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Machine Guarding Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Session Objectives You will be able to: Understand the hazardous actions of different types of machinery Identify the hazards of working with machinery Identify machine safeguards and know how they work Properly operate machines with guards
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Why Machines Must Be Properly Guarded Point of operation hazards Power transmission apparatus hazards 800 deaths each year High injury rates Amputations, fractures, lacerations, and crushing Electric shock and burns
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Unsafe Machines Cause Injuries Poorly designed machines Poorly maintained machines Machines being used for unintended purposes Machine not properly installed Inadequate safeguarding Objects discharged from the machine
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Unsafe Actions Cause Injuries Reach around, under, over or through guards into hazardous areas Remove or bypass guards Reach into equipment to remove stuck or jammed material Not use electrical safety procedures Not wear appropriate protective equipment Not know how to properly service or repair machines
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Regulatory Requirements 29 CFR 1910, Subpart O Applies to specific types of equipment Training
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Where Machine Hazards Occur Point of operation Drill bit cutting wood In-running nip points Power transmission apparatus Operating controls and moving parts
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Types of Rotating Machine Parts Collars, couplings, and cams Clutches, gears, and pulleys Flywheels Shafts, including shaft ends Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Nip Points Hazard—Hands, arms, or whole body get caught in nip Causes lacerations, crushing, amputation, and death Created by: Two parts rotating in opposite directions Parts rotating tangentially Parts rotating close to a fixed part
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Point of Operation Functions Cutting Punching Shearing Bending Compressing
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Cutting Machines and Actions Hazard—Cutting action, flying chips or scrap material cut fingers or strike the head or body Machines Band and circular saws Boring or drilling Lathes and milling Actions Rotating, reciprocating, or transverse motion
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Punching Machines and Actions Hazard—Fingers can be crushed where material is inserted, held, or withdrawn Machines Power presses Ironworking equipment Action of ram mechanism Blanking, drawing, or stamping Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Shearing Machines and Actions Hazard—Crush or tear body parts where material is inserted, held, and withdrawn Machines: Hydraulic shears Mechanical shears Pneumatic shears Actions Powered slide or knife to trim or shear metal or other materials Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Bending Machines and Actions Hazard—Crushing body parts where material is inserted, held, or withdrawn Machines Power presses and press brakes Tubing benders Actions Draw and stamp Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Compressing Machines and Actions Hazard—Compression crushes body parts Machines Compactor Molding Concrete Actions Squeezing, extruding, and pressing
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Power Transmission Apparatus Hazard—Grab, nip, cut, or strike body parts Machines and parts Power transmission belts and pulleys, gears, sprockets and chains, shafts, collars, couplings, flywheels, clutches, and other power transmission apparatus Action Grabbing, nipping, cutting, flying and falling objects, reciprocating motions, transverse motions, or a combination of these
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Types of Machines and Hazards—Any Questions? Are there any questions about the types of machines or equipment used at our facility? Any questions about the hazards associated with the operation of the machinery? Power transmission apparatus? Any questions about machine and equipment hazards in general?
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Purpose of Machine Safeguarding Prevent access to point of operation and power transmission apparatus Prevent objects from being ejected toward people
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Safeguarding Best Practices Never remove or defeat safeguards Don’t create new hazards Ensure no interference with the production process Lubricate parts without removing the safeguard, or turn off the machine
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Safeguarding Best Practices (cont.) Remove guards only when machine is locked and tagged out Report problems immediately Operate equipment only when guards are in place and properly adjusted Don’t use unauthorized or damaged guards Never leave machines unattended with parts still moving No loose clothing, long hair, or jewelry
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Classifications of Safeguards Safeguard or barrier Device Location and distance Automatic stock feed and ejection method Miscellaneous aids
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Fixed Safeguards Permanent part of the machine or apparatus Best guard protection Power transmission apparatuses are best protected by fixed guards or barriers that enclose the danger area Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Interlocked Safeguards Automatically shut off and quickly stop the machine or apparatus Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Adjustable or Self- Adjusting Safeguards Adjustable to accommodate varying sizes of material placed at the point of operation Self-adjusting types move according to the size of the stock
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Safeguarding Devices Presence sensing automatically shut down equipment Photoelectrical, radio frequency, and electromechanical Pullbacks or Restraints Gates around robots and large areas Interlocked Other Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Safeguarding Devices (cont.) Safety trip control Pressure-sensitive body bar Safety tripod Safety tripwire cable Two-hand safety control or two-hand safety trip Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Two-Hand Devices Two-hand controls require constant two- hand pressure during the entire machine cycle Two-hand trips activate the machine, then allow hands to be free while machine completes its cycle
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Location and Distance Separates operators from the equipment Makes it virtually impossible to contact moving parts Limited by the available workspace Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Feeding and Ejection Methods Automatic feed Semiautomatic feed Automatic and semiautomatic ejection Robot
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Miscellaneous Aids Awareness barriers Protective shields Hand-feeding tools and holding fixtures Image credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Rule of Thumb Guard any machine part, function, or process that may cause injury Follow manufacturer’s specifications
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Machine Safeguarding— Any Questions? Any questions about safeguarding best practices? Questions about any particular type of safeguard?
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc.0507 Key Points to Remember All point of operation and power transmission apparatus hazards must be safeguarded Do not operate machines without proper guards in place Remove guards or protective devices only when machine is not operating Immediately report problems with safeguards
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