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**Program Analysis via Graph Reachability**

Thomas Reps University of Wisconsin PLDI 00 Tutorial, Vancouver, B.C., June 18, 2000

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**PLDI 00 Registration Form**

Tutorial (morning): …………… $ ____ Tutorial (afternoon): ………….. $ ____ Tutorial (evening): ……………. $ – 0 –

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**Applications Program optimization**

Program-understanding and software-reengineering Security information flow Verification model checking security of crypto-based protocols for distributed systems

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1987 Slicing & Applications CFL Reachability 1993 Dataflow Analysis Demand Algorithms 1994 Structure- Transmitted Dependences 1995 Set Constraints 1996 1997 1998

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**. . . As Well As . . . Flow-insensitive points-to analysis**

Complexity results Linear cubic undecidable variants PTIME-completeness Model checking of recursive hierarchical finite-state machines “infinite”-state systems linear-time and cubic-time algorithms

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**. . . And Also Analysis of attribute grammars**

Security of crypto-based protocols for distributed systems [Dolev, Even, & Karp 83] Formal-language problems CFL-recognition (given G and , is L(G)?) 2DPDA- and 2NPDA-simulation Given M and , is L(M)? String-matching problems

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**Unifying Conceptual Model for Dataflow-Analysis Literature**

Linear-time gen-kill [Hecht 76], [Kou 77] Path-constrained DFA [Holley & Rosen 81] Linear-time GMOD [Cooper & Kennedy 88] Flow-sensitive MOD [Callahan 88] Linear-time interprocedural gen-kill [Knoop & Steffen 93] Linear-time bidirectional gen-kill [Dhamdhere 94] Relationship to interprocedural DFA [Sharir & Pneuli 81], [Knoop & Steffen 92]

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**Collaborators Susan Horwitz Mooly Sagiv Genevieve Rosay David Melski**

David Binkley Michael Benedikt Patrice Godefroid

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**Themes Harnessing CFL-reachability**

Relationship to other analysis paradigms Exhaustive alg. Demand alg. Understanding complexity Linear cubic undecidable Beyond CFL-reachability

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**Program Slicing variable v at point p.**

The backward slice w.r.t variable v at program point p The program subset that may influence the value of variable v at point p. The forward slice w.r.t variable v at program point p The program subset that may be influenced by the value of variable v at point p.

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**Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”**

Slice Extraction int main() { int i = 1; while (i < 11) { i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,i); Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Forward slice with respect to “sum = 0”**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Forward slice with respect to “sum = 0”

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**Forward slice with respect to “sum = 0”**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Forward slice with respect to “sum = 0”

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**Who Cares About Slices? Understanding programs Restructuring Programs**

Program Specialization and Reuse Program Differencing Testing (and Retesting) Year 2000 Problem Automatic Differentiation

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**What Are Slices Useful For?**

Understanding Programs What is affected by what? Restructuring Programs Isolation of separate “computational threads” Program Specialization and Reuse Slices = specialized programs Only reuse needed slices Program Differencing Compare slices to identify changes Testing What new test cases would improve coverage? What regression tests must be rerun after a change?

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**Line-Character-Count Program**

void line_char_count(FILE *f) { int lines = 0; int chars; BOOL eof_flag = FALSE; int n; extern void scan_line(FILE *f, BOOL *bptr, int *iptr); scan_line(f, &eof_flag, &n); chars = n; while(eof_flag == FALSE){ lines = lines + 1; chars = chars + n; } printf(“lines = %d\n”, lines); printf(“chars = %d\n”, chars);

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**Character-Count Program**

void char_count(FILE *f) { int lines = 0; int chars; BOOL eof_flag = FALSE; int n; extern void scan_line(FILE *f, BOOL *bptr, int *iptr); scan_line(f, &eof_flag, &n); chars = n; while(eof_flag == FALSE){ lines = lines + 1; chars = chars + n; } printf(“lines = %d\n”, lines); printf(“chars = %d\n”, chars);

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**Line-Character-Count Program**

void line_char_count(FILE *f) { int lines = 0; int chars; BOOL eof_flag = FALSE; int n; extern void scan_line(FILE *f, BOOL *bptr, int *iptr); scan_line(f, &eof_flag, &n); chars = n; while(eof_flag == FALSE){ lines = lines + 1; chars = chars + n; } printf(“lines = %d\n”, lines); printf(“chars = %d\n”, chars);

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**Line-Count Program void line_count(FILE *f) { int lines = 0;**

int chars; BOOL eof_flag = FALSE; int n; extern void scan_line2(FILE *f, BOOL *bptr, int *iptr); scan_line2(f, &eof_flag, &n); chars = n; while(eof_flag == FALSE){ lines = lines + 1; chars = chars + n; } printf(“lines = %d\n”, lines); printf(“chars = %d\n”, chars);

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**Specialization Via Slicing**

wc -lc wc -c wc -l Not partial evaluation! void line_count(FILE *f);

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**How are Slices Computed?**

Reachability in a Dependence Graph Program Dependence Graph (PDG) Dependences within one procedure Intraprocedural slicing is reachability in one PDG System Dependence Graph (SDG) Dependences within entire system Interprocedural slicing is reachability in the SDG

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**How is a PDG Created? Control Flow Graph (CFG) PDG is union of:**

Control Dependence Graph Flow Dependence Graph computed from CFG

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**Control Flow Graph int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1;**

while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Enter F sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) T sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Flow Dependence Graph Flow dependence p q Value of variable**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Flow dependence p q Value of variable assigned at p may be used at q. Enter sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Control Dependence Graph**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Control dependence q is reached from p if condition p is true (T), not otherwise. p q T Similar for false (F). p q F Enter T T T T T T sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) T T sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Program Dependence Graph (PDG)**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Control dependence Flow dependence Enter T T T T T T sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) T T sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Program Dependence Graph (PDG)**

int main() { int i = 1; int sum = 0; while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Opposite Order Same PDG Enter T T T T T T sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) T T sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Backward Slice int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1;**

while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Enter T T T T T T sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) T T sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Backward Slice (2) int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1;**

while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Enter T T T T T T sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) T T sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Backward Slice (3) int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1;**

while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Enter T T T T T T sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) T T sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Backward Slice (4) int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1;**

while (i < 11) { sum = sum + i; i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); Enter T T T T T T sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) T T sum = sum + i i = i + i

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**Slice Extraction int main() { int i = 1; while (i < 11) {**

i = i + 1; } printf(“%d\n”,i); Enter T T T T i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(i) T i = i + i

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CodeSurfer

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CodeSurfer

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**Browsing a Dependence Graph**

Pretend this is your favorite browser What does clicking on a link do? You get a new page Or you move to an internal tag

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**Interprocedural Slice**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Interprocedural Slice**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Interprocedural Slice**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Superfluous components included by Weiser’s slicing algorithm [TSE 84] Left out by algorithm of Horwitz, Reps, & Binkley [PLDI 88; TOPLAS 90]

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**How is an SDG Created? Each PDG has nodes for**

entry point procedure parameters and function result Each call site has nodes for call arguments and function result Appropriate edges entry node to parameters call node to arguments call node to entry node arguments to parameters

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**System Dependence Graph (SDG)**

Enter main Call p Call p Enter p

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**SDG for the Sum Program xin = sum yin = i sum = xout xin = i yin= 1**

Enter main sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) Call add Call add xin = sum yin = i sum = xout xin = i yin= 1 i = xout Enter add x = xin y = yin x = x + y xout = x

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**Interprocedural Backward Slice**

Enter main Call p Call p Enter p

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**Interprocedural Backward Slice (2)**

Enter main Call p Call p Enter p

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**Interprocedural Backward Slice (3)**

Enter main Call p Call p Enter p

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**Interprocedural Backward Slice (4)**

Enter main Call p Call p Enter p

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**Interprocedural Backward Slice (5)**

Enter main Call p Call p Enter p

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**Interprocedural Backward Slice (6)**

Enter main Call p Call p ) ( [ ] Enter p

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**Matched-Parenthesis Path**

) ( ) [

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**Interprocedural Backward Slice (6)**

Enter main Call p Call p Enter p

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**Interprocedural Backward Slice (7)**

Enter main Call p Call p Enter p

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Slice Extraction Enter main Call p Enter p

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**Slice of the Sum Program**

Enter main i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(i) Call add xin = i yin= 1 i = xout Enter add x = xin y = yin x = x + y xout = x

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**CFL-Reachability [Yannakakis 90]**

G: Graph (N nodes, E edges) L: A context-free language L-path from s to t iff Running time: O(N 3)

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**Interprocedural Slicing via CFL-Reachability**

Graph: System dependence graph L: L(matched) [roughly] Node m is in the slice w.r.t. n iff there is an L(matched)-path from m to n

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**Asymptotic Running Time [Reps, Horwitz, Sagiv, & Rosay 94]**

CFL-reachability System dependence graph: N nodes, E edges Running time: O(N 3) System dependence graph Special structure Running time: O(E + CallSites % MaxParams3)

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**Ordinary Graph Reachability**

( e [ ] ) matched | e | [ matched ] | ( matched ) | matched matched CFL-Reachability ( t ) e [ ] e e [ e ] [ ] e e s t Ordinary Graph Reachability s t s t s

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**CFL-Reachability via Dynamic Programming**

Graph Grammar A B C B C A

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**Degenerate Case: CFL-Recognition**

exp id | exp + exp | exp * exp | ( exp ) “(a + b) * c” L(exp) ? ) ( a c b + * s t

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**Degenerate Case: CFL-Recognition**

exp id | exp + exp | exp * exp | ( exp ) “a + b) * c +” L(exp) ? * a + ) b c s t

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**CYK: Context-Free Recognition**

M M M | ( M ) | [ M ] | ( ) | [ ] = “( [ ] ) [ ]” Is L(M)?

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**CYK: Context-Free Recognition**

M M M | LPM ) | LBM ] | ( ) | [ ] LPM ( M LBM [ M M M M | ( M ) | [ M ] | ( ) | [ ]

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**Is “( [ ] ) [ ]” L(M)? length start M [ ] LPM ( M ( [ ] ) [ ]**

( [ ] ) [ ] start { ( } { [ } { ] } { [ } { ) } { ] } LPM ( M M [ ] {M} {M} {LPM} {M}

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** Is “( [ ] ) [ ]” L(M)? length start M M M ( [ ] ) [ ] { (} { [ }**

( [ ] ) [ ] start { (} { [ } { ] } { [ } { ) } { ] } M M M {M} {M} {LPM} {M} M? {M}

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** CYK: Graphs vs. Tables Is “( [ ] ) [ ]” L(M)? s t ( [ ] ) [ ] M**

( [ ] ) [ ] M LPM M M M M M M | LPM ) | LBM ] | ( ) | [ ] LPM ( M LBM [ M

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**CFL-Reachability via Dynamic Programming**

Graph Grammar A B C B C A

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**Dynamic Transitive Closure ?!**

Aiken et al. Set-constraint solvers Points-to analysis Henglein et al. type inference But a CFL captures a non-transitive reachability relation [Valiant 75]

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Program Chopping Given source S and target T, what program points transmit effects from S to T? S T Intersect forward slice from S with backward slice from T, right?

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**Non-Transitivity and Slicing**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Forward slice with respect to “sum = 0”

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**Non-Transitivity and Slicing**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Forward slice with respect to “sum = 0”

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**Non-Transitivity and Slicing**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Non-Transitivity and Slicing**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Non-Transitivity and Slicing**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Forward slice with respect to “sum = 0” Backward slice with respect to “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Non-Transitivity and Slicing**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Chop with respect to “sum = 0” and “printf(“%d\n”,i)”

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**Non-Transitivity and Slicing**

Enter main sum = 0 i = 1 while(i < 11) printf(sum) printf(i) Call add Call add xin = sum yin = i sum = xout xin = i yin= 1 i = xout ( ] Enter add x = xin y = yin x = x + y xout = x

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**“Precise interprocedural chopping”**

Program Chopping Given source S and target T, what program points transmit effects from S to T? S T “Precise interprocedural chopping” [Reps & Rosay FSE 95]

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**CF-Recognition vs. CFL-Reachability**

Chain graphs General grammar: sub-cubic time [Valiant75] LL(1), LR(1): linear time CFL-Reachability General graphs: O(N3) LL(1): O(N3) LR(1): O(N3) Certain kinds of graphs: O(N+E) Regular languages: O(N+E) Gen/kill IDFA GMOD IDFA

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**Regular-Language Reachability [Yannakakis 90]**

G: Graph (N nodes, E edges) L: A regular language L-path from s to t iff Running time: O(N+E) Ordinary reachability (= transitive closure) Label each edge with e L is e* vs. O(N3)

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**Security of Crypto-Based Protocols for Distributed System**

“Ping-pong” protocols (1) X —EncryptY(M X) Y (2) Y —EncryptX(M) X [Dolev & Yao 83] O(N8) algorithm [Dolev, Even, & Karp 83] Less well known than [Dolev & Yao 83] O(N3) algorithm

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**[Dolev, Even, & Karp 83] Id EncryptX Id DecryptX**

Id DecryptX Id EncryptX Id Message Saboteur EY AX AZ Id ?

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**Themes Harnessing CFL-reachability**

Relationship to other analysis paradigms Exhaustive alg. Demand alg. Understanding complexity Linear cubic undecidable Beyond CFL-reachability

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**Relationship to Other Analysis Paradigms**

Dataflow analysis reachability versus equation solving Deduction Set constraints

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1987 Slicing & Applications CFL Reachability 1993 Dataflow Analysis Dataflow Analysis Demand Algorithms Demand Algorithms 1994 Structure- Transmitted Dependences 1995 Set Constraints 1996 1997 1998

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Dataflow Analysis Goal: For each point in the program, determine a superset of the “facts” that could possibly hold during execution Examples Constant propagation Reaching definitions Live variables Possibly uninitialized variables

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**Useful For . . . Optimizing compilers Parallelizing compilers**

Tools that detect possible logical errors Tools that show the effects of a proposed modification

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**Possibly Uninitialized Variables**

{} Start {w,x,y} x = 3 {w,y} if . . . {w,y} y = x {w,y} y = w {w} w = 8 {w,y} {} printf(y) {w,y}

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**Precise Intraprocedural Analysis**

start n

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**( ) ] ( start p(a,b) start main if . . . x = 3 b = a p(x,y) p(a,b)**

return from p return from p printf(y) printf(b) exit main exit p

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**Precise Interprocedural Analysis**

ret start n ( ) [Sharir & Pnueli 81]

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**Representing Dataflow Functions**

b c Identity Function a b c Constant Function

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**Representing Dataflow Functions**

b c “Gen/Kill” Function a b c Non-“Gen/Kill” Function

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x y a b start p(a,b) start main if . . . x = 3 b = a p(x,y) p(a,b) return from p return from p printf(y) printf(b) exit main exit p

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**Composing Dataflow Functions**

b c a b c a a b c

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**( ) ( ] YES! NO! x y start p(a,b) a b start main if . . . x = 3**

Might y be uninitialized here? Might b be uninitialized here? b = a p(x,y) p(a,b) return from p return from p printf(y) printf(b) exit main exit p

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**Off Limits! matched matched matched**

| (i matched )i i CallSites | edge | stack ) ( stack Off Limits!

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**Off Limits! unbalLeft matched unbalLeft**

| (i unbalLeft i CallSites | stack ) ( stack Off Limits! (

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**Interprocedural Dataflow Analysis via CFL-Reachability**

Graph: Exploded control-flow graph L: L(unbalLeft) Fact d holds at n iff there is an L(unbalLeft)-path from

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**Asymptotic Running Time [Reps, Horwitz, & Sagiv 95]**

CFL-reachability Exploded control-flow graph: ND nodes Running time: O(N3D3) Exploded control-flow graph Special structure Running time: O(ED3) Typically: E l N, hence O(ED3) l O(ND3) “Gen/kill” problems: O(ED)

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**Why Bother? “We’re only interested in million-line programs”**

Know thy enemy! “Any” algorithm must do these operations Avoid pitfalls (e.g., claiming O(N2) algorithm) The essence of “context sensitivity” Special cases “Gen/kill” problems: O(ED) Compression techniques Basic blocks SSA form, sparse evaluation graphs Demand algorithms

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**Relationship to Other Analysis Paradigms**

Dataflow analysis reachability versus equation solving Deduction Set constraints

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**The Need for Pointer Analysis**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; int *p = ∑ int *q = &i; int (*f)(int,int) = add; while (*q < 11) { *p = (*f)(*p,*q); *q = (*f)(*q,1); } printf(“%d\n”,*p); printf(“%d\n”,*q); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; }

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**The Need for Pointer Analysis**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; int *p = ∑ int *q = &i; int (*f)(int,int) = add; while (*q < 11) { *p = (*f)(*p,*q); *q = (*f)(*q,1); } printf(“%d\n”,*p); printf(“%d\n”,*q); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; }

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**The Need for Pointer Analysis**

int main() { int sum = 0; int i = 1; int *p = ∑ int *q = &i; int (*f)(int,int) = add; while (i < 11) { sum = add(sum,i); i = add(i,1); } printf(“%d\n”,sum); printf(“%d\n”,i); int add(int x, int y) { return x + y; }

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**Flow-Sensitive Points-To Analysis**

q p = &q; p q p r1 r2 q p r1 r2 q p = q; r1 r2 q s1 s2 s3 p r1 r2 q s1 s2 s3 p p = *q; p s1 s2 q r1 r2 p s1 s2 q r1 r2 *p = q;

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**Flow-Sensitive Flow-Insensitive**

start main exit main 3 2 1 4 5 3 2 1 4 5

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**Flow-Insensitive Points-To Analysis [Andersen 94, Shapiro & Horwitz 97]**

p = &q; p q p r1 r2 q p = q; r1 r2 q s1 s2 s3 p p = *q; p s1 s2 q r1 r2 *p = q;

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**Flow-Insensitive Points-To Analysis**

a = &e; b = a; c = &f; *b = c; d = *a; e b c f d

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**Flow-Insensitive Points-To Analysis**

Andersen [Thesis 94] Formulated using set constraints Cubic-time algorithm Shapiro & Horwitz (1995; [POPL 97]) Re-formulated as a graph-grammar problem Reps (1995; [unpublished]) Re-formulated as a Horn-clause program Melski (1996; see [Reps, IST98]) Re-formulated via CFL-reachability

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**CFL-Reachability via Dynamic Programming**

Graph Grammar A B C B C A

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**CFL-Reachability = Chain Programs**

Graph Grammar A B C x y B C z A a(X,Z) :- b(X,Y), c(Y,Z).

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**Base Facts for Points-To Analysis**

p = &q; assignAddr(p,q). p = q; assign(p,q). p = *q; assignStar(p,q). *p = q; starAssign(p,q).

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**Rules for Points-To Analysis (I)**

p = &q; p q pointsTo(P,Q) :- assignAddr(P,Q). p = q; p r1 r2 q pointsTo(P,R) :- assign(P,Q), pointsTo(Q,R).

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**Rules for Points-To Analysis (II)**

p = *q; r1 r2 q s1 s2 s3 p pointsTo(P,S) :- assignStar(P,Q),pointsTo(Q,R),pointsTo(R,S). *p = q; p s1 s2 q r1 r2 pointsTo(R,S) :- starAssign(P,Q),pointsTo(P,R),pointsTo(Q,S).

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**Rules for Points-To Analysis (II)**

p = *q; r1 r2 q s1 s2 s3 p pointsTo(P,S) :- assignStar(P,Q),pointsTo(Q,R),pointsTo(R,S). *p = q; p s1 s2 q r1 r2 pointsTo(R,S) :- starAssign(P,Q),pointsTo(P,R),pointsTo(Q,S). pointsTo(R,S) :- pointsTo(P,R),starAssign(P,Q),pointsTo(Q,S).

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**Creating a Chain Program**

*p = q; p s1 s2 q r1 r2 pointsTo(R,S) :- starAssign(P,Q),pointsTo(P,R),pointsTo(Q,S). pointsTo(R,S) :- pointsTo(P,R),starAssign(P,Q),pointsTo(Q,S). pointsTo(R,S) :- pointsTo(R,P),starAssign(P,Q),pointsTo(Q,S). pointsTo(R,P) :- pointsTo(P,R).

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**Base Facts for Points-To Analysis**

p = &q; assignAddr(p,q). assignAddr(q,p). p = q; assign(p,q). assign(q,p). p = *q; assignStar(p,q). assignStar(q,p). *p = q; starAssign(p,q). starAssign(q,p).

123
**Creating a Chain Program**

pointsTo(P,Q) :- assignAddr(P,Q). pointsTo(Q,P) :- assignAddr(Q,P). pointsTo(P,R) :- assign(P,Q), pointsTo(Q,R). pointsTo(R,P) :- pointsTo(R,Q), assign(Q,P). pointsTo(P,S) :- assignStar(P,Q),pointsTo(Q,R),pointsTo(R,S). pointsTo(S,P) :- pointsTo(S,R),pointsTo(R,Q),assignStar(Q,P). pointsTo(R,S) :- pointsTo(R,P),starAssign(P,Q),pointsTo(Q,S). pointsTo(S,R) :- pointsTo(S,Q),starAssign(Q,P),pointsTo(P,R).

124
**. . . and now to CFL-Reachability**

pointsTo assign pointsTo pointsTo assignStar pointsTo pointsTo pointsTo assignAddr pointsTo pointsTo starAssign pointsTo pointsTo pointsTo pointsTo assignStar pointsTo pointsTo assign

125
**Points-To Analysis as CFL-Reachability: Consequences**

Points-to analysis solvable in time cubic in the number of variables Known previously [Andersen 94] Demand algorithms: What does variable p point to? Issue query: ?- pointsTo(p, Q). Solve single-source L(pointsTo)-reachability problem What variables point to q? Issue query: ?- pointsTo(P, q). Solve single-target L(pointsTo)-reachability problem

126
**Relationship to Other Analysis Paradigms**

Dataflow analysis reachability versus equation solving Deduction Set constraints

127
1987 Slicing & Applications CFL Reachability 1993 Dataflow Analysis Demand Algorithms 1994 Structure- Transmitted Dependences Set Constraints Structure- Transmitted Dependences 1995 Set Constraints 1996 1997 1998

128
**Structure-Transmitted Dependences [Reps1995]**

McCarthy’s equations: car(cons(x,y)) = x cdr(cons(x,y)) = y w = cons(x,y); v = car(w); v w y x

129
**Set Constraints w = cons(x,y); v = car(w);**

McCarthy’s Equations Revisited Semantics of Set Constraints

130
**CFL-Reachability versus Set Constraints**

Lazy languages: CFL-reachability is more natural car(cons(X,Y)) = X Strict languages: Set constraints are more natural car(cons(X,Y)) = X, provided I(Y) g v But SC and CFL-reachability are equivalent! [Melski & Reps 97]

131
**Solving Set Constraints**

W is “inhabited” X is “inhabited” Y is “inhabited” W is “inhabited” Y is “inhabited” X is “inhabited”

132
**Simulating “Inhabited”**

W

133
**Simulating “Inhabited”**

X Y W inhab

134
**Simulating “Provided I(Y) g v”**

inhab X Y W provided I(Y) g v V

135
**SC = CFL-Reachability: Consequences**

Demand algorithm for SC SC is log-space complete for PTIME Limitations on ability to parallelize algorithms for solving set-constraint problems

136
**Themes Harnessing CFL-reachability**

Relationship to other analysis paradigms Exhaustive alg. Demand alg. Understanding complexity Linear cubic undecidable Beyond CFL-reachability

137
**Exhaustive Versus Demand Analysis**

Exhaustive analysis: All facts at all points Optimization: Concentrate on inner loops Program-understanding tools: Only some facts are of interest

138
**Exhaustive Versus Demand Analysis**

Does a given fact hold at a given point? Which facts hold at a given point? At which points does a given fact hold? Demand analysis via CFL-reachability single-source/single-target CFL-reachability single-source/multi-target CFL-reachability multi-source/single-target CFL-reachability

139
**All “appropriate” demands**

x y a b YES! ( ) start p(a,b) “Semi-exhaustive”: All “appropriate” demands start main Might b be uninitialized here? Might y be uninitialized here? if . . . x = 3 b = a p(x,y) p(a,b) return from p return from p printf(y) printf(b) NO! exit main exit p

140
**Experimental Results [Horwitz , Reps, & Sagiv 1995]**

53 C programs (200-6,700 lines) For a single fact of interest: demand always better than exhaustive All “appropriate” demands beats exhaustive when percentage of “yes” answers is high Live variables Truly live variables Constant predicates . . .

141
**A Related Result [Sagiv, Reps, & Horwitz 1996]**

[Uses a generalized analysis technique] 38 C programs (300-6,000 lines) copy-constant propagation linear-constant propagation All “appropriate” demands always beats exhaustive factor of 1.14 to about 6

142
**Exhaustive Versus Demand Analysis**

Demand algorithms for Interprocedural dataflow analysis Set constraints Points-to analysis

143
**Demand Analysis and LP Queries (I)**

Flow-insensitive points-to analysis Does variable p point to q? Issue query: ?- pointsTo(p, q). Solve single-source/single-target L(pointsTo)-reachability problem What does variable p point to? Issue query: ?- pointsTo(p, Q). Solve single-source L(pointsTo)-reachability problem What variables point to q? Issue query: ?- pointsTo(P, q). Solve single-target L(pointsTo)-reachability problem

144
**Demand Analysis and LP Queries (II)**

Flow-sensitive analysis Does a given fact f hold at a given point p? ?- dfFact(p, f). Which facts hold at a given point p? ?- dfFact(p, F). At which points does a given fact f hold? ?- dfFact(P, f). E.g., flow-sensitive points-to analysis ?- dfFact(p, pointsTo(x, Y)). ?- dfFact(P, pointsTo(x, y)). etc.

145
**Themes Harnessing CFL-reachability**

Relationship to other analysis paradigms Exhaustive alg. Demand alg. Understanding complexity Linear cubic undecidable Beyond CFL-reachability

146
**Interprocedural Backward Slice**

Enter main Call p Call p [ ] ) ( Enter p

147
**( [ ) ] x y start p(a,b) a b start main if . . . x = 3 b = a p(x,y)**

return from p return from p y may be uninitialized here printf(y) printf(b) exit main exit p

148
**Structure-Transmitted Dependences [Reps1995]**

McCarthy’s equations: car(cons(x,y)) = x cdr(cons(x,y)) = y w = cons(x,y); v = car(w); v w y x

149
**Dependences + Matched Paths?**

Enter main x y hd hd-1 [ ] tl w=cons(x,y) Call p Call p w w ( ) Enter p w v = car(w)

150
**Undecidable! [Reps, TOPLAS 00]**

hd hd-1 ( ) Interleaved Parentheses!

151
**Themes Harnessing CFL-reachability**

Relationship to other analysis paradigms Exhaustive alg. Demand alg. Understanding complexity Linear cubic undecidable Beyond CFL-reachability

152
**CFL-Reachability via Dynamic Programming**

Graph Grammar A B C B C A

153
**Beyond CFL-Reachability: Composition of Linear Functions**

x.3x+5 x.2x+1 x.6x+11 (x.2x+1) (x.3x+5) = x.6x+11

154
**Beyond CFL-Reachability: Composition of Linear Functions**

Interprocedural constant propagation [Sagiv, Reps, & Horwitz TCS 96] Interprocedural path profiling The number of path fragments contributed by a procedure is a function [Melski & Reps CC 99]

155
**Ball-Larus Intraprocedural Path Profiling**

Counting paths in the CFG Exit w1 w2 wk v NumPathsToExit(Exit) = 1 NumPathsToExit(v) = NumPathsToExit(w) wsucc(v)

156
**Melski-Reps Interprocedural Path Profiling**

Exit(P) = x. x Exit vertex GExit(P) = x GExit vertex c = Exit(Q) r Call vertex to Q with return vertex r wsucc(v) v = w Otherwise Sharir-Pnueli Interprocedural Dataflow Analysis Exit(P) = x. x Exit vertex c = Exit(Q) r Call vertex to Q with return vertex r wsucc(v) v = w Otherwise

157
**Model-Checking of Recursive HFSMs [Benedikt, Godefroid, & Reps (in prep.)]**

Non-recursive HFSMs [Alur & Yannakakis 98] Ordinary FSMs T-reachability/circularity queries Recursive HFSMs Matched-parenthesis T-reachability/circularity Key observation: Linear-time algorithms for matched-parenthesis T-reachability/cyclicity Single-entry/multi-exit [or multi-entry/single-exit] Deterministic, multi-entry/multi-exit

158
**T-Cyclicity in Hierarchical Kripke Structures**

SN/SX SN/MX MN/SX MN/MX non-rec: O(|k|) non-rec: O(|k|) ? ? rec: O(|k|3) rec: ? SN/SX SN/MX MN/SX MN/MX O(|k|) O(|k|) O(|k|) O(|k|3) O(|k||t|) [lin rec] O(|k|) [det]

159
**Recursive HFSMs: Data Complexity**

SN/SX SN/MX MN/SX MN/MX LTL non-rec: O(|k|) non-rec: O(|k|) ? ? rec: P-time rec: ? CTL O(|k|) bad ? bad CTL* O(|k|2) [L2] bad ? bad

160
**Recursive HFSMs: Data Complexity**

SN/SX SN/MX MN/SX MN/MX LTL O(|k|) O(|k|) O(|k|) O(|k|3) O(|k||t|) [lin rec] O(|k|) [det] CTL O(|k|) bad O(|k|) bad CTL* O(|k|) bad O(|k|) bad Not Dual Problems!

161
**CFL-Reachability: Scope of Applicability**

Static analysis Slicing, DFA, structure-transmitted dep., points-to analysis Verification Security of crypto-based protocols for distributed systems [Dolev, Even, & Karp 83] Model-checking recursive HFSMs Formal-language theory CF-, 2DPDA-, 2NPDA-recognition Attribute-grammar analysis

162
**CFL-Reachability: Benefits**

Algorithms Exhaustive & demand Complexity Linear-time and cubic-time algorithms PTIME-completeness Variants that are undecidable Complementary to Equations Set constraints Types . . .

163
**But . . . Model checking Dataflow analysis**

Huge graphs (10100 reachable states) Reachability/circularity queries Represent implicitly (OBDDs) Dataflow analysis Large graphs e.g., Stmts Vars ( 1011) CFL-reachability queries [Reps,Horwitz,Sagiv 95] OBDDs blew up [Siff & Reps 95 (unpub.)] . . . yes, we tried the usual tricks . . .

164
**Most Significant Contributions: 1987-2000**

Asymptotically fastest algorithms Interprocedural slicing Interprocedural dataflow analysis Demand algorithms Interprocedural dataflow analysis [CC94,FSE95] All “appropriate” demands beats exhaustive Tool for slicing and browsing ANSI C Slices programs as large as 75,000 lines University research distribution Commercial product: CodeSurfer (GrammaTech, Inc.)

165
**Most Significant Contributions: 1987-2000**

Unifying conceptual model [Kou 77], [Holley&Rosen 81], [Cooper&Kennedy 88], [Callahan 88], [Horwitz,Reps,&Binkley 88], . . . Identifies fundamental bottlenecks Cubic-time “barrier” Litmus test: quadratic-time algorithm?! PTIME-complete limits to parallelizability Existence proofs for new algorithms Demand algorithm for set constraints Demand algorithm for points-to analysis

166
**References Papers by Reps and collaborators: CFL-reachability**

CFL-reachability Yannakakis, M., Graph-theoretic methods in database theory, PODS 90. Reps, T., Program analysis via graph reachability, Inf. and Softw. Tech. 98.

167
**References Slicing, chopping, etc. Dataflow analysis**

Horwitz, Reps, & Binkley, TOPLAS 90 Reps, Horwitz, Sagiv, & Rosay, FSE 94 Reps & Rosay, FSE 95 Dataflow analysis Reps, Horwitz, & Sagiv, POPL 95 Horwitz, Reps, & Sagiv, FSE 95, TR-1283 Structure dependences; set constraints Reps, PEPM 95 Melski & Reps, Theor. Comp. Sci. 00

168
**References Complexity Verification Beyond CFL-reachability**

Undecidability: Reps, TOPLAS 00? PTIME-completeness: Reps, Acta Inf. 96. Verification Dolev, Even, & Karp, Inf & Control 82. Benedikt, Godefroid, & Reps, In prep. Beyond CFL-reachability Sagiv, Reps, Horwitz, Theor. Comp. Sci 96 Melski & Reps, CC 99, TR-1382

169
**Automatic Differentiation**

170
**Automatic Differentiation**

double F(double x) { int i; double ans = 1.0; for(i = 1; i <= n; i++) { ans = ans * f[i](x); } return ans; double delta = . . .; /* small constant */ double F’(double x) { return (F(x+delta) - F(x)) / delta; }

171
**Automatic Differentiation**

double F (double x) { int i; double ans = 1.0; for(i = 1; i <= n; i++) { ans = ans * f[i](x); } return ans’;

172
**Automatic Differentiation**

double F’(double x) { int i; double ans’ = 0.0; double ans = 1.0; for(i = 1; i <= n; i++) { ans’ = ans * f’[i](x) + ans’ * f[i](x); ans = ans * f[i](x); } return ans’;

173
**Automatic Differentiation**

x1 y1 x2 xi+1 y2 yj x2 xi+1 y2 yj Program Chopping xi yj+1 xm yn

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