Presentation on theme: "1 Exploring the challenges in implementation of Information Technology in Humanitarian relief organizations in India: A qualitative study Gaurav Kabra."— Presentation transcript:
1 Exploring the challenges in implementation of Information Technology in Humanitarian relief organizations in India: A qualitative study Gaurav Kabra (Research Scholar) Dr. A Ramesh Department of Management Studies Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Contents 2 1. Difference between Commercial and Humanitarian SCM 2. Importance of IT in HSCM 3. Data collection 4. Identification of Barriers 5. Conclusion 6. Limitations and future research 7. References
Table 1:Difference between CSCM and HSCM (Source: Mustafa et al, 2011) 3
Table 2: Year-wise damage caused due to floods, cyclonic storms, landslides etc. during last ten years in India (Source: MHA, 2011)) 4
Importance of IT in HSCM 5 IT enablement of the supply chain makes it possible to process more information, more frequently, more accurately and for more sources, all over the globe. IT also makes it possible to act on this information by using sophisticated analysis, modelling, and decision support capabilities (Kehoe and Boughton, 2001).
Importance of IT in HSCM cont… 6 Provide assistance in integration of various activities and provides useful information for effective functioning of the system (Roh et al., 2008; Pettit and Beresford, 2009). Specific decision support systems, communications and information systems are considered as most important in managing relief operations (Pettit and Beresford, 2009). Power (2005) also demonstrated that the decision support system can provide help in the better decision making during a disaster.
Importance of IT in HSCM cont… 7 IT is also found to be the very helpful in coordinating the relief activities during different phases of a disaster. For example, it serves as a communication tool, provides enhanced access to past experiences (Telleen and Martin, 2002; Jefferson, 2006; Stephenson and Anderson, 1997; Chan et al., 2004; National Research Council Washington, 1999).
Data Collection 8 Data was collected by interview with disaster victims, several experts, newspaper articles and from various actors who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication, and transport, and informal discussions with local residents. A brief profile of the experts is given in following Table 3. DesignationOrganization Years of experience Qualification Logistics officerHROs10Post Graduate Medical logisticianHROs10MBBS, MD Senior Operation officer HROs12BE, Ph.D Assistant DirectorHROs15Post Graduate, Ph.D DirectorHROs20BE,ME,Ph.D
Barriers 9 1. Low level of Investment for implementation of IT 2. Lack of Strategic Planning 3. Lack of Management Level SCM professionals 4. Lack of supply chain understanding 5. Decentralized Org. Structure 6. Resistive to change to IT enable 7. Low Priority by management 8. Lack of Common Language
Low level of Investment for implementation of IT 10 India is far behind in the use of IT in disaster management as compared to other developed countries One reason for low use of IT can be considered as lack of awareness about how a technology assisted response could help in managing the situation better Prior awareness and training is required to tap into such technology, but the task is a challenging, due to involvement of many actors in the humanitarian supply chain (HSC) and low investment in IT.
Lack of Strategic Planning 11 The key to an effective disaster response is increasing awareness in the mind of local peoples so that they can learn to help themselves It is needed to train local teams to better prepare and respond to local disasters and address the frequent issue of a limited pool of trained staff
Lack of Management Level SCM professionals 12 HSCM involves various activities i.e. procurement, warehousing, transportation, inventory management, bidding, reporting and accountability. In the CSC, these activities are performed by experts but in the HSC presence of experts for all the activities is rare.
Decentralized Org. Structure 14 The main advantage of a decentralized organizational structure is that field workers can develop better understanding of the local situation, needs of the people etc. where disaster has occurred. But the disadvantage of decentralized structure comes into the picture when field officers work according to their wish, they choose separate software or not to use them at all, complicates the process of information sharing which is considered essential for the effective and efficient management of relief activities (Christina.et.al, 2005).
Resistive to change to IT enable 15 IT often represents completely new for many people’s working in the HROs. The perception of an employee that advanced technologies represent a daunting curve and possible chances that they can lose their job introduces fear into their mind about IT and creates significant resistance to change (Suzanne Beaumaster, 2002).
Low Priority by management 16 If an organization wants to implement IT, this requires a large amount of fund, effort and time. This requires the support and commitment from top management—not at some particular stage, but starting from the initial planning stage through complete implementation.
Conclusion 18 If HROs want to implement IT, then they have to overcome the above discussed barriers. A holistic approach is required to overcome these barriers. Lack of coordination between actors has been seen in the interview and new strategies should be developed to overcome this as a barrier. The development of an early warning system has to be looked into more specifically. The long term relationship with the suppliers and prepositioning of the warehouses as well as training the professional to deals with the conditions forming the environment of HSCM has to be planned strategically.
Limitations and future work 19 It was difficult to identify and distinguish the organizations that they were really involved when there is a disaster and which is not. As such the population chosen for the study was easily reachable. If all organizations were to be considered may be the result would have been different. Further study can be done to make a hierarchy-based model in order to identify the relationships among the existing barriers and classifying them into the driver and dependent categories to understand that how these barriers are influencing each other, so that the decision makers can focus on overcoming these barriers and successfully implement IT in HROs.
References 20 Mustafa Alp Ertem, Nebil Buyurgan, (2011) "An auction-based framework for resource allocation in disaster relief", Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.170 – 188. Sameer Kumar, Kristin Niedan-Olsen, Lynn Peterson, (2009) "Educating the supply chain logistics for humanitarian efforts in Africa: a case study", International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 58, No.5, pp.480 – 500. Richard Oloruntoba, Richard Gray, (2006) "Humanitarian aid: an agile supply chain?", Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 11 No: 2, pp.115 – 120. Marianne Jahre, Leif-Magnus Jensen, Tore Listou, (2009) "Theory development in humanitarian logistics: a framework and three cases", Management Research News, Vol. 32, No. 11, pp. 1008 – 1023.
References (cont….) 21 Peter Tatham, Karen Spens, (2011) "Towards a humanitarian logistics knowledge management system", Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp.6 – 26 Mustafa Alp Ertem, Nebil Buyurgan, (2011) "An auction-based framework for resource allocation in disaster relief", Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.170 – 188. Christopher Sandwell, (2011) "A qualitative study exploring the challenges of humanitarian organisations", Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.132 – 150. Balcik, B. B., Krejci, B. M., Muramatsu, C. C., Ramirez, K. M., (2010) “Coordination in humanitarian relief chains: Practices, challenges and opportunities”, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 126, pp. 22–34.