseen, limits of religion as well Past experience with Islam in Iberia a positive? An Iberian exception? (Jahanbegloo 2007) A story of animosity? (Encarnación 2004) Both, but latter is the norm (Zapata-Barrero 2006) Past experience with religious corporatism a plus? Low political polarization over religion…? Laurence 2009; Gould 2009

20 V. Conclusions: Gap & Convergence in Religion & Migration in Southern Europe IPE: Costs & Interests, Disperse & Concentrated Interests Dispersed, Costs Concentrated (Catholic Church) Liberalism: Path-dependency toward Freedoms Authoritarianism to Democracy Catholicism to Pluralism Institutionalism: Pressure, distributors of values UN, Int’l Norms, Historical Context

21 V. Conclusions: Gap & Convergence in Religion & Migration in Southern Europe Religious “Liberal Paradox” Fear of unemployment, creation of NGO’s to support immigrants Codified religious pluralism, protest against veil & mosque construction Governments “secular”, then accuse Islam of terrorism, attacking Christendom Abumalham 2007

22 V. Conclusions: Gap & Convergence in Religion & Migration in Southern Europe Convergence Hypothesis: Pluralism Religion: 20 th Century History, 1970’s Realities Less rigid than Immigration (UK - deviant case) Gap Theory: incomplete policy, ambiguity Portugal: 2004 Concordat, “em beneficio dos seus fiéis e da comunidade portuguesa en geral” Spain: 1992 Agreement, Aznar rejection of funding, Spain restricted by history

23 V. Conclusions: Gap & Convergence in Religion & Migration in Southern Europe Thank you for your kind attention


Download ppt "The Limits of Religious Freedom Laws in Democratic Spain & Portugal in Light of Contemporary Immigration Jared D. Larson Membro integrado, Centro de Estudos."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google